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Environmental protection pressures part 1


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Environmental protection pressures part 1

  1. 1. PART 1PART 1 Practice plumbing exams ©
  2. 2.  Use energy to generate electric currents.  A moving magnet pushes the electrons along a wire.  The energy used to move the magnet is carried by the electric current. Generators magnet Coil of wire torch bulb Practice plumbing exams ©
  3. 3. The inventor of the generator Michael Faraday 1791-1867 invented the generator in 1831.Practice plumbing exams ©
  4. 4. What do we need to make a generator for a power station? • Strong magnets • Lots of wire then lots of energy to turn the generator. Practice plumbing exams ©
  5. 5. • Generators in power stations supply electricity to factories, homes and schools. • These generators are in power stations • and are huge! Factories, homes and schools need huge amounts of energy Practice plumbing exams ©
  6. 6. Generators in power stations are very, very big Huge generators need huge amounts of energy. The energy turns the generators. The electric current carries the energy to where it is needed. Size of a person Practice plumbing exams ©
  7. 7. How can a generator be turned? Source of steam Turbine Steam can be used to turn a turbine to turn the generator. Practice plumbing exams ©
  8. 8.  A power station electric current Practice plumbing exams ©
  9. 9. How can water be heated to make steam? Old way: Burn coal The smoke is dirty and pollutes the atmosphere. Also produces lots of carbon dioxide which is a green house gas – heats up the Earth. Newer way: Burn gas Gas is cleaner than coal but still makes lots of carbon dioxide Eventually the world will run out of coal and gas. Practice plumbing exams ©
  10. 10.  Nuclear reactors can be used - to split atoms - to release energy - to boil water – to make steam - to turn the generators. Steam from nuclear energy + splits to give This does not cause pollution but some waste is very dangerous and has to be handled very carefully. Practice plumbing exams ©
  11. 11.  Steam from the Earth 70000 C 5000 C - giving energy to generate electricity. In some countries there are hot rocks close to the surface of the Earth. Practice plumbing exams ©
  12. 12.  In some countries energy from the Earth can be used to boil water to turn generators.  This does not cause pollution  and will not run out. Geothermal power Energy from the Earth NREL geo pacific gas and electric  But is not an option in the UK ! It would need very very deep holes!Practice plumbing exams ©
  13. 13.  Vegetation and animal dung give off energy as they rot. This can be used to heat homes and greenhouses directly.  Also waste can be burned - to boil water - to make steam - to turn generators. This is known as carbon neutral Electricity from waste The process uses up waste. But produces carbon dioxide. Practice plumbing exams ©
  14. 14. How else can we turn a generator without polluting the Earth? Use flowing water. Hoover Dam in USA – 220m high top of dam Practice plumbing exams ©
  15. 15. Hydroelectricity Running water turns the generator (Tennessee Valley Authority) Water from a mountain lake Does not pollute the atmosphere. The dam must be high in mountains.Practice plumbing exams ©
  16. 16.  Energy from waves can be used to turn generators.  We have lots of waves in the seas around the UK. Waves Does not cause pollution. There are more problems to solve. Practice plumbing exams ©
  17. 17.   When you blow the windmill it turns.  The moving air pushes the blades round.  Wind power We can make a windmill What happens if you blow harder? Practice plumbing exams ©
  18. 18.   Now modern wind turbines are used to turn generators.  Do not pollute the air.  Wind is not used up.  But sometimes the wind does not blow. Wind can turn generators  Many years ago windmills were used to turn mill stones to grind grain. Practice plumbing exams ©
  19. 19.  Energy from the Sun NASA Practice plumbing exams ©
  20. 20. Solar cells Use solar cells to change the energy in sunlight into electricity – solar power parking meter Solar cells traffic sign – no generator needed - needs lots of sunlight. Practice plumbing exams ©
  21. 21.  The space station has huge solar panels The framework is 109 metres long. NASA The International Space Station uses solar panels to collect energy, making it possible for scientists to live on board and do experiments. Practice plumbing exams ©
  22. 22.  Makes the Sun shine.  Scientists are finding ways to get huge amounts of energy.  when small atoms join together, energy is given out – like in the Sun.  Will not run out.  Does not pollute the air.  The future? Not possible for another 20 years! Fusion +gives Practice plumbing exams ©
  23. 23. Fossil fuels Coal - pollution Gas - pollution Oil - pollution Renewable sources – do not run out Hydroelectricity – needs mountains Wind - only works when wind blowing Waste & rotting vegetation – greenhouse gases Sunlight – best in sunny countries Geothermal – only in countries with hot springs Waves – small scale only – so far Energy from nuclear reactions Fission – waste needs very careful handling Fusion – waste less dangerous will not run out - but very difficult ! Energy Sources: Practice plumbing exams ©
  24. 24. Re-cap • A generator generates an electric current by moving magnets near a coil of wire. • We need a source of energy to turn the generator:  Burn fossil fuels?  Nuclear reactions?  Renewable energy? • You will have to choose !Practice plumbing exams ©