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  1. 1. ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR – MODULE-5, 6, 7………… Prepared by Dr. Pradip Kumar DasIntroduction to Sensation and Perception Although intimately related, sensation and perception play two complimentary but different roles in howwe interpret our world. Sensation refers to the process of sensing our environment through touch, taste,sight, sound, and smell. This information is sent to our brains in raw form where perception comes intoplay. Perception is the way we interpret these sensations and therefore make sense of everything aroundus.Sensation Sensation is the process by which our senses gather information and send it to the brain. A large amountof information is being sensed at any one time such as room temperature, brightness of the lights,someone talking, a distant train, or the smell of perfume. With all this information coming into oursenses, the majority of our world never gets recognized. We dont notice radio waves, x-rays, or themicroscopic parasites crawling on our skin. We dont sense all the odors around us or taste everyindividual spice in our gourmet dinner. We only sense those things we are able too since we dont havethe sense of smell like a bloodhound or the sense of sight like a hawk; our thresholds are different fromthese animals and often even from each other.Absolute Threshold The absolute threshold is the point where something becomes noticeable to our senses. It is the softestsound we can hear or the slightest touch we can feel. Anything less than this goes unnoticed. Theabsolute threshold is therefore the point at which a stimuli goes from undetectable to detectable to oursenses.Difference Threshold Once a stimulus becomes detectable to us, how do we recognize if this stimulus changes. When wenotice the sound of the radio in the other room, how do we notice when it becomes louder. Itsconceivable that someone could be turning it up so slightly that the difference is undetectable. Thedifference threshold is the amount of change needed for us to recognize that a change has occurred. Thischange is referred to as the Just Noticeable Difference. This difference is not absolute, however. Imagine holding a five pound weight and one pound wasadded. Most of us would notice this difference. But what if we were holding a fifty pound weight?Would we notice if another pound were added? The reason many of us would not is because the changerequired to detect a difference has to represent a percentage. In the first scenario, one pound wouldincrease the weight by 20%, in the second, that same weight would add only an additional 2%. Thistheory, named after its original observer, is referred to as Webers Law.Signal Detection Theory Have you ever been in a crowded room with lots of people talking? Situations like that can make itdifficult to focus on any particular stimulus, like the conversation we are having with a friend. We are
  2. 2. often faced with the daunting task of focusing our attention on certain things while at the same timeattempting to ignore the flood of information entering our senses. When we do this, we are making adetermination as to what is important to sense and what is background noise. This concept is referred toas signal detection because we attempt detect what we want to focus on and ignore or minimizeeverything else.Sensory Adaptation The last concept refers to stimuli which has become redundant or remains unchanged for an extendedperiod of time. Ever wonder why we notice certain smells or sounds right away and then after a whilethey fade into the background? Once we adapt to the perfume or the ticking of the clock, we stoprecognizing it. This process of becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimulus is referred to as sensoryadaptation, after all, if it doesnt change, why do we need to constantly sense it?Perception As mentioned in the introduction, perception refers to interpretation of what we take in through oursenses. The way we perceive our environment is what makes us different from other animals anddifferent from each other. In this section, we will discuss the various theories on how our sensation areorganized and interpreted, and therefore, how we make sense of what we see, hear, taste, touch, andsmell.Gestalt Principles of Grouping The German word "Gestalt" roughly translates to "whole" or "form," and the Gestalt psychologistssincerely believed that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In order to interpret what we receivethrough our senses, they theorized that we attempt to organize this information into certain groups. Thisallows us to interpret the information completely without unneeded repetition. For example, when yousee one dot, you perceive it as such, but when you see five dots together, you group them together bysaying a "row of dots." Without this tendency to group our perceptions, that same row would be seen as"dot, dot, dot, dot, dot," taking both longer to process and reducing our perceptive ability. The Gestaltprinciples of grouping include four types: similarity, proximity, continuity, and closure. Similarity refers to our tendency to group things together based upon how similar to each other they are.In the first figure above, we tend to see two rows of red dots and two rows of black dots. The dots aregrouped according to similar color. In the next figure, we tend to perceive three columns of two lineseach rather than six different lines. The lines are grouped together because of how close they are to eachother, or their proximity to one another. Continuity refers to our tendency to see patterns and thereforeperceive things as belonging together if they form some type of continuous pattern. In the third figure,although merely a series of dots, it begins to look like an "X" as we perceive the upper left side ascontinuing all the way to the lower right and the lower left all the way to the upper right. Finally, in the
  3. 3. fourth figure, we demonstrate closure, or our tendency to complete familiar objects that have gaps inthem. Even at first glance, we perceive a circle and a square.Maintaining Perceptual Constancy Imagine if every time an object changed we had to completely reprocess it. The next time you walktoward a building, you would have to re-evaluate the size of the building with each step, because we allknow as we get closer, everything gets bigger. The building which once stood only several inches is nowsomehow more than 50 feet tall. Luckily, this doesnt happen. Due to our ability to maintain constancy in our perceptions, we see thatbuilding as the same height no matter what distance it is. Perceptual constancy refers to our ability to seethings differently without having to reinterpret the objects properties. There are typically threeconstancies discussed, including size, shape, brightness. Size constancy refers to our ability to see objects as maintaining the same size even when our distancefrom them makes things appear larger or smaller. This holds true for all of our senses. As we walk awayfrom our radio, the song appears to get softer. We understand, and perceive it as being just as loud asbefore. The difference being our distance from what we are sensing. Everybody has seen a plate shaped in the form of a circle. When we see that same plate from an angle,however, it looks more like an ellipse. Shape constancy allows us to perceive that plate as still being acircle even though the angle from which we view it appears to distort the shape. Brightness constancy refers to our ability to recognize that color remains the same regardless of how itlooks under different levels of light. That deep blue shirt you wore to the beach suddenly looks blackwhen you walk indoors. Without color constancy, we would be constantly re-interpreting color andwould be amazed at the miraculous conversion our clothes undertake.Perceiving Distance We determine distance using two different cues: monocular and binocular. Monocular cues are thosecues which can be seen using only one eye. They include size; texture, overlap, shading, height, andclarity. Size refers to the fact that larger images are perceived as closer to us, especially if the two images are ofthe same object. The texture of objects tend to become smoother as the object gets farther away,suggesting that more detailed textured objects are closer. Due to overlap, those objects covering part ofanother object is perceived as closer. The shading or shadows of objects can give a clue to their distance,allowing closer objects to cast longer shadows which will overlap objects which are farther away.Objects which are closer to the bottom of our visual field are seen as closer to us due to our perception ofthe horizon, where higher (height) means farther away. Similar to texture, objects tend to get blurry asthey get farther away, therefore, clearer or more crisp images tend to be perceived as closer (clarity).Binocular cues refer to those depth cues in which both eyes are needed to perceive. There are twoimportant binocular cues; convergence and retinal disparity. Convergence refers to the fact that the closeran object, the more inward our eyes need to turn in order to focus. The farther our eyes converge, thecloser an object appears to be. Since our eyes see two images which are then sent to our brains forinterpretation, the distance between these two images, or their retinal disparity, provides another cueregarding the distance of the object.
  4. 4. Sensations and PerceptionsSensations can be defined as the passive process of bringing information from the outside world into thebody and to the brain. The process is passive in the sense that we do not have to be consciously engagingin a "sensing" process.Perception can be defined as the active process of selecting, organizing, andinterpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses.A) HOW THEY WORK TOGETHER:1) Sensation occurs:a) sensory organs absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment.b) sensory receptors convert this energy into neural impulses and send them to the brain.2) Perception follows:a) the brain organizes the information and translates it into something meaningful.B) But what does "meaningful" mean? How do we know what information is important and should befocused on?1) Selective Attention - process of discriminating between what is important & is irrelevant (Seemsredundant: selective-attention?), and is influenced by motivation.For example - students in class should focus on what the teachers are saying and the overheads beingpresented. Students walking by the classroom may focus on people in the room, who is the teacher, etc.,and not the same thing the students in the class.2) Perceptual Expectancy - how we perceive the world is a function of our past experiences, culture, andbiological makeup.For example, as an American, when I look at a highway, I expect to see cars, trucks,etc, NOT airplanes. But someone from a different country with different experiences and history may nothave any idea what to expect and thus be surprised when they see cars go driving by.Another example - you may look at a painting and not really understand the message the artist is trying toconvey. But, if someone tells you about it, you might begin to see things in the painting that you wereunable to see before.I. The Nature of Perception A. Perception is a subjective, active, and creative process B. A mental process through which we interpret what we sense 1. The process of assigning meaning to sensory information 2. The process by which we understand ourselves and others C. Perceptions of others affect ways we communicate with them 1. “I understand your feelings” is based on perception 2. There is no way we can actually feel what another feels
  5. 5. 3. So to understand, we select, organize, and interpret cuesII. How does perception influence how we relate to others? A. Interpersonal perception involves sensing, organizing, & interpreting information about people & their messages B. Instantaneous evaluations create automatic judgments that predisposes positive or negative reactions toward others 1. Automatic judgments occur outside of awareness 2. We trust them the way we trust our senses not realizing they are already biased C. Messages we send can shape others’ self-concept & behavior D. Differing perceptions cause challenges for communicationIII. Three Stages of Perception A. Selection 1. To experience a stimulus through the senses & attend to it a) Stimulus: anything prompting action, feeling, thought b) Senses (i) sight (ii) sound (iii) smell (iv) taste (v) touch 2. Selective Perception a) Actively select some stimuli & ignore (filter) others (i) We don’t perceive everything (ii) 10,000 bits of sensory information available/sec b) Physiological & psychological states influence what the senses pick up and the meaning you give it c) Factors that Affect Perceptions (i) Physiology Height, weight, hearing, vision, physical well-being, mood (ii) Age Experience teaches lessons; wealth of experience vs. naiveté (iii) Culture as a filter Conditions us to perceive in similar ways Develop shared attitudes, beliefs, values, etc. Standpoint theory explains our perceptions are influenced by the subgroups or subcultures to which we belong, such as age, gender, sexual preference, ethnicity, religion, marital status, occupation, etc.
  6. 6. (iv) Social Roles How would a physician’s training vs. a lawyer’s training cause them to notice different things at the scene of an automobile accident? (v) Ourselves Implicit Personality Theory: Unspoken, unconscious assumptions about how various qualities fit together in human personalities (outgoing = friendly, confident, and fun Attachment Styles: We perceive & approach relationships differently b/c of how we were parentedB. Organization 1. To sort stimuli into groups and categories 2. Constructivism theory states we organize and interpret experience by applying cognitive structures 3. Schemata (organizational structures to make sense of what we have noticed) a) Prototypes: knowledge structures that define the clearest or most representative examples of some category U.S. prototype of romantic relationships emphasizes trust, caring, honesty, friendship, and respect. Passion is less central to prototype than companionship and caring. (p. 76) b) Personal constructs: bipolar mental yardsticks that allow us to measure people and situations along specific dimensions of judgment (physical characs, mental qualities, psychological features, interpersonal/ social qualities) Dilbert Cartoon: smart & beautiful; smart & ugly; stupid & beautiful; stupid & ugly c) Scripts: define expected or appropriate sequences of action in particular settings; guides to action Greeting acquaintances; dating, managing conflict, talking with professors, dealing with clerks, etc. d) Stereotypes: predictive generalizations about people and situations (i) categorize others on basis of easily recognized characteristics (race, blondes, frat/sorority, jocks, ethnicity) (ii) Base judgments about people on categories they fit instead of on individuality (iii) Prevent us from seeing individual as unique (iv) "Them": prejudiced, biased, discriminatory word (v) Stereotypes of groups we dont belong to are more negative & inaccurate than of own groupsC. Interpretation 1. Subjective process of explaining our perceptions in ways that make sense to us: Construct an explanation
  7. 7. 2. Factors that cause us to interpret differently a) Degree of involvement with other b) Relational satisfaction c) Past experiences d) Assumptions about human behavior e) Expectations f) Knowledge of others g) Personal moods h) Gender i) Occupation j) Culture (Standpoint theory explains our perceptions are influenced by the subgroups or subcultures to which we belong, such as age, gender, sexual preference, ethnicity, religion, marital status, occupation, etc.) k) Self-concept 3. Attribution a) Causal accounts that explain why things happen and people act the way they do b) Attributions are based on Dimensions of Interpersonal Attributions i) Locus of control: Internal vs external ii) Stability: Stable vs unstable iii) Scope: Global vs specific iv) Responsibility: Within personal personal control vs beyond personal control c) Attribution Errors occur when we attach distorted meanings to what happens around us i) Self-serving bias: Take credit for positive outcomes, deny responsibility & control over negative outcomes; attribute negative behaviors to uncontrollable factors (test was hard); attribute positive behaviors to controllable factors, your strength, intelligence, or personality (got an A b/c I worked hard or I’m smart). Why? B/c we KNOW the situation surrounding our behaviors we naturally focus on the influence of these factors. ii) Fundamental Attribution Error: Occurs when we assume other people’s behavior is due more to internal characteristics such as their personality, whereas we view our own behavior as more a result of external factors, e.g. context or situation: Overestimating the internal causes of others behavior and underestimating the external causesDEFINITIONSDAccording to NORMAN MUNN,“Learning can be defined as the process of being modified more or less permanently by what happens inthe world around us, by what we do or what we observe”.
  8. 8. According to FRED LUTHANS “Learning can be defined as relatively permanent change in behaviourthat occurs as a result of experience or reinforced practice.”PRICIPLES OF LEARNINGP Principles of learning are very useful in order to impart maximum knowledge and skills.P Each principle should be interpreted and applied carefully in full consideration of the particular taskbeing learned and the context in which the learning takes place.All human beings can learn.AAn individual must be motivated to learn.ALearning is active but not passive.ALearners need reinforcement of correct behaviour.ATime must be provided to practice learning.ALearning is closely related to attention and concentration.AStandards of performance should be set for the learner.ALearners may acquire knowledge more rapidly with guidance.Feedback ensures improvement in speed and accuracy of learningAccuracy deserves generally more emphasis than speed.ALearning is a cumulative process.ALearning is an adjustment on the part of an individual.ALearning should be relatively based and.ALearning should be a goal oriented.Learning Theory is rooted in the work of Ivan Pavlov, the famous scientist who discovered anddocumented the principles governing how animals (humans included) learn. Two basic kinds of learningor conditioning occur:Classical and Operant ConditioningClassical Conditioning. One important type of learning, Classical Conditioning, was actually discoveredaccidentally by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who discovered thisphenomenon while doing research on digestion. His research was aimed at better understanding thedigestive patterns in dogs.
  9. 9. During his experiments, he would put meat powder in the mouths of dogs who had tubes inserted intovarious organs to measure bodily responses. What he discovered was that the dogs began to salivatebefore the meat powder was presented to them. Then, the dogs began to salivate as soon as the personfeeding them would enter the room. He soon began to gain interest in this phenomenon and abandonedhis digestion research in favor of his now famous Classical Conditioning study.Basically, the findings support the idea that we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturallyoccurring. When we touch a hot stove, our reflex pulls our hand back. It does this instinctually, nolearning involved. It is merely a survival instinct. But why now do some people, after getting burned, pulltheir hands back even when the stove is not turned on? Pavlov discovered that we make associationswhich cause us to generalize our response to one stimuli onto a neutral stimuli it is paired with. In otherwords, hot burner = ouch, stove = burner, therefore, stove = ouch.Pavlov began pairing a bell sound with the meat powder and found that even when the meat powder wasnot presented, the dog would eventually begin to salivate after hearing the bell. Since the meat powdernaturally results in salivation, these two variables are called the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and theunconditioned response (UCR), respectively. The bell and salivation are not naturally occurring; the dogwas conditioned to respond to the bell. Therefore, the bell is considered the conditioned stimulus (CS),and the salivation to the bell, the conditioned response (CR).Many of our behaviors today are shaped by the pairing of stimuli. Have you ever noticed that certainstimuli, such as the smell of a cologne or perfume, a certain song, a specific day of the year, results infairly intense emotions? Its not that the smell or the song are the cause of the emotion, but rather whatthat smell or song has been paired with...perhaps an ex-boyfriend or ex-girlfriend, the death of a lovedone, or maybe the day you met you current husband or wife. We make these associations all the time andoften don’t realize the power that these connections or pairings have on us. But, in fact, we have beenclassically conditioned.Operant Conditioning. Another type of learning, very similar to that discussed above, is called OperantConditioning. The term "Operant" refers to how an organism operates on the environment, and hence,operant conditioning comes from how we respond to what is presented to us in our environment. It can bethought of as learning due to the natural consequences of our actions.Lets explain that a little further. The classic study of Operant Conditioning involved a cat who wasplaced in a box with only one way out; a specific area of the box had to be pressed in order for the door toopen. The cat initially tries to get out of the box because freedom is reinforcing. In its attempt to escape,the area of the box is triggered and the door opens. The cat is now free. Once placed in the box again, thecat will naturally try to remember what it did to escape the previous time and will once again find the areato press. The more the cat is placed back in the box, the quicker it will press that area for its freedom. Ithas learned, through natural consequences, how to gain the reinforcing freedom.We learn this way every day in our lives. Imagine the last time you made a mistake; you most likelyremember that mistake and do things differently when the situation comes up again. In that sense, you’ve
  10. 10. learned to act differently based on the natural consequences of your previous actions. The same holds truefor positive actions. If something you did results in a positive outcome, you are likely to do that sameactivity again.ReinforcementThe term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus whichstrengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit oncommand, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come tounderstand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it andwill result in him sitting when instructed to do so.This is a simple description of a reinforcer (Skinner, 1938), the treat, which increases the response,sitting. We all apply reinforcers everyday, most of the time without even realizing we are doing it. Youmay tell your child "good job" after he or she cleans their room; perhaps you tell your partner how goodhe or she look when they dress up; or maybe you got a raise at work after doing a great job on a project.All of these things increase the probability that the same response will be repeated.There are four types of reinforcement: positive, negative, punishment, and extinction. We’ll discuss eachof these and give examples.Positive Reinforcement. The examples above describe what is referred to as positive reinforcement. Thinkof it as adding something in order to increase a response. For example, adding a treat will increase theresponse of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room. Themost common types of positive reinforcement or praise and rewards, and most of us have experienced thisas both the giver and receiver.Negative Reinforcement. Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order toincrease a response. Imagine a teenager who is nagged by his mother to take out the garbage week afterweek. After complaining to his friends about the nagging, he finally one day performs the task and to hisamazement, the nagging stops. The elimination of this negative stimulus is reinforcing and will likelyincrease the chances that he will take out the garbage next week.Punishment. Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The mostcommon example of this is disciplining (e.g. spanking) a child for misbehaving. The reason we do this isbecause the child begins to associate being punished with the negative behavior. The punishment is notliked and therefore to avoid it, he or she will stop behaving in that manner.Extinction. When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called extinction. You aretaking something away so that a response is decreased.Research has found positive reinforcement is the most powerful of any of these. Adding a positive toincrease a response not only works better, but allows both parties to focus on the positive aspects of thesituation. Punishment, when applied immediately following the negative behavior can be effective, butresults in extinction when it is not applied consistently. Punishment can also invoke other negativeresponses such as anger and resentment.Reinforcement Schedules
  11. 11. Know that we understand the four types of reinforcement, we need to understand how and when these areapplied (Ferster & Skinner, 1957). For example, do we apply the positive reinforcement every time achild does something positive? Do we punish a child every time he does something negative? To answerthese questions, you need to understand the schedules of reinforcement.Applying one of the four types of reinforcement every time the behavior occurs (getting a raise afterevery successful project or getting spanked after every negative behavior) is called a ContinuousSchedule. Its continuous because the application occurs after every project, behavior, etc. This is the bestapproach when using punishment. Inconsistencies in the punishment of children often results in confusionand resentment. A problem with this schedule is that we are not always present when a behavior occurs ormay not be able to apply the punishment.There are two types of continuous schedules:Fixed Ratio. A fixed ratio schedule refers to applying the reinforcement after a specific number ofbehaviors. Spanking a child if you have to ask him three times to clean his room is an example. Theproblem is that the child (or anyone for that matter) will begin to realize that he can get away with tworequests before he has to act. Therefore, the behavior does not tend to change until right before the presetnumber.Fixed Interval. Applying the reinforcer after a specific amount of time is referred to as a fixed intervalschedule. An example might be getting a raise every year and not in between. A major problem with thisschedule is that people tend to improve their performance right before the time period expires so as to"look good" when the review comes around.When reinforcement is applied on an irregular basis, they are called variable schedules.Variable Ratio. This refers to applying a reinforcer after a variable number of responses. Variable ratioschedules have been found to work best under many circumstances and knowing an example will explainwhy. Imagine walking into a casino and heading for the slot machines. After the third coin you put in, youget two back. Two more and you get three back. Another five coins and you receive two more back. Howdifficult is it to stop playing?Variable Interval. Reinforcing someone after a variable amount of time is the final schedule. If you have aboss who checks your work periodically, you understand the power of this schedule. Because you don’tknow when the next ‘check-up’ might come, you have to be working hard at all times in order to beready.In this sense, the variable schedules are more powerful and result in more consistent behaviors. This maynot be as true for punishment since consistency in the application is so important, but for all other types ofreinforcement they tend to result in stronger responses.Reward system and OrganisationThe design and management of reward systems present the general manager with one of the most difficultHRM tasks. This HRM policy area contains the greatest contradictions between the promise of theory andthe reality of implementation. Consequently, organizations sometimes go through cycles of innovation
  12. 12. and hope as reward systems are developed, followed by disillusionment as these reward systems fail todeliver.Rewards and employee satisfactionGaining an employee’s satisfaction with the rewards given is not a simple matter. Rather, it is a functionof several factors that organizations must learn to manage:1. The individual’s satisfaction with rewards is, in part, related to what is expected and how much isreceived. Feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction arise when individuals compare their input - job skills,education, effort, and performance - to output - the mix of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards they receive.2. Employee satisfaction is also affected by comparisons with other people in similar jobs andorganizations. In effect, employees compare their own input/output ratio with that of others. People varyconsiderably in how they weigh various inputs in that comparison. They tend to weigh their strong pointsmore heavily, such as certain skills or a recent incident of effective performance. Individuals also tend tooverrate their own performance compared with the rating they receive from their supervisors. Theproblem of unrealistic self-rating exists partly because supervisors in most organizations do notcommunicate a candid evaluation of their subordinates’ performance to them. Such candidcommunication to subordinates, unless done skillfully, seriously risks damaging their self-esteem. Thebigger dilemma, however, is that failure by managers to communicate a candid appraisal of performancemakes it difficult for employees to develop a realistic view of their own performance, thus increasing thepossibility of dissatisfaction with the pay they are receiving.3. Employees often misperceive the rewards of others; their misperception can cause the employees tobecome dissatisfied. Evidence shows that individuals tend to overestimate the pay of fellow workersdoing similar jobs and to underestimate their performance (a defense of self-esteem-building mechanism).Misperceptions of the performance and rewards of others also occur because organizations do notgenerally make available accurate information about the salary or performance of others.4. Finally, overall satisfaction results from a mix of rewards rather than from any single reward. Theevidence suggests that intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards are both important and that they cannot bedirectly substituted for each other. Employees who are paid well for repetitious, boring work will bedissatisfied with the lack of intrinsic rewards, just as employees paid poorly for interesting, challengingwork may be dissatisfied with extrinsic rewards.Rewards and motivationFrom the organization’s point of view, rewards are intended to motivate certain behaviors. But underwhat conditions will rewards actually motivate employees? To be useful, rewards must be seen as timelyand tied to effective performance.One theory suggests that the following conditions are necessary for employee motivation.1. Employees must believe effective performance (or certain specified behavior) will lead to certainrewards. For example, attaining certain results will lead to a bonus or approval from others.
  13. 13. 2. Employees must feel that the rewards offered are attractive. Some employees may desire promotionsbecause they seek power, but others may want a fringe benefit, such as a pension, because they are olderand want retirement security.3. Employees must believe a certain level of individual effort will lead to achieving the corporation’sstandards of performance.As indicated, motivation to exert effort is triggered by the prospect of desired rewards: money,recognition, promotion, and so forth. If effort leads to performance and performance leads to desiredrewards, the employee is satisfied and motivated to perform again.As mentioned above, rewards fall into two categories: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards comefrom the organization as money, perquisites, or promotions or from supervisors and coworkers asrecognition. Intrinsic rewards accrue from performing the task itself, and may include the satisfaction ofaccomplishment or a sense of influence. The process of work and the individual’s response to it providethe intrinsic rewards. But the organization seeking to increase intrinsic rewards must provide a workenvironment that allows these satisfactions to occur; therefore, more organizations are redesigning workand delegating responsibility to enhance employee involvement.Equity and participationThe ability of a reward system both to motivate and to satisfy depends on who influences and/or controlsthe system’s design and implementation. Even though considerable evidence suggests that participation indecision making can lead to greater acceptance of decisions, participation in the design and administrationof reward systems is rare. Such participation is time-consuming.Perhaps, a greater roadblock is that pay has been of the last strongholds of managerial prerogatives.Concerned about employee self-interest and compensation costs, corporations do not typically allowemployees to participate in pay-system design or decisions. Thus, it is not possible to test thoroughly theeffects of widespread participation on acceptance of and trust in reward system.Compensation systems: the dilemmas of practiceA body of experience, research and theory has been developed about how money satisfies and motivatesemployees. Virtually every study on the importance of pay compared with other potential rewards hasshown that pay is important. It consistently ranks among the top five rewards. The importance of pay andother rewards, however, is affected by many factors. Money, for example, is likely to be vieweddifferently at various points in one’s career, because the need for money versus other rewards (status,growth, security, and so forth) changes at each stage. National culture is another important factor.American managers and employees apparently emphasize pay for individual performance more than dotheir European or Japanese counterparts. European and Japanese companies, however, rely more on slowpromotions and seniority as well as some degree of employment security. Even within a single culture,shifting national forces may alter people’s needs for money versus other rewards.Companies have developed various compensation systems and practices to achieve pay satisfaction andmotivation. In manufacturing firms, payroll costs can run as high as 40% of sales revenues, whereas in
  14. 14. service organizations payroll costs can top 70%. General managers, therefore, take an understandableinterest in payroll costs and how this money is spent.The traditional view of managers and compensation specialists is that if the right system can bedeveloped, it will solve most problems. This is not a plausible assumption, because, there is no one rightanswer or objective solution to what or how someone should be paid. What people will accept, bemotivated by, or perceive as fair is highly subjective. Pay is a matter of perceptions and values that oftengenerate conflict.Management’s influence on attitudes toward moneyMany organizations are caught up in a vicious cycle that they partly create. Firms often emphasizecompensation levels and a belief in individual pay for performance in their recruitment and internalcommunications. This is likely to attract people with high needs for money as well as to heighten thatneed in those already employed. Thus, the meaning employees attach to money is partly shaped bymanagement’s views. If merit increases, bonuses, stock options, and perquisites are held out as valuedsymbols of recognition and success, employees will come to see them in this light even more than theymight have perceived them at first. Having heightened money’s importance as a reward, managementmust then respond to employees who may demand more money or better pay-for-performance systems.Firms must establish a philosophy about rewards and the role of pay in the mix of rewards. Without sucha philosophy, the compensation practices that happen to be in place, for the reasons already stated, willcontinue to shape employees’ satisfactions, and those expectations will sustain the existing practices. Ifmoney has been emphasized as an important symbol of success, that emphasis will continue even thougha compensation system with a slightly different emphasis might have equal motivational value with feweradministrative problems and perhaps even lower cost. Money is important, but its degree of importance isinfluenced by the type of compensation system and philosophy that management adopts.Pay for performanceSome reasons why organizations pay their employees for performance are as follows:Under the right conditions, a pay-for-performance system can motivate desired behavior.a pay-for-performance system can help attract and keep achievement-oriented individuals.a pay-for-performance system can help to retain good performers while discouraging the poor performers.In the US, at least, many employees, both managers and workers, prefer a pay-for-performance system,although white-collar workers are significantly more supportive of the notion than blue-collar workers.But there is a gap, and the evidence indicates a wide gap, between the desire to devise a pay-for-performance system and the ability to make such a system work.The most important distinction among various pay-for-performance systems is the level of aggregation atwhich performance is defined - individual, group, and organizationwide. Several pay-for-performancesystems are summarized in the exhibit that follows.
  15. 15. Historically, pay for performance has meant pay for individual performance. Piece-rate incentive systemsfor production employees and merit salary increases or bonus plans for salaried employees have been thedominant means of paying for performance. In the last decade, piece-rate incentive systems havedramatically declined because managers have discovered that such systems result in dysfunctionalbehavior, such as low cooperation, artificial limits on production and resistance to changing standards.Similarly, more questions are being asked about individual bonus plans for executives as top managersdiscovered their negative effects.Meanwhile, organizationwide incentive systems are becoming more popular, particularly becausemanagers are finding that they foster cooperation, which leads to productivity and innovation. Tosucceed, however, these plans require certain conditions. A review of the key considerations for designinga pay-for-performance plan and a discussion of the problems that arise when these considerations are notobserved follow.Individual pay for performance. The design of an individual pay-for performance system requires ananalysis of the task. Does the individual have control over the performance (result) that is to bemeasured? Is there a significant effort-to-performance relationship? For motivational reasons alreadydiscussed such a relationship must exist. Unfortunately, many individual bonus, commission, or piece-rate incentive plans fall short in meeting this requirement. An individual may not have control over aperformance result, such as sales or profit, because that result is affected by economic cycles orcompetitive forces beyond his or her control. Indeed, there are few outcomes in complex organizationsthat are not dependent on other functions or individuals, fewer still that are not subject to external factors.Choosing an appropriate measure of performance on which to base pay is a related problem incurred byindividual bonus plans. For reasons discussed earlier, effectiveness on a job can include many facets notcaptured by cost, units produced, or sales revenues. Failure to include all activities that are important foreffectiveness can lead to negative consequences. For example, sales personnel who receive a bonus forsales volume may push unneeded products, thus damaging long-term customer relations, or they maypush an unprofitable mix of products just to increase volume. These same salespeople may also takeorders and make commitments that cannot be met by manufacturing. Instead, why not hold salespeopleresponsible for profits, a more inclusive measure of performance? The obvious problem with this measureis that sales personnel do not have control over profits.These dilemmas constantly encountered and have led to the use of more subjective but inclusivebehavioral measures of performance. Why not observe if the salesperson or executive is performing allaspects of the job well? More merit salary increases are based on subjective judgments and so are someindividual bonus plans. Subjective evaluation systems though they can be all-inclusive if based on athorough analysis of the job, require deep trust in management, good manager-subordinate relations, andeffective interpersonal skills. Unfortunately, these conditions are not fully met in many situations, thoughthey can be developed if judged to be sufficiently important.Group and organizationwide pay plans. Organizational effectiveness depends on employee cooperation inmost instances. An organization may elect to tie pay, or at least some portion of pay, indirectly toindividual performance. Seeking to foster team-work, a company may tie an incentive to some measure ofgroup performance, or it may offer some type of profits or productivity-sharing plan for the whole plantor company.
  16. 16. Gains-sharing plans have been used for years in many varieties. The real power of a gains-sharing plancomes when it is supported by a climate of participation. Various structures, systems, and processesinvolve employees in decisions that improve the organization’s performance and result in a bonusthroughout the organization.MOTIVATION and its importance:Motivation is an important function of personnel management because management of personnel meansgetting the work done by the people to achieve the organisational objectives.Motivation is one of the method to induce the man on the job to get the work done effectively to have thebest results towards the common objectives. Motivation is necessary for the better performance. Theexpected results from motivation are:-1. Best utilisation of Resources: All other resources (except human resource) an produce no results unclesthe men try to put them into action, Men should be motivated to carry out the plans, policies andprogrammes laid down by the organisation by utilizing the other resources to the bet of their efforts. Inother words, utilisation of resources is not possible to their fullest extent unless the man n induced tocontribute their efforts towards attaining the organisational goals.2. Will to Contribute:- A distinction should be made between Capacity to work and willingness to work.A man can be physically, mentally and technically fit to work but the may not be willing to workmotivation concerns to create a need and desire on the part of he workman to present his betterperformance.3. Reduction if labour problems: All the members try to concentrate their efforts to achieve the objectivesof the organisation and carry out the plans in accordance with the policies and programmes laid down bythe organizations is the management introduces motivational plans. It reduces the labour problems likelabour turnover, absenteeism, indiscipline, grievances etc. because their real wages increase by themotivational plans.4. Sizable Increase in Production and Productivity: Motivation induces the men to work hence it results inincreased production. And productivity because men try to put their efforts to produce more and more andthus their efficiency increases. They (motivated employees) use the methods, systems and technologyeffectively in the best interest of the organizations.5. Basis of Co-operation: In a zeal to produce more the members work as a team to pull the weighteffectively, to gt their loyalty to the group and the organisation, to carry out properly the activitiesallocated and generally to play an efficient part in achieving the purposes which the organisation hasundertaken. Thus motivation is a basis of cooperation to get the best results out of the efforts of the menon the job.6. Improvement upon Skill and knowledge: All the members will try to be as efficient as possible and willtry to improve upon their skill and knowledge so that they may be able to contribute to the progress of the
  17. 17. organisation as much as possible because they know that they, in turn, will get what have been promisedand ultimately they will be able to satisfy their needs- personal and social both.In the nut shell, to achieve the organisational and individual goals in an economical and efficient manuer,motivation is an important toll in the hands of management to direct the behaviour of subordinates in thedesired and appropriate direction and thus minimise the wastage of human and other resources.Theories on Motivation-MaslowAbraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) along with Frederick Herzberg (1923-) introduced the Neo-HumanRelations School in the 1950’s, which focused on the psychological needs of employees. Maslow putforward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled atwork.All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy (see below) and only once a lower level of need has beenfully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchysatisfied. For example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in orderto buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others.A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfill each need inturn and progress up the hierarchy (see below). Managers should also recognise that workers are not allmotivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may thereforehave to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.HerzbergFrederick Herzberg (1923-) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory ofmotivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directlymotivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivatean employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder(Hygienefactors)Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is andhow much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Hygiene factors are
  18. 18. factors which ‘surround the job’ rather than the job itself. For example a worker will only turn up to workif a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will notmake him work harder at his job once he is there. Importantly Herzberg viewed pay as a hygiene factorwhich is in direct contrast to Taylor who viewed pay, and piece-rate in particularHerzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach tomanagement and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some ofthe methods managers could use to achieve this are:Job enlargement – workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily morechallenging) which should make the work more interesting.Job enrichment - involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting andchallenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement.Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas oftheir working life.1) Contribution of Robert Owen :Though Owen is considered to be paternalistic in his view, his contribution is of a considerablesignificance in the theories of Motivation. During the early years of the nineteenth century, Owen’s textilemill at New Lanark in Scotland was the scene of some novel ways of treating people. His view was thatpeople were similar to machines. A machine that is looked after properly, cared for and maintained well,performs efficiently, reliably and lastingly, similarly people are likely to be more efficient if they aretaken care of. Robert Owen practiced what he preached and introduced such things as employee housingand company shop. His ideas on this and other matters were considered to be too revolutionary for thattime.2) Jeremy Bentham’s “The Carrot and the Stick Approach” :Possibly the essence of the traditional view of people at work can be best appreciated by a brief look atthe work of this English philosopher, whose ideas were also developed in the early years of the IndustrialRevolution, around 1800. Bentham’s view was that all people are self-interested and are motivated by thedesire to avoid pain and find pleasure. Any worker will work only if the reward is big enough, or thepunishment sufficiently unpleasant. This view - the ‘carrot and stick’ approach - was built into thephilosophies of the age and is still to be found, especially in the older, more traditional sectors of industry.The various leading theories of motivation and motivators seldom make reference to the carrot and thestick. This metaphor relates, of course, to the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desiredbehavior. It comes from the old story that to make a donkey move, one must put a carrot in front of himor dab him with a stick from behind. Despite all the research on the theories of motivation, reward andpunishment are still considered strong motivators. For centuries, however, they were too often thought ofas the only forces that could motivate people.At the same time, in all theories of motivation, the inducements of some kind of ‘carrot’ are recognized.Often this is money in the form of pay or bonuses. Even though money is not the only motivating force, it
  19. 19. has been and will continue to be an important one. The trouble with the money ‘carrot’ approach is thattoo often everyone gets a carrot, regardless of performance through such practices as salary increase andpromotion by seniority, automatic ‘merit’ increases, and executive bonuses not based on individualmanager performance. It is as simple as this : If a person put a donkey in a pen full of carrots and thenstood outside with a carrot, would the donkey be encouraged to come out of the pen ?The ‘stick’, in the form of fear–fear of loss of job, loss of income, reduction of bonus, demotion, or someother penalty–has been and continues to be a strong motivator. Yet it is admittedly not the best kind. Itoften gives rise to defensive or retaliatory behavior, such as union organization, poor-quality work,executive indifference, failure of a manager to take any risks in decision making or even dishonesty. Butfear of penalty cannot be overlooked. Whether managers are first-level supervisors or chief executives,the power of their position to give or with hold rewards or impose penalties of various kinds gives theman ability to control, to a very great extent, the economic and social well-being of their subordinates.3) Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory” :One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth bypsychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from thelowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases tobe a motivator.As per his theory these needs are:(i) Physiological needs:These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicineand education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslowwas of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivatingfactors can work. (ii) Security or Safety needs :These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter.It also includes protection against any emotional harm.(iii) Social needs :Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy theirneed for affection, acceptance and friendship.(iv) Esteem needs :According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held inesteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestigestatus and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy andachievements and external esteem factors such as states, recognition and attention.(v) Need for self-actualization :
  20. 20. Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable ofbecoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’spotential and to accomplish something.As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpointof motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfiedneed no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of thehierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level.Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This canbe attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding. However, research does notvalidate these theory. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought tovalidate the theory found no support for it.TOP4) “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor :McGregor, in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can bemanaged in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other isbasically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealtwith employees, McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on acertain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior towards subordinatesaccording to these assumptions.Under the assumptions of theory X : • Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. • Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. • Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. • Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition.
  21. 21. In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y : • Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. • People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. • Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. • That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s brainpower is only partly used.On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominateindividuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that isrun on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word “authoritarian” suggests such ideas asthe “power to enforce obedience” and the “right to command.” In contrast Theory Y organizations can bedescribed as “participative”, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated;individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of theorganization.However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior.5) Contribution of Rensis Likert :Likert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizations into four management systems.1st System – Primitive authoritarian2nd System – Benevolent authoritarian3rd System – Consultative4th System – ParticipativeAs per the opinion of Likert, the 4th system is the best, not only for profit organizations, but also for non-profit firms.6) Frederick Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory :Frederick has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as two-factortheory or Hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees atwork. In- trinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated withdissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question : “What do people want from their jobs ?” He askedpeople to describe in detail, such situations when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. Fromthe responses that he received, he concluded that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Removingdissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He states thatpresence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead tomotivation. However, their nonpresence leads to demotivation. In similar manner there are certain factors,the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact.
  22. 22. Examples of Hygiene factors are :Security, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, work conditions, relationship withsupervisor and company policy and administration.Examples of Motivational factors are :Growth prospectus job advancement, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievements.TOP7) Contributions of Elton Mayo :The work of Elton Mayo is famously known as “Hawthorne Experiments.” He conducted behavioralexperiments at the Hawthorne Works of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago. He madesome illumination experiments, introduced breaks in between the work performance and also introducedrefreshments during the pause’s. On the basis of this he drew the conclusions that motivation was a verycomplex subject. It was not only about pay, work condition and morale but also included psychologicaland social factors. Although this research has been criticized from many angles, the central conclusionsdrawn were : • People are motivated by more than pay and conditions. • The need for recognition and a sense of belonging are very important. • Attitudes towards work are strongly influenced by the group.8) Vroom’s Valence x Expectancy theory :The most widely accepted explanations of motivation has been propounded by Victor Vroom. His theoryis commonly known as expectancy theory. The theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a
  23. 23. specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcomeand on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual to make this simple, expectancy theory saysthat an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance willlead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form ofsome reward. Therefore an employee is :Motivation = Valence x Expectancy.The theory focuses on three things : • Efforts and performance relationship • Performance and reward relationship • Rewards and personal goal relationshipThis leads us to a conclusion that :9) The Porter and Lawler Model :Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler developed a more complete version of motivation dependingupon expectancy theory.
  24. 24. Actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by theperson’s ability to do the job and also by individual’s perception of what the required task is. Soperformance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. These rewards,along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction. Hence, satisfaction of the individual dependsupon the fairness of the reward.10) Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Theory :Alderfer has tried to rebuild the hierarchy of needs of Maslow into another model named ERG i.e.Existence – Relatedness – Growth. According to him there are 3 groups of core needs as mentionedabove. The existence group is concerned mainly with providing basic material existence. The secondgroup is the individuals need to maintain interpersonal relationship with other members in the group. Thefinal group is the intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally. The major conclusions of this theory are: 1. In an individual, more than one need may be operative at the same time. 2. If a higher need goes unsatisfied than the desire to satisfy a lower need intensifies. 3. It also contains the frustration-regression dimension. 11) McClelland’s Theory of Needs :David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs : 1. Need for Power 2. Need for Affiliation 3. Need for AchievementBasically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control. They like to be at thecenter and are good orators. They are demanding in nature, forceful in manners and ambitious in life.They can be motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions.In the second category are the people who are social in nature. They try to affiliate themselves withindividuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to build a friendly environmentaround themselves. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation.People in the third area are driven by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. Their need forachievement is moderate and they set for themselves moderately difficult tasks. They are analytical innature and take calculated risks. Such people are motivated to perform when they see atleast somechances of success.McClelland observed that with the advancement in hierarchy the need for power and achievementincreased rather than Affiliation. He also observed that people who were at the top, later ceased to bemotivated by this drives.12 ) Equity Theory :
  25. 25. As per the equity theory of J. Stacey Adams, people are motivated by their beliefs about the rewardstructure as being fair or unfair, relative to the inputs. People have a tendency to use subjective judgmentto balance the outcomes and inputs in the relationship for comparisons between different individuals.Accordingly :If people feel that they are not equally rewarded they either reduce the quantity or quality of work ormigrate to some other organization. However, if people perceive that they are rewarded higher, they maybe motivated to work harder.13) Reinforcement Theory :B.F. Skinner, who propounded the reinforcement theory, holds that by designing the environmentproperly, individuals can be motivated. Instead of considering internal factors like impressions, feelings,attitudes and other cognitive behavior, individuals are directed by what happens in the environmentexternal to them. Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals and thatpunishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation. Hence, the only way to motivate is to keepon making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.14) Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke :Instead of giving vague tasks to people, specific and pronounced objectives, help in achieving themfaster. As the clearity is high, a goal orientation also avoids any misunderstandings in the work of theemployees. The goal setting theory states that when the goals to be achieved are set at a higher standardthan in that case employees are motivated to perform better and put in maximum effort. It revolvesaround the concept of “Self-efficacy” i.e. individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a hardtask.15) Cognitive Evaluation Theory :As per these theory a shift from external rewards to internal rewards results into motivation. It believesthat even after the stoppage of external stimulus, internal stimulus survives. It relates to the pay structurein the organization. Instead of treating external factors like pay, incentives, promotion etc and internalfactors like interests, drives, responsibility etc, separately, they should be treated as contemporary to each
  26. 26. other. The cognition is to be such that even when external motivators are not there the internal motivationcontinues. However, practically extrinsic rewards are given much more weightage.Applications of Motivation in organisation:At lower levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs, money is a motivator,however it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance withHerzbergs two-factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition,empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both AbrahamMaslows theory of motivation and Douglas McGregors theory X and theory Y (pertaining to the theoryof leadership) demonstrate.Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators tostaff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator. Praise andrecognition are placed in the Theory Y category and are considered stronger motivators than money. • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. • Motivated employees are more quality oriented. • Motivated workers are more productive.The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity.Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally staff are more attracted to the opportunity sideof the motivation curve than the threat side. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment thatcan lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production.Nonetheless, Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates: ascendant,indifferent, and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely, and must be treated, managed, andmotivated accordingly. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters, and moreimportantly the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow, and findanswers independently.The assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were challenged by a classic study at Vauxhall Motors UKmanufacturing plant. This introduced the concept of orientation to work and distinguished three mainorientations: instrumental (where work is a means to an end), bureaucratic (where work is a source ofstatus, security and immediate reward) and solidaristic (which prioritises group loyalty).Other theories which expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg included Kurt Lewins ForceField Theory, Edwin Lockes Goal Theory and Victor Vrooms Expectancy theory. These tend to stresscultural differences and the fact that individuals tend to be motivated by different factors at differenttimes.[28]According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, a workersmotivation is solely determined by pay, and therefore management need not consider psychological orsocial aspects of work. In essence, scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsicrewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards.
  27. 27. In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money—in fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievementmotivation, though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives, e.g., keepingscore. In keeping with this view, his consulting firm, McBer & Company, had as its first motto "To makeeveryone productive, happy, and free." For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning a persons life withtheir fundamental motivations.Elton Mayo found that the social contacts a worker has at the workplace are very important and thatboredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Mayo believed that workers could bemotivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. As a result, employeeswere given freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups.Mayo named the model the Hawthorne effect. His model has been judged as placing undue reliance onsocial contacts at work situations for motivating employees.[29]In Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs asmotivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee incentive program:[30] • Recognition of employees individual differences, and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition • Allowing employees to participate • Linking rewards to performance • Rewarding of nominators • Visibility of the recognition process. The concept of MBO:The Concept Of Management By Objectives (MBO)The concept of MBO is closely connected with the concept of planning. The process of planning impliesthe existence of objectives and is used as a tool/technique for achieving the objectives. Modernmanagements are rightly described as Management by Objectives (MBO). This MBO concept waspopularized by Peter Drucker. It suggests that objectives should not be imposed on subordinates butshould be decided collectively by a concerned with the management. This gives popular support to themand the achievement of such objectives becomes easy and quick.Management by Objectives (MBO) is the most widely accepted philosophy of management today. It is ademanding and rewarding style of management. It concentrates attention on the accomplishment ofobjectives through participation of all concerned persons, i.e., through team spirit. MBO is based on theassumption that people perform better when they know what is expected of them and can relate theirpersonal goals to organizational objectives. Superior subordinate participation, joint goal setting andsupport and encouragement from superior to subordinates are the basic features of MBO. It is a result-oriented philosophy and offers many advantages such as employee motivation, high morale, effective andpurposeful leadership and clear objectives before all concerned per-sons.
  28. 28. MBO is a participative and democratic style of management. Here, ample a scope is given to subordinatesand is given higher status and positive/participative role. In short, MBO is both a philosophy andapproach to management. MBO concept is different from MBC (Management by Control) and is alsosuperior in many respects. According to the classical theory of management, top management isconcerned with objectives setting, directing and coordinating the efforts of middle level managers andlower level staff. However, achievement of organizational objectives is possible not by giving orders andinstructions but by securing cooperation and participation of all persons. For this, they should beassociated with the management process. This is possible in the case of MBO and hence MBO is differentfrom MBC and also superior to MBC.MBO is an approach (to planning) that helps to overcome these barriers. MBO involves the establishmentof goals by managers and their subordinates acting together, specifying responsibilities and assigningauthority for achieving the goals and finally constant monitoring of performance. The genesis of MBO isattributed to Peter Drucker who has explained it in his book The Practice of Management. Definitions Of Management By Objectives MBO :- 1. According to George Odiome, MBO is "a process whereby superior and subordinate managers of an Organisation jointly define its common goals, define each individuals major areas of responsibility in terms Of results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members." 2. According to John Humble, MBO is "a dynamic system which seeks to integrate the companys needs to clarify and achieve its profits and growth goals with the managers need to contribute and develop himself. It is a demanding and rewarding style of managing a business." Features Of Management By Objectives MBO :- 1. Superior-subordinate participation: MBO requires the superior and the subordinate to recognize that the development of objectives is a joint project/activity. They must be jointly agree and write out their duties and areas of responsibility in their respective jobs. 2. Joint goal-setting: MBO emphasizes joint goal-setting that are tangible, verifiable and measurable. The subordinate in consultation with his superior sets his own short-term goals. However, it is examined both by the superior and the subordinate that goals are realistic and attainable. In brief, the goals are to be decided jointly through the participation of all. 3. Joint decision on methodology: MBO focuses special attention on what must be accomplished (goals) rather than how it is to be accomplished (methods). The superior and the subordinate mutually devise methodology to be followed in the attainment of objectives. They also mutually set standards and establish norms for evaluating performance. 4. Makes way to attain maximum result: MBO is a systematic and rational technique that allows management to attain maximum results from available resources by focussing on attainable goals. It permits lot of freedom to subordinate to make creative decisions on his own. This motivates subordinates and ensures good performance from them. 5. Support from superior: When the subordinate makes efforts to achieve his goals, superiors helping hand is always available. The superior acts as a coach and provides his valuable advice and guidance to the subordinate. This is how MBO facilitates effective communication between superior and subordinates for achieving the objectives/targets set. Steps In Management By Objectives Planning :-
  29. 29. 1. Goal setting: The first phase in the MBO process is to define the organizational objectives. These are determined by the top management and usually in consultation with other managers. Once these goals are established, they should be made known to all the members. In setting objectives, it is necessary to identify "Key-Result Areas (KRA). 2. Manager-Subordinate involvement: After the organizational goals are defined, the subordinates work with the managers to determine their individual goals. In this way, everyone gets involved in the goal setting. 3. Matching goals and resources: Management must ensure that the subordinates are provided with necessary tools and materials to achieve these goals. Allocation of resources should also be done in consultation with the subordinates. 4. Implementation of plan: After objectives are established and resources are allocated, the subordinates can implement the plan. If any guidance or clarification is required, they can contact their superiors. 5. Review and appraisal of performance: This step involves periodic review of progress between manager and the subordinates. Such reviews would determine if the progress is satisfactory or the subordinate is facing some problems. Performance appraisal at these reviews should be conducted, based on fair and measurable standards.Advantages of Management By Objectives MBO :- 1. Develops result-oriented philosophy: MBO is a result-oriented philosophy. It does not favor management by crisis. Managers are expected to develop specific individual and group goals, develop appropriate action plans, properly allocate resources and establish control standards. It provides opportunities and motivation to staff to develop and make positive contribution in achieving the goals of an Organisation. 2. Formulation of dearer goals: Goal-setting is typically an annual feature. MBO produces goals that identify desired/expected results. Goals are made verifiable and measurable which encourage high level of performance. They highlight problem areas and are limited in number. The meeting is of minds between the superior and the subordinates. Participation encourages commitment. This facilitates rapid progress of an Organisation. In brief, formulation of realistic objectives is me benefit of M[BO. 3. Facilitates objective appraisal: NIBO provides a basis for evaluating a persons performance since goals are jointly set by superior and subordinates. The individual is given adequate freedom to appraise his own activities. Individuals are trained to exercise discipline and self control. Management by self-control replaces management by domination in the MBO process. Appraisal becomes more objective and impartial. 4. Raises employee morale: Participative decision-making and two-way communication encourage the subordinate to communicate freely and honestly. Participation, clearer goals and improved communication will go a long way in improving morale of employees. 5. Facilitates effective planning: MBO programmes sharpen the planning process in an Organisation. It compels managers to think of planning by results. Developing action plans, providing resources for goal attainment and discussing and removing obstacles demand careful planning. In brief, MBO provides better management and better results. 6. Acts as motivational force: MBO gives an individual or group, opportunity to use imagination and creativity to accomplish the mission. Managers devote time for planning results. Both appraiser and appraise are committed to the same objective. Since MBO aims at providing clear targets and their order of priority, employees are motivated. 7. Facilitates effective control: Continuous monitoring is an essential feature of MBO. This is useful for achieving better results. Actual performance can be measured against the standards laid down
  30. 30. for measurement of performance and deviations are corrected in time. A clear set of verifiable goals provides an outstanding guarantee for exercising better control. 8. Facilitates personal leadership: MBO helps individual manager to develop personal leadership and skills useful for efficient management of activities of a business unit. Such a manager enjoys better chances to climb promotional ladder than a non-MBO type.Limitations of Management By Objectives MBO :- 1. Time-consuming: MBO is time-consuming process. Objectives, at all levels of the Organisation, are set carefully after considering pros and cons which consumes lot of time. The superiors are required to hold frequent meetings in order to acquaint subordinates with the new system. The formal, periodic progress and final review sessions also consume time. 2. Reward-punishment approach: MBO is pressure-oriented programme. It is based on reward- punishment psychology. It tries to indiscriminately force improvement on all employees. At times, it may penalize the people whose performance remains below the goal. This puts mental pressure on staff. Reward is provided only for superior performance. 3. Increases paper-work: MBO programmes introduce ocean of paper-work such as training manuals, newsletters, instruction booklets, questionnaires, performance data and report into the Organisation. Managers need information feedback, in order to know what is exactly going on in the Organisation. The employees are expected to fill in a number of forms thus increasing paper- work. In the words of Howell, "MBO effectiveness is inversely related to the number of MBO forms. 4. Creates organizational problems: MBO is far from a panacea for all organizational problems. Often MBO creates more problems than it can solve. An incident of tug-of-war is not uncommon. The subordinates try to set the lowest possible targets and superior the highest. When objectives cannot be restricted in number, it leads to obscure priorities and creates a sense of fear among subordinates. Added to this, the programme is used as a whip to control employee performance. 5. Develops conflicting objectives: Sometimes, an individuals goal may come in conflict with those of another e.g., marketing managers goal for high sales turnover may find no support from the production managers goal for production with least cost. Under such circumstances, individuals follow paths that are best in their own interest but which are detrimental to the company. 6. Problem of co-ordination: Considerable difficulties may be encountered while coordinating objectives of the Organisation with those of the individual and the department. Managers may face problems of measuring objectives when the objectives are not clear and realistic. 7. Lacks durability: The first few go-around of MBO are motivating. Later it tends to become old hat. The marginal benefits often decrease with each cycle. Moreover, the programme is deceptively simple. New opportunities are lost because individuals adhere too rigidly to established goals. 8. Problems related to goal-setting: MBO can function successfully provided measurable objectives are jointly set and it is agreed upon by all. Problems arise when: (a) verifiable goals are difficult to set (b) goals are inflexible and rigid (c) goals tend to take precedence over the people who use it (d) greater emphasis on quantifiable and easily measurable results instead of important results and (e) over-emphasis on short-term goals at the cost of long-term goals. 9. Lack of appreciation: Lack of appreciation of MBO is observed at different levels of the Organisation. This may be due to the failure of the top management to communicate the philosophy of MBO to entire staff and all departments. Similarly, managers may not delegate adequately to their subordinates or managers may not motivate their subordinates properly. This creates new difficulties in the execution of MBO programme.Essential Conditions for Successful Execution / Implementation of MBO Or...
  31. 31. Q.How To Make MBO Effective? 1. Support from all: In order that MBO succeeds, it should get support and co-operation from the management. MBO must be tailored to the executives style of managing. No MBO programme can succeed unless it is fully accepted by the managers. The subordinates should also clearly understand that MBO is the policy of the Organisation and they have to offer cooperation to make it successful. It should be a programme of all and not a programme imposed on them. 2. Acceptance of MBO programme by managers: In order to make MBO programme successful, it is fundamentally important that the managers themselves must mentally accept it as a good or promising programme. Such acceptances will bring about deep involvement of managers. If manages are forced to accept NIBO programme, their involvement will remain superfluous at every stage. The employees will be at the receiving-end. They would mostly accept the lines of action initiated by the managers. 3. Training of managers: Before the introduction of MBO programme, the managers should be given adequate training in MBO philosophy. They must be in a position to integrate the technique with the basic philosophy of the company. It is but important to arrange practice sessions where performance objectives are evaluated and deviations are checked. The managers and subordinates are taught to set realistic goals, because they are going to be held responsible for the results. 4. Organizational commitment: MBO should not be used as a decorative piece. It should be based on active support, involvement and commitment of managers. MBO presents a challenging task to managers. They must shift their capabilities from planning for work to planning for accomplishment of specific goals. Koontz rightly observes, "An effective programme of managing by objective must be woven into an entire pattern and style of managing. It cannot work as a separate technique standing alone." 5. Allocation of adequate time and resources: A well-conceived MBO programme requires three to five years of operation before it provides fruitful results. Managers and subordinates should be so oriented that they do not look forward to MBO for instant solutions. Proper time and resources should be allocated and persons are properly trained in the philosophy of MBO. 6. Provision of uninterrupted information feedback: Superiors and subordinates should have regular information available to them as to how well subordinates goal performance is progressing. Over and above, regular performance appraisal sessions, counseling and encouragement to subordinates should be given. Superiors who compliment and encourage subordinates with pay rise and promotions provide enough motivation for peak performance.Variable pay programmeA BRIEF ABOUT VARIABLE PAYWith the IT business environment becoming increasingly competitive, companies are aggressively aimingto derive the maximum from their employees. One of the widely deployed practices among corporates topump up an employee’s performance is the adoption of the variable pay system. This system largelyimplies a pattern where the employer divides an employee’s salary into two parts—fixed and variable,whereby the fixed part of the salary is credited to an employee every month and the variable aspectfollows as per the goals and targets achieved.Variable pay is: • not a part of salary • not guaranteed • based on individual, group, or organizational performance.
  32. 32. Common purposes of variable pay include: • rewarding individual performance, • rewarding group performance (e.g., completing a project, meeting organizational objectives, reducing costs), • encouraging employees to increase productivity, and • controlling payroll costs.Common forms of variable pay include: • individual special recognition awards, • team or group awards, • lump-sum bonuses, • on-the-spot awards, • group incentive plans, and • stock options or grants.TYPES OF PLANS FOR VARIABLE PAY SCHEMEIndividual-based plans are the most widely used pay-for-performance plans in industry. Of theindividual-based plans commonly used, merit pay is by far the most popular; its use is almost universal.Merit pay consists of an increase in base pay, normally given once a year. Supervisors’ ratings ofemployee performance are typically used to determine the amount of merit pay granted. Once a merit payincrease is given to an employee, it remains a part of that employee’s base salary for the rest of his or hertenure with the firm.Team-based pay plans normally reward all team members equally based on group outcomes. Theseoutcomes may be measured objectively or subjectively. The criteria for defining a desirable outcome maybe broad or narrow. As is less commonly done in individual-based programs, payments to team membersmay be made in the form of a cash bonus or in the form of noncash awards such as trips, time off, orluxury items.Plantwide or company-wide pay-for-performance plans reward all workers in a plant or business unit onthe basis of the performance of the entire plant or business unit. Profit and stock prices are generally notmeaningful performance measures for a plant or unit because they are the result of the entirecorporation’s performance. Most corporations have multiple plants or units, a factor that makes it difficultto attribute financial gains or losses to any single segment of the business. Therefore, the performanceindicator most frequently used to distribute rewards at the plant level is plant or business unit efficiency,which is normally measured in terms of labor or material cost savings compared to an earlier period oranother plant or business unit.The broadest type of variable-pay incentive programs—company-wide pay-for-performance plans—reward employees on the basis of the entire corporation’s performance. The most widely used program ofthis kind is profit sharing. Profit sharing is a company-wide pay-for-performance plan that uses aformula to allocate a portion of declared profits to employees. Typically, profit distributions under aprofit-sharing plan are used to fund employee retirement plans.INTRODUCTION
  33. 33. Skill-based pay (SBP) systems are like snowflakes -- they share some common characteristics, but eachone is unique. We will explore the foundations which underlie skill-based pay and many of the optionswhich are available.Designing skill-based pay is not something which can be done by copying someone elses system. Everycompany has its own unique products, people, and work processes. What works in one organization mayor may not work in another. Much can be learned by studying what has succeeded or failed with othercompanies, but a sound understanding of the many variables and principles involved in SBP is essential toan SBP design.This book is the result of my experience with SBP design. It also includes information from researchingthe literature on skill-based pay. Companies are doing SBP and are talking about it. However, little hasbeen committed to a practical written form which can guide would-be designers.SBP, like many other workplace innovations, can be subject to the "lets-do-it-ourselves" approach.Organizations must do SBP themselves, but when they do it alone without knowledgeable assistance, theyrun the risk of repeating mistakes they could have avoided. Getting competent outside assistance is oneprotection from this problem.I hope this book provides an inexpensive way to provide a starting point for organizations interested inSBP. It certainly is not sufficient to guide an entire design. There are simply too many variables toexplore each one fully, or to identify all the possible combinations which could exist. This book canidentify aspects of SBP to be considered in a design and suggest some possible approaches.Skill-based pay has a purpose -- to promote learning. It is not the only way to compensate employees andit is not a system for all situations nor one which lasts forever. It is very useful in promoting new learning.This accounts for its popularity in start-up organizations and its association with organization redesigns.SBP systems mature as the majority of participants either reach the limits of the system or coast to a stopsomewhere along its path. Paying for learning may eventually give way to requests to pay forperformance based upon team or total organization results. If higher skills create higher performance, thisis a foreseeable development.Developing a skill-based pay system is not a linear process. The system requires that many items bebalanced. Very often what looks promising as a way to handle one part of the system becomes impracticalwhen meshed with other pieces. Original ideas need to be reworked again and again. Designers of SBPcan expect to travel the same territory several times before a system takes final shape.The best systems are deceptively simple. That simplicity is usually the result of untangling a great manyhidden complexities. Like snowflakes, a good SBP system is a wonder to behold, but its hard to tell whatwent into creating it. This book can help melt away some of that mystery.Most skill-based pay systems have been instituted in manufacturing and processing plants. SBP iscommonly found with team systems or other participative settings. More is known about these types ofinstallations. For that reason, those environments will be the primary focus of examples and discussion inthis guide. Many of the ideas and cautions for those systems can be extended into other workenvironments -- see the section on "SBP in the Office."