Wound-Healing Effect of Aqueous Anthocephalus cadamba Leaf Extract [Autosaved].pptx
Wound-Healing Effect of Aqueous Anthocephalus cadamba Leaf Extract in a
Diabetic Rat Model.
En. no- 67/MPB/SPS/2021
DPSRU, New Delhi
Dr. Mukesh Nandave
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
DPSRU, New Delhi
Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi-110017
Journal Club Presentation
Title: Accelerative Wound-Healing Effect of Aqueous
Anthocephalus Cadamba Leaf Extract in a Diabetic Rat
Author’s Name: Shoket Ali, Sharmeen Ishteyaque, Foziya
Khan, Pragati Singh, Abhishek Soni and Madhav N.
Journal Name: The International Journal of lower
Impact factor: 2.057
Cascade of biomolecular and cellular events like hemostasis, inflammation, cellular
migration and remodeling.
These processes replace dead debris and cellular layers and restore injured wound tissue to its
original state by formation of collagen connective tissue.
The pathogenic mechanism of delayed diabetic wound healing includes prolonged
inflammatory and oxidative states, deferred proliferation and remodeling phase.
Aim & Objective
Current study was designed to understand the mechanism involved in
wound healing and therapeutic potential of Anthocephalus cadamba in
a diabetic rat model.
Procurement of Animal
The female Sprague Dawley rats of 5 to 7 weeks and body weight 150 to 200 g were used. The
total number of animals (n=40) was divided into 4 groups (10 rats/group). Rats were housed in
polypropylene cages under relative humidity (RH 55 ±20%) and room temperature (22±3 °C) in a
12 h light/dark cycle.
Induction of Diabetes
Diabetes was induced by single injection of STZ (Streptozotocin) at the dose of 60
mg/kg intra-peritoneally (dissolved in citrate buffer pH of 4.5; except for the
nondiabetic control group (I) rat).
After 4 to 5 days of STZ administration, the blood glucose level was measured.
Animals with fasting blood glucose levels >250 mg/dL were assumed to be diabetic
and used in the study.
Excision Diabetic Wound Model
All the rats were anesthetized with ketamine (87 mg/kg) and xylazine (13 mg/kg) and their dorsal
(last thorax to first sacral vertebra) hair was shaved.
Wound field sketching was outlined by tracing a circle on butter paper with a marker. On the
dorsal midline, one full-thickness circular excision of 1.77 cm2 area was created (1.5 cm in
A surgically sterile deep skin wound was created in both diabetic rats and nondiabetic rats. All
wounds were cleaned daily with 0.9% sterile normal saline solution.
After cleaning, the extract was applied topically at 500 mg/kg evenly to cover the wounds.
The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups:-
Group I (NDC) (n = 10): normal control without diabetes (served as untreated negative
Group II (DC) (n = 10): diabetic control (wounds allowed to heal naturally without any
Group III (D +KPLE) (n = 10): diabetic rats treated with the topical application of A cadamba
aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), once a day for 28 days.
Group IV (5% D +PIS) (n = 10): diabetic rats treated with topical application of marketed 5% PIS
solution/ marketed standard treatment group on wounds for 28 consecutive days.
Statistical analysis was carried out and the results were expressed as mean ± SD.
All results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance at a level of
significance P< .05, P < .01, P < .001, and 0.0001 (GraphPad Prism, Version
(D +KPLE) showed a significant increase in the percentage of wound closure
(82%) at day 21 as compared to the diabetic control group (42%), nondiabetic
control group (I) (49%), and povidone–iodine
treatment group (75%) group (IV).
Groups Day 1 Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28
NDC Gropus 1.77±0 1.41±0.13 0.88±0.3 0.58±0.4 Scar
DC group II 1.77±0 1.37±0.08 0.95±0.16 0.64±0.28 0.2±0.4
D+KPLE group IIII 1.77±0 1.21±0.05 0.36±0.09*** 0.071 ±0.08*** Scar
5% D+PIS group IV 1.77±0 1.33±0.08 0.28±0.1*** 0.15±0.05** Scar
DC, diabetic control; NDC, nondiabetic control; D+KPLE, diabetic+Kadam plant leaf extract; D+PIS, diabetic+povidone–iodine sol.
Results:- Body Weight and Hydroxyproline
Figure 1. Change in body weight of different groups. *P
**P < .01, ***P < .001 (significant when compared to the
nondiabetic control group).
Figure 2. Hydroxyproline content in the wound tissue. *P
< .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001 (significant when compared
to the nondiabetic control group).
Results:- Feed Intake and Blood glucose
Figure 4. Blood glucose levels of different groups. *P <
.05, **P < .01, ***P < .001 (significant when compared
to the nondiabetic control group).
Figure 3. Feed intake (gram) in different treatment
groups (no statistical differences were found between
Results:- Vascular endothelial growth factor
Figure 5. Quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in different groups evaluated by normalizing
*P < .05, **P < .01, ***P < .001 (significant when compared to the nondiabetic control group).
The present study demonstrates that the topical application of aqueous leaf extract:
Kadam plant indicates novel healing properties of wounds in diabetic rats.
The healing effects seemed to be due to an increased amount of hydroxyproline, fibroblasts, granulation tissue,
total protein, and collagen deposition in the wound.
Therefore, the findings of the current study showed the extract promotes healing of diabetic wound in rats and
provides a scientific perspective for the use of A cadamba aqueous leaf extract as an alternative to synthetic
drugs with expensive costs and adverse effects.
However, to the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first study that evaluates the wound-healing effect of
A cadamba leaf extract in diabetic wounds.
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There was significant decrease in body weight in the Kadam extract group as compared to the nondiabetic group (I) (Figure 2). Polyphagia/increase in feed intake was observed in the diabetic control group (II) rats as compared to the nondiabetic group (I) whereas in the Kadam extract group (III) and povidone group (IV) it was almost same as in the nondiabetic group (I) (Figure 3).