Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Topic 03 & 04 : Entity Relationship Modelling

9,301 views

Published on

Entity Relationship Modelling

  • Be the first to comment

Topic 03 & 04 : Entity Relationship Modelling

  1. 1. Er. Pradip Kharbuja Topic 3 & 4 Entity Relationship Modelling
  2. 2. Entity Relationship(ER) Diagram We will learn to develop ER Diagram in this topic.
  3. 3. Entity An entity can be defined as anything, which can be uniquely identified and about which data is stored in a database. A place, person, picture, concept (e.g. course, position, job) are the example of an entity. Some other examples can be student, workers, car, departments, etc.
  4. 4. Entity Type An entity type is a collection of similar entities. An entity-type is a category. An entity type is a group of objects, people, concepts or other items that have the same set of properties or attributes.
  5. 5. Entity Relationship(ER) Modelling In 1976, Peter Chen first proposed modeling databases using a graphical technique that humans can relate easily. An Entity–Relationship (ER) model is an abstract or conceptual way of describing a database An ER Model is based on a perception of a real world that consists of collection of basic objects called entitiesand relationshipsamong these objects.
  6. 6. Database Schema The overall design or structure of the database is called the database schema. Three types: 1.Internal Schema 2.Conceptual Schema 3.External Schema
  7. 7. Types of Schema 1.Internal Schema describes the physical storage structure of database. 2.Conceptual Schema hides the details of physical storage structures and concentrates on describing entities, data types, relationships, operations and constraints 3.External Schema describes a subset of the database according to the format the user wants and hides the rest.
  8. 8. Data Independence The ability to modify schema definition in one level without affecting schema definition in the next higher level is called data independence. There are two levels of data independence. 1.Physical data independence 2.Logical data independence.
  9. 9. Physical Data Independence Physical data independence means the capacity to change the internal schema or physical storage without affecting conceptual or external schema. Internal schema may be changed to improve the performance.
  10. 10. Logical Data Independence Logical data independence is the ability to modify the logical or conceptual schema without affecting to external schema or application program. Logical Data independence means if we add some new columns or remove some columns from table then the user view and programs should not change.
  11. 11. Entity Relationship(ER) Modelling The ER model achieves a high degree of data independence which means that the database designer do not have to worry about the physical structureof the database. The goal of ER Modelling is to produce a model of data that is non- technical and free of ambiguities
  12. 12. Entity Relationship(ER) Diagram ER diagram is a graphical modelling to standardize ER modelling. The modeling can be carried out with the help of pictorial representation of entities, attributes, and relationships.
  13. 13. Attributes An attribute is a property of an entity type. The data that we want to keep about each entity within an entity type is contained in attributes. Examples of Attributes : 1.Roll number, name and grade are the attributes of Student. 2.Brand, cost and weight are the attributes of Cellphone. 3.Book name, price, author, publisher, etc. are attributes of Book.
  14. 14. Types of Attributes 1.Single-valued attribute 2.Multi-valued attribute 3.Null Attribute 4.Simple Attribute 5.Composite Attribute 6.Key Attribute 7.Derived Attribute 8.Attribute Domain
  15. 15. Types of Attributes 1.Single-valued attribute : Attribute that holds a single value for an occurrence of an entity type. E.g. age, first_name, last_name, full_name, etc. 2.Multi-valued attribute : Attribute where there might be more than one value for a given occurrence of an entity type, e.g. for the 'Telephone Number', where a person or company might have many of these. 3.Null attribute : Attribute that has NULL.
  16. 16. Types of Attributes 4.Simple AttributeIt is composed of a single component. e.g. age, first_name, last_name, etc. But full_nameis not simple attribute. Because it is composed of first_nameand last_name. 5.Composite AttributeIt is composed of more than one component. For example, 'address' might have city, state, country, zip code, etc.
  17. 17. Types of Attributes 6.Key Attribute Primary Key is a key attribute. Not Null and Unique attribute of an entity At most one attribute in each entity 7.Derived Attribute The value of the derived attribute can be derived from the values of other attributes Age of a person can be derived from the date of birth and current date i.e. age = current date –date of birth.
  18. 18. Types of Attributes 8.Attribute Domain A domain is the set of allowable values for an attribute or number of attributes. A domain therefore limits the values that an attribute can have. For example, the domain of 'gender' would include the values 'Male' and 'Female'. Similarly, the domain of fruit would include the values 'Apple', 'Orange' etc.
  19. 19. Relationship A relationship is an association of entities showing how the entities are related with each other. The examples of relationship are: Teaching is the relationship between Lecturer and Student. Buying is the relationship between Vendor and Customer. Treatment is the relationship between Doctor and Patient.
  20. 20. Types of Relationship or Multiplicity Number or range of possible occurrences of an entity type in relation to another entity type 1.One-to-One (1 : 1) 2.One-to-Many (1 : N) 3.Many-to-One (N : 1) 4.Many-to-Many (M : N)
  21. 21. Types of Relationship or Multiplicity 1.One-to -One (1 : 1) Each department can have only one department head. Each worker works in one department. 2.One-to-Many (1 : N) One course can have many students registered. A lecturer may be teaching to many students.
  22. 22. Types of Relationship or Multiplicity 3.Many-to-One (N : 1) Many cities come under one country. Many books can be written by one writer. Many authors can write one book. 4.Many-to-Many (M : N) An Author can write several Books, and a Book can be written by several Authors A teacher teaches many class and a class studies from many teachers.
  23. 23. ER Diagram Notation (CHEN) Represents an entity set Represents an attribute Represent linking of attributes to entity sets and of entity sets to relationship sets. Represents a relationship
  24. 24. ER Diagram
  25. 25. ER Diagram Draw an ER Diagram for ClassRoomwhich has two attributes : room_noand building_name.
  26. 26. ER Diagram
  27. 27. Task : Draw ER Diagram in MS-Visio
  28. 28. Multiplicity A teacher teaches only one subject. A teacher teaches many subjects.
  29. 29. Strong entity Strong entity is one whose existence does not depend on other entity. Weak entity Weak entity is an entity that depends on another entity. Weak entity doesn't have key attribute of their own. Associative or composite entity Associative entity is used to create many-to-many relationship between different entities Classification of Entity Sets (CHEN) Entity sets can be broadly classified into:
  30. 30. Classification of Entity Sets (CHEN) Consider the example, student takes course. Here student is a strong entity. Course is considered as weak entity because, if there are no students to take a particular course, then that course cannot be offered. The Course entity depends on the student entity.
  31. 31. Associative or Composite entity The database relational model does not offer direct support to many- to-many relationships. So, we require associative or composite entity. Consider the example, customer purchases book. A customer can purchase many books. And a book can be purchased by many customers. So, here purchases is an associativeentity. The entity purchases is mediator for customer and book.
  32. 32. Attribute Notation (CHEN) Single Valued Attribute Multi-valued Attribute Key Attribute Derived Attribute Composite Attribute
  33. 33. An employee has first name, last name and can have more than one qualifications. Multi-valued Attribute
  34. 34. Key Attribute Primary Key A department has Primary Key dept_no, department_nameand location
  35. 35. Derived Attribute The value of the derived attribute can be derived from the values of other related attributes. Age of a person can be derived from the date of birth and current date i.e. age = current date –date of birth. In this example, age is the derived attribute.
  36. 36. Composite Attribute Composite attribute is one which can be further subdivided into simple attributes.
  37. 37. Task : ER Diagram 1.Draw an ER diagram for student. 2.Draw an ER diagram for customers and loan relation. 3.Draw an ER diagram for hospital with a set of patients and medical doctors. 4.Draw an ER diagram for banking system. 5.Draw an ER diagram for car insurance company.
  38. 38. Relationship Degree Relationship degree refers to the number of associated entities in a relationship. The relationship degree can be broadly classified into 1.Unary(Recursive) relationship 2.Binary relationship 3.Ternary relationship
  39. 39. Unary(Recursive) relationship The number of associated entity is one. An entity related to itself is known as recursive relationship.
  40. 40. Binary relationship In a binary relationship, two entities are involved. Consider the example: each department will have many workers.
  41. 41. Ternary relationship In a ternary relationship, three entities are simultaneously involved. Example : Consider a project is assigned to many employee. And the project is assigned to one location.
  42. 42. ER Diagram Notation (CROW'S FEET) Entity Name PK attribute name attribute name attribute name Entity Name Entity Relationship Illustrates an association between two entities. It has a name which is a verb. It also has cardinality. is assigned to
  43. 43. ER Diagram Notation (CROW'S FEET) zero or more one or more one and only one zero or 1 Cardinality Cardinality refers to the maximum number of times an instance in one entity can be associated with instances in the related entity. It can be zero or one or more.
  44. 44. Some examples (CROW'S FEET) teacher course teaches student course takes
  45. 45. ER Diagram Notation (UML) A Plane Ticket System A passenger may book many tickets. Each ticket is for one flight and one passenger. A flight has many passenger. FlightTicketPassenger10..N0..N1
  46. 46. Many-to-Many Relationship  Module having many Students and Students taking many Modules Module Taken By Student 0..N 0..N Attributes ModuleID(PK) ModuleName Attributes StudentID(PK) StudentName
  47. 47. Many-to-Many Relationship Module Student 0..N 0..N ModuleStudent 1 1 Attributes ModuleID(PK) ModuleName Attributes StudentID(PK) StudentName Attributes ModuleID(FK) StudentID(FK)
  48. 48. ER Diagram Notation (UML) A Book is written by one or more authors. An author writes one or more Books. A Category may have zero or many books. [Note : Many to Many Relationship cannot be shown in relational model] 1..NAuthorBook AuthorBook11..N1Category10..N
  49. 49. A Gardening Company The company hires out workers as they need to. Workers in the town stay in lodgings. A lodging may have many workers in it. We are only concerned with the workers’ current lodging. Workers possess certain skills such as ‘Tree Surgery’ and ‘Garden Design’. They may have more than one skill. [Note : Try to identify nouns that could possibly be entities.]
  50. 50. A Gardening Company -Nouns The company hires out workers as they need to. Workersin the townstay in lodgings. A lodging may have many workers in it. We are only concerned with the workers’ current lodging. Workers possess certain skillssuch as ‘Tree Surgery’ and ‘Garden Design’. They may have more than one skill. [Note : We are only concerned with one town. So, town is not entity here. But 'Town' is an attribute of the Lodging.]
  51. 51. Possible Solution 0..* SkillWorker SkillWorker10..*1Lodging0..* 1
  52. 52. Primary Key The PRIMARY KEY constraint uniquely identifies each record in a database table. Primary keys must contain unique values. A primary key column cannot contain NULL values. Each table should have a primary key, and each table can have only ONE primary key. departments ------------------------ dept_no(PK) department_name location
  53. 53. Foreign Key A FOREIGN KEY in one table points to a PRIMARY KEY in another table A FOREIGN KEY is a column or a combination of columns that is used to establish and enforce a link between two tables or entities. departments ------------------------ dept_no(PK) department_name location workers ------------------ emp_no(PK) first_name last_name age job_title dept_no(FK)
  54. 54. Creating Foreign Key
  55. 55. A Problem A campus may have one or many staffs. Also a campus may have one or many department. Department Staff Campus 1 1 1..* 1..*
  56. 56. A Problem Campus ID Campus Name C1 Softwarica C2 Islington C3 The British College Staff ID Name Campus ID (FK) S1 Eric Hudson C2 S2 Sandra Smith C1 S3 MaliaShah C1 Department ID Name Campus ID (FK) D1 Humanities C1 D2 Computing C2 D3 Maths C2 Campus Department Staff Now the question is : In which Department does Eric work?
  57. 57. The Solution Campus Staff Department 1 1..* 1 1..* The solution is to adopt a different structure where we have a Campus having one or more Departments which in turn have one or more Staff.
  58. 58. The Solution Campus ID Campus Name C1 Softwarica C2 Islington C3 The British College Staff ID Name Department ID (FK) S1 Eric Hudson D3 S2 Sandra Smith D1 S3 MaliaShah D1 Department ID Name Campus ID (FK) D1 Humanities C1 D2 Computing C2 D3 Maths C2 Campus Department Staff Now do you know in which Department does Eric work?
  59. 59. Presentation Fan Traps Chasm Traps Pronunciation/ˈkaz(ə)m/
  60. 60. Problems with ER Models There are several problems that may arise when designing a ER model. These are known as connection traps. There are two main types of connection traps: 1.Fan traps 2.Chasm traps
  61. 61. Fan Traps Fan trapsoccur in a situation when a model represents relationship between entity types however a path between certain entity occurrences is ambiguous. Example: (Staff)-1:N-works in-1-(Campus)-1-has-1:N-(Department). In this model, it may be impossible to determine the department a staff belongs to. Department Staff Campus 1 1 1..* 1..*
  62. 62. Fan Traps –The Solution Restructuring the model resolves trap (Campus)-1-has-1:N- (Department)-1-has-1:N-(Staff) Campus Staff Department 1 1..* 1 1..*
  63. 63. Chasm Traps Chasm Traps occur where there are relationships between entities, but one of the relationships is non-mandatory. A model suggests the existence of a relationship between entity types, but the pathway does not exist between certain entity occurrences. This connection traps is known as Chasm Traps. http://db.grussell.org/section005.html
  64. 64. Chasm Traps –The Problem A branch has many staff members who manage properties, but not all properties are managed by a member of staff, and not all staff manage properties. Staff Property Branch 1...* 0...* 0...1 1
  65. 65. Chasm Traps –The Problem Branch ID Branch Name 1 Ilford 2 Redbridge Staff ID Name Branch ID (FK) S1 Davinda 1 S2 Roberta 1 S3 Eddie 2 Property ID Property Name Staff ID (FK) P1 YapMansions S1 P2 HillHouse P3 UsherHouse S2 Branch Staff Property Because Hill House is not managed by a member of Staff, we do not know from which Branch that Property is managed. Which Branch manages ‘Hill House’?
  66. 66. Chasm Traps –The Solution The solution is to change the structure and represent both relationships. Property Staff Branch 1...* 0...* 0...1 1 1 0...*
  67. 67. Chasm Traps –The Solution Branch ID Branch Name 1 Ilford 2 Redbridge Staff ID Name Branch ID (FK) S1 Davinda 1 S2 Roberta 1 S3 Eddie 2 Property ID Property Name Staff ID (FK) Branch ID (FK) P1 YapMansions S1 1 P2 HillHouse 2 P3 UsherHouse S2 1 Branch Staff Property We now know which Branch manages ‘Hill House’
  68. 68. Draw the ER : Car Hire Company Company has a number of models of car available for hire. Customers hire cars and this is recorded against a particular car rather than a model, as the company might have several cars of the same model. When a customer wants to reserve a particular model they can do so. This is recorded against a model rather than the car. When a car of that model becomes available, it will be held for the customer. When they come in for it, a record is made on the reservation to say which car satisfied the reservation.
  69. 69. Draw the ER : Car Hire Company Company has a number of modelsof caravailable for hire. Customershire cars and this is recorded against a particular car rather than a model, as the company might have several cars of the same model. When a customer wants to reserve a particular model they can do so. This is recorded against a model rather than the car. When a car of that model becomes available, it will be held for the customer. When they come in for it, a record is made on the reservationto say which car satisfied the reservation.
  70. 70. Car Hire Company ModelHireCarReservationCustomer0..N10..N110..N0..N110..N10..N
  71. 71. Task 1.A customer records systems for a mail order beauty products company. A customer is assigned to one and only one geographical region. A customer may be interested in a number of different product lines. Any particular product line belongs to one product category that may contain many product lines. 2.A boat is rented to a customer for a set period of time. Any damage to the boat is recorded for that particular rental. 3.The shop needs to keep track of rentals. A member can rent films. A film can be rented by many members. A film can be rented by the same member more than once.
  72. 72. References http://www.studytonight.com/dbms/er-diagram.php http://www.blackwasp.co.uk/SQLDerivedTables.aspx http://www2.cs.uregina.ca/~bernatja/crowsfoot.html http://revj.sourceforge.net/traps.html http://db.grussell.org/section005.html http://www.tutorialspoint.com/dbms/dbms_data_independence.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_schema_approach http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_independence
  73. 73. END OF TOPIC 3 & 4 Any Questions

×