A diverse mix of users and activity are desirable for an economically, environmentally and socially sustainable city, enabling users to access multiple needs with fewer trips and contributing to higher rates of employment self-sufficiency.
Co-locating activity within a vibrant, intense space ensures walkability, social interaction and economic activation. Intense agglomerations of activity have been shown to increase industry productivity.
Centres require both a quantity and quality of employment, as befits their position within the centres hierarchy. High quality employment (knowledge or export-based) drives economic development and facilitates higher levels of employment self-sufficiency.
Centres must be accessible to a wide mix of user groups utilising different modes of transport. This reduces the impact of petrol price shocks, increases sustainable centre catchments and facilitates movement between employment nodes.
Facilitating easy movement around the centre for all users and ensuring a variety of well linked and positioned transport options means the potential for the centre to be equitably accessed by a range of user groups will be maximised, and use of the centre may be induced.
Improving the aesthetics, attractiveness and pleasantness of the physical environment makes an urban area more conducive to frequent and prolonged use.
Offering opportunities for recreation and leisure within the centre and ensuring the comfortable use of the centre by pedestrians increases centre attractiveness and activation and is conducive to more frequent and prolonged use.
Improving infrastructure directed at enabling safe movement throughout the centre and improving the perception of safety in the centre will increase the attractiveness of using the centre over a greater daily time period and for a greater range of user groups.
Tells a story of how centres evolve over time
Acp toolkit presentation september 2012
Activity CentrePerformance Toolkit Toolkit Briefing for Property Council Members
Pracsys Economics• Urban and employment economics• Translating ‘sustainability, livability, prosperity’ objectives into measureable outcomes• Evidence-based decision making
Policy Environment A tivityC c entre Perform eT anc oolkitReview of capital citystrategic planning systemsReport to the Council of Australian Governments23 December 2011
Conventional Approach• Activity = retail driven by population catchment• Floorspace must be controlled to restrict centre growth and ‘protect’ prescribed hierarchy• Black-box analytics• No allowance for ‘strategic’ activity• Does not account for unconventional development
Problems• Old system simple but very basic• Distorts market forces – reinforces status quo• Planning aspires to more sophisticated system• New concepts not well defined or measured• Planners have not adapted• Decision makers not equipped to make decisions• Fear of ‘looking bad’ creates inertia
Alternate Approach• Specify outcomes rather than inputs• Measure outcomes• Make system transparent and common to all• Use benchmarks• Work with market• Assess function of whole network
Activity Centre Planning PrinciplesActivity allocation – understand the activity(population and employment) load expected ofeach centre in the network
DiversityMixed Use Proportion of jobs in the centre in categories other than retail ABS Census employment data (working population) using destination zonesEquitability How evenly jobs are distributed to ensure that all amenities are represented (and certain land use categories do not dominate the mix at the expense of others) ABS employment data converted to Planning Land Use Categories (PLUC) and Shannon’s Diversity & Equitability Index applied
IntensityResidential Density Dwellings per hectare 400m and 800m walkable catchment Census collection districts (CCDs)Employment Density Jobs per hectare Destination zones Plot ratio (if floor space data available)
EmploymentEmployment Quantum Number of jobs in centre ANZSIC Exports Consumer Producer KICS KIPS Services Services Boundary designation Agriculture, nfd 7% 22% 32% 16% 23% Destination zones Nursery and Floriculture 15% 47% 15% 18% 6% ProductionEmployment Quality Mushroom and 15% 32% 10% 33% 10% Vegetable Growing Percentage of jobs that Fruit and Tree Nut 15% 32% 10% 32% 10% are KIPS and Export- Growing Oriented Sheep, Beef Cattle 38% 0% 13% 0% 49% and Grain Farming Uses ANZSIC 3-digit Other Crop Growing 15% 20% 6% 45% 14% industries Applied employment quality model
Centre AccessibilityTransport Infrastructure Transport Infrastructure Presence of bus route, station, train A bus stop for at least one local bus route etc. A bus stop for at least two local bus routes Sub-regional bus stationDistance from CBD A regional bus interchange Kilometres via road Also measure distance from other One train station and bus interchange important economic nodes One train station and regional bus station AECOM One regional train station and a regional bus station Two regional train stations and a regional bus station
Mobility ITEM ATTRIBUTE METRIC Presence of footpath Continuity of footpathWalkability Footpaths Width of footpath Condition of footpath Presence of cyclepaths or good cyclingCycle environment. Cyclepathsaccess Presence of cycle parking**Vehicle Parking Convenient vehicle parking providedaccess
Urban Quality ITEM ATTRIBUTE METRIC MEASUREMENT Presence of places Count the number of establishments onSense of Facilitates social suitable for public each side of the road segment. Record theplace opportunities meeting, eating/beverage number. establishments.* Are there any water bodies/features visible Water bodies Present from the street segment? Yes (1)/no (0). Are there any parks visible from the street Parks Number present segment? Yes (1)/no (0). Count the number of street trees present in the street segment and divide by the Existence segment length (in metres) to give trees/m. More than 1 tree/8 m (1), 1 tree/8 m – 15 m Street treesAttractive (0.5), less than 1 tree/16 m + (0).features Are most of the trees small – height of a Size ceiling (0), medium – high as a 2-storey building (0.5) or large – very high (1). What material is the pavement made from? Decorative materials or Plain concrete (0), decorative bricks (0.5), Pavement plain concrete** or high quality pavers with decorative features (1). Are the any garden beds present? Yes Garden beds Present* (1)/no (0). Car parks Are there any car parks adjacent to theUnattractive
Urban Amenity ITEM ATTRIBUTE METRIC Direct or ambient sunlight safely Solar access accessible from public realm*Comfort Trees or awnings present to shade Shade the footpath Fumes emitted by Calculate number of vehicles perAir quality vehicles day on street Noise emissions from Calculate number of vehicles perNoise vehicles day on street Seating Number provided**Street furniture Bins Present** Number providedLeisure and social Parks Playgroundsopportunities Sports fields/equipment
Safety ITEM ATTRIBUTE METRIC Vacant lots Vacant buildings* Disorder Graffiti present*Perception ofsafety Rubbish present* Passive From dwellings/shops overlooking surveillance pedestrian/public spaces Lighting Pedestrian access ways well lit* Crime events Statistical occurrence Statistical occurrence of traffic incidents Ratio of crossovers to street lengthPersonal safety Traffic safety Assisted pedestrian crossings on busy roads Separation of footpaths from road Traffic calming measures
Setting Expectations and Targets• National baseline assessment of all centres• Plan centre development against quantitative targets• Centres mature gradually – use benchmarks
Planning Assessments• Local government commercial strategies use same language and metrics to set expectations for centre performance• Conversations with proponents are about eight outcome areas, not floorspace• Outcomes evolve through logical discussion – not prescription
New Decision Rules E– Expectation T – Target I – Impact
PCA members should….• Prepare centre development plans against all eight outcome areas• Explain how these outcomes translate to ‘success’ for the centre• Put pressure on decision makers to use evidence to support their decisions and be outcomes focused• Contact Pracsys for a $5,000 scorecard (normally $10,000)• www.pracsys.com.au/toolkit-briefing/