The Relevance of Kautilya in Modern Times


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The Relevance of Kautilya in Modern Times

  1. 1. Contemporary Relevance of Kautilya’sArthashastra<br />International AryaSamaj Conference<br />MAHASAMMELAN 2010<br />September 23-26 2010 <br />The Netherlands – Europe<br />Sharda Nandram <br />0<br />
  2. 2. Content <br />Who was Kautilya?<br />What are his teachings on Education?<br />What are his teachings on Management, Leadership?<br />What are his teachings on Governance, HRD?<br />How relevant is his work for us?<br />
  3. 3. Kautilya<br />Kautilya, Indian, also known as Chanakya and Vishnugupta lived from 350-275 BC. <br />Post Vedic period.<br />He was a great political strategist, economist, educator and an expert in diplomacy.<br />Why Kautilya in Dutch<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />2<br />
  4. 4. Indian Civilization<br />Vedic stage: perspective<br />Focused on an outward foundation of the mind <br />Physical and material aims<br />Belief in the spirit (psychic function) was there/ people respected that there was more than only the physical reality<br />Men need to turn from falsehood to truth to become immortal<br />Also claimed the one Existence, ekam sat<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />3<br />
  5. 5. Indian Civilization<br />Vedic Stage: Religiousness<br />Symbols<br />Rituals<br />The ritual of a physical sacrifice<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />4<br />
  6. 6. Indian Civilization<br />Vedic Stage: Spirituality<br />First and primitive idea of the Divine based on external vision (moon, stars, rivers etc)<br />Used these to guide men from physical to psychic and spiritual truths of his own being and that of the cosmos<br />The external truth was for everyone<br />The inner meaning was only presented to those initiated ( the inner Vedic religion).<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />5<br />
  7. 7. Indian Civilization<br />Vedantic system: perspective and religiousness<br />preparation of the natural external man for spirituality<br />Outcome of the Vedic discipline and experience (Upanishads )<br />People started to seek for the only One Truth in a big way as they were not satisfied with outer sacrifices<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />6<br />
  8. 8. Indian Civilization<br />Vedantic system: Spirituality<br />The Vedic truth had been renewed by replacing much of the symbols by the language of intuition and inner experience<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />7<br />
  9. 9. Indian Civilization<br />Post-Vedic age: perspective<br />A deeper mental and psychical living and brings man more directly into contact with the spirit and divinity within him<br />Seeking intellect<br />Science developed<br />Inner continuity with Vedic and Vedantic origins with changes in mental and outward basis<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />8<br />
  10. 10. Indian Civilization<br />Post Vedic age: religiousness<br />A transformation of symbol, ritual and ceremony<br />Vedic Gods were overshadowed by the great Trinity Brahma-Vishnu-Shiva<br />House of Fire replaced by temple<br />Ritual or sacrifice replaced by devotional temple ritual<br />Vedic Gods narrowed down in Vishnu and Shiva<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />9<br />
  11. 11. Indian Civilization<br />Post Vedic age: spirituality<br />Intuition and soul’s experiences were core aspects<br />Spiritual experience is a greater thing than reasoning intelligence<br />Complex psycho-spiritual inner life of Puranic and Tantric religion and Yoga<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />10<br />
  12. 12. Indian Civilization<br />Puranic-Tantric stage: perspective<br />Open the general mind to a higher and deeper range of inner truth and experience and feeling<br />Not much change to the core but changes in instruments, atmosphere, and religious experience.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />11<br />
  13. 13. Indian Civilization<br />Puranic-Tantric stage: religiousness<br />Ceremonies, picturesque temple worship<br />Psycho emotional sense and direction given to physical images<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />12<br />
  14. 14. Indian Civilization<br />Puranic-Tantric stage: spirituality<br />Opening of the heart and imagination of ordinary man<br />For a deeper psychic spiritual truth experience the secret initiation remained<br />The principle of the truth of the One in many aspects<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />13<br />
  15. 15. Indian Civilization<br />Spiritual Age (Sri Aurobindo)<br />Various paths of Yoga<br />Superman <br />Decline of Indian culture<br />In line with the puranic system, Vedic seers and Vedantic sages towards the deepest secret heart<br />The indwelling Godhead<br />And the luminous highest mind which directly open to a truth of the Spirit<br />A divinization of human life and nature<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />14<br />
  16. 16. Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />15<br />
  17. 17. Kautilya<br />Professor at the University of Takkasila (also known as Takshila). <br />Expert in commerce, warfare and economics. Takkasila was one of the topmost centers of education and according to some it was the world’s first university.<br />Another great university was the Nalanda where Chanakya was once a student.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />16<br />
  18. 18. Kautilya’sArthashastra<br />The Arthashastra explains in detail the principle of righteousness in management and politics and stated that it is the essence of Kingship. <br />To me he is World’s first Management GURU and Strategist.<br /> <br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />17<br />
  19. 19. Education<br />Kautilya’sArthashastra stated that teaching wrong things is a great crime. <br />Learning is called learning from which result righteousness and wealth. <br />In his opinion, training and learning destroyed unrighteousness, poverty and hatred. <br />Along with the varies sciences the student was urged towards discipline and self-control.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />18<br />
  20. 20. Education<br />Lessons of discipline could be imparted to those <br />Whose intellect had the desire to learn<br />Who had the capacity to listen attentively<br />Who had the power to grasp what was taught, to retain it in memory <br />Who discriminate between the important and the unimportant, draw inferences, deliberate and imbibe the truth and not to others.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />19<br />
  21. 21. Management <br />With his successful Mandala strategy he slowly chipped away at the edges instead of attacking the heart of Nanda’s territory. <br />He was able to throw out invaders by building alliances with the small kingdoms. <br />The Mandala strategy, building alliances and time management are all tools that can be useful in governance and management.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />20<br />
  22. 22. Management<br />Kautilya’s view on leadership departs from a holistic view. <br />Built on deeper human values that further the connectivity between citizens and their leaders. <br />He mentioned values which a leader should possess: truthfulness, reliability, gratefulness, liberality, promptness, freedom from vices (lust, anger, greed and vanity), long term vision and respect for the advice of elders. <br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />21<br />
  23. 23. Leadership<br />A leader should study four branches of knowledge: philosophy, scriptures, economics and politics. <br />In his Arthashastra he talked about combining both because realizing artha without dharma he did not consider as sustainable. <br />Therefore one can say that the meaning of the Arthashastra is a framework for building wealth, welfare and wellbeing. <br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />22<br />
  24. 24. Leadership<br />In the daily routine that he prescribed for the King he allocated time for meditation. <br />In essence his leadership focuses on finding a balance between the inner self and the outer world, the balance many managers are lacking today.<br />The essence of leadership lies in the ethical foundations therefore the leader should adhere to justice and ethics.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />23<br />
  25. 25. Governance<br />The Arthashastra is a manual for practicing politicians.<br />He prescribed specific tested administrative procedures. <br />the coercive authority (danda) when officers do not meet their task or if citizens not obey the rules and regulations.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />24<br />
  26. 26. Governance<br />He conceived danda to be the surest and the most universal means of ensuring public security as well as the stability of the social order. <br />He contemplates the universal application of danda irrespective of the offender’s rank and status. <br />Government officials could enrich themselves either by cheating the government or by exploiting the public. He prescribed punishment for both types of fraud. <br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />25<br />
  27. 27. Governance <br />Profit was a must in his scheme of running public enterprises. <br />His mixed economy is an example for the current efforts between public and private institutions to address wicked societal problems. <br />An official who did not generate adequate profits in crown undertakings was punished.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />26<br />
  28. 28. Human Resource Development<br />Kautilya’s theory of the recruitment and selection of officials. <br />He had developed the wealth tests, the virtue test, the pleasure test and the fear test. <br />Those who passed all four tests were appointed as ministers. <br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />27<br />
  29. 29. Relevance Dutch Society<br />The teachings of Kautilya has relevance for the Netherlands as well in a time where it’s seeking for building trust among several stakeholders in the Dutch community and leadership. <br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />28<br />
  30. 30. Relevance Indian community <br />Kautilya’s teaching would suggest clear leadership with service to the citizens and discipline of the leaders towards efficiency. <br />By stressing the common aim of the several communities/replacing the ego. <br />Dharma and Artha should go hand in hand.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />29<br />
  31. 31. Relevance <br />His mandala strategy would be helpful in cooperation: starting with the main differences tends to only enlarge these differences. Starting with the less important issues or the similarities will have a positive impact on the process of collaboration.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />30<br />
  32. 32. Relevance<br />Kautilya built trust by having set clear responsibilities. <br />By using danda policy for fraud.<br />By acknowledging people’s talents.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />31<br />
  33. 33. Selection of Maxims from Kautilya<br />In the happiness of the people lies the ruler’s happiness.<br />Many rulers have been destroyed by being under control of six enemies: lust, anger, greed, infatuation, arrogance, envy.<br />The whole aim of learning sciences and scriptures is this: control over the senses.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />32<br />
  34. 34. Selection of Maxims <br />A ruler should not harass the roots of righteousness and wealth.<br />Just as it is not possible to know, when the fish moving in water drink water, similarly, it is difficult to find out when officers employed in the execution of works misappropriate money.<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />33<br />
  35. 35. Implications for Hindustani Society<br />Self Purification and Inner cleansing a must for building character next to skills and intelligence<br />Seek Balance between Dharma and Artha<br />Religiousness in line with spirituality (service to mankind; talent development)<br />Discipline, control of senses, creativity<br />Punishment of fraud / bribes<br />Time management and focus in tasks<br />Dr. Sharda Nandram, the Netherlands<br />34<br />
  36. 36. Netherlands 1985<br />Jodhpur, India<br />1901<br />Suriname<br />1966<br />
  37. 37. Bio dr. Sharda Nandram <br />Founder Praan Solutions<br />Professor Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences HAN<br />Associate prof. at Nyenrode Business University<br />Co-founder Passion Marble<br />Other: <br />Member steering committee European Spirituality and Economics Society<br />Trustee Foundation of Critical Choices for India<br />Co-Chairwomen GOPIO<br />Married, Children: Navin (1997), Sharan (2001)<br /><br />36<br />
  38. 38. QUESTIONS ?Thankyou<br />37<br />