HEALTH SYSTEM OF
POWER POINT BY:
Australia has a mainly tax-funded health care system, with medical
services subsidized through a universal national health insurance
Health services are administered through a federal system of
government and are delivered by many public and private providers.
Medicare is Australia's publicly funded universal health care system.
Australia's health expenditure to GDP ratio (~9.5%) in 2011-2012,
was slightly above average compared with other countries.
financial year 2013-2014 the GDP ratio is 9.8 i.e.. 154.6 billion.
Health practitioners include medical practitioners, nurses and
midwives, and allied health professionals such as medical
practitioners, psychologists and optometrists.
Nurses and midwives are the largest group in the health workforce,
with 290,144 nurses and midwives employed in 2012 .
In 2012, there were 1,124 full-time equivalent nurses and midwives
employed for every 100,000 people. There were 374 medical
practitioners , 85 psychologists and 15 podiatrists.
TYPES OF HEALTH CARE
Primary health care
In Australia, primary health care is typically a person's
first point of contact with the health system and is most often
provided outside the hospital system.
Primary health care accounts for almost as much health
spending as hospital services, accounting for 36.1% ($50.6 billion)
of total health expenditure in 2011-12 .
Secondary care is medical care provided by a
specialist or facility upon referral by a primary care physician . It
includes services provided by hospitals and specialist medical
In Australia, hospital services are provided by both public and
private hospitals. In 2011-12, there were 1,345 hospitals in Australia
and total hospitalizations rose by 4.6% to almost 9.3 million in 2012.
Hospital emergency departments are a critical
component of hospitals and the health system. They provide care for
patients who have an urgent need for medical or surgical care, and in
some cases also provide care for patients returning for further care,
or patients waiting to be admitted.
• Crude Death Rate (PER 1;000 PEOPLE)………………..6.30( IN
Crude Birth Rate (PER 1;000 people)…………………13.20 IN(
Total fertility rate of Australia is 1.77 with a global rank of 156
Under 5 mortality rate was 4 per 1000 (in 2015)
The infant mortality rate in 2012 was 3.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live
Over the five years 2006-2010, there were 99 maternal deaths in
Australia. This equates to a rate of 6.8 deaths per 100,000 women
who gave birth in Australia.
Among them there were 39 direct maternal deaths and 57 indirect
The leading causes of direct maternal death included embolism
caused by amniotic fluid or blood clot and hemorrhage.
'The leading cause of indirect maternal death was cardiac disease
followed by deaths due to psychosocial morbidity.
NUMBER OF PEOPLE
INVOLVED IN HEALTH
YEAR MALE FEMALE PERSONS
2001 169,673 623,718 793,391
2006 204,501 751,649 956,150
2011 245,315 922,318 1,167,633
Total expenditure on health, by area of expenditure, 2011-12
How much does Australia
spend on health care?
Health expenditure data includes health expenditure by governments
as well as individuals and other non-government sources such as
private health insurers. The providers of health goods and services
include hospitals, primary health care providers such as general
practitioners (GPs), and other health professionals.
In 2011-12, Australia spent around $140.2 billion on health, around
1.7 times higher in real terms (after adjusting for increase) than in
2001-02. Health expenditure has grown faster than population
growth. Expenditure increased from $4,276 per person in to $6,230
Expenditure on the basis of disease
The group with the highest
spending nationally is
'Cardiovascular disease” ($7.7
billion, or 10.4% of total
It is followed by 'Oral health'
($7.2 billion, or 9.7%) and
'Mental disorders' ($6.4 billion,
or 8.6%) .
There are some NGOs and INGOs working in Australia like CARE
Australia, caritas Australia, CBM Australia, child fund Australia,
Oxfam Australia, plan international ,TEAR Australia, world vision
Australia (WVA), UNICEF Australia etc.
although there are some challenges of workforce ,and lack of
hospital to cover every patient but the health system seems to be
effectively implemented in Australia.
There are some hospitals like royal Perth hospital ,
royal children’s hospital providing specialized services
to the people.