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KeynoteaddressSharda Nandram, July 6th 2010<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor En...
How Do Spirituality and Entrepreneurship go Together?: The Role of Intuition <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  D...
Parameters<br />An inner essence in all of us, mostly hidden.<br />It is full of potential.<br />We all have an aspiration...
Content<br />1. What is spirituality?<br />2. Where do the fields of spirituality and entrepreneurship meet? <br />3. What...
1. What is spirituality?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br /...
I state that spirituality in my approach has <br />-an external and internal aspects <br />-it is non-denominational and <...
Interest in Spirituality in Management<br />Increase in complexity and sheer speed of modern life/ fragmentation.<br />Des...
Disciplines involved<br />theistic view-existence of God, immortal soul. <br />atheism-nonexistence of God, soul. In this ...
Definition of Spirituality<br />The outer spirituality- adapting the mind to spiritual concepts; our relationship to other...
Measures of spirituality in management<br />Miller (2004): pro-social beliefs and importance of a Higher Being.<br />Piedm...
Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Respect for others. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, ...
Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Fun at work based on a connection with your passion and alignment with the genetic code...
Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />The cognitive dimension related to thinking about the meaning of life, and reflecting u...
Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Acting decently according to ethical codes related to ethical behavior, openness toward...
Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Considering consequences <br />of actions related to relationships <br />with others an...
Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Consciousness and religious orientations are mentioned <br />but less frequently. <br /...
Working definition of spirituality- integrating<br />Psychic process - finding the authentic Self (this is the inner, hidd...
2.Where do the fields of spirituality and entrepreneurship meet? <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S....
Relevance of spirituality for entrepreneurship<br />Role of creativity, imagination of opportunities, their intuition and ...
Theoretical framing from Resource Based View<br />Creation of value: spirituality creates value- impact on creativity, sat...
Theoretical framing from Resource Based View<br />This view, if it stretches further to take into consideration evolutiona...
Intangible aspect of entrepreneurship:<br />Focus on intuition<br />Two modes of thinking <br />University of Applied Scie...
University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />23<br />
Applied to Entrepreneurship- abilities that are needed in the invention stage are:<br />thinking about idea <br />thinking...
Applied to Entrepreneurship- activities involved in the innovation stage:<br />defining the demand  <br />planning on need...
3. What is the place of intuition in the literature on entrepreneurship?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sh...
Intuition in entrepreneurship research<br />Olson 1985; Allinson, et al. 2000; Kickul et al. 2009; Ornstein 1977; Barbosa ...
4. What could be the epistemology on intuition as part of spirituality? <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sh...
Epistemology on Intuition<br />What is intuition?- process towards reaching consciousness by acquiring types of knowledge....
Epistemology on Intuition<br />What do people know about their intuition ?- they often think about gut feelings, instinct,...
Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 1<br />Indirect knowledge, mediated by senses, – information<br />In ordinary science- th...
Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 2<br />Inner processes (emotions, desires, thoughts), direct knowledge, experience privat...
Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 3<br />Experience inner processes and identification, feelings of happiness or anger- pre...
Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 4<br />True knowledge, no separation between self and knowledge, beyond the mind<br />Pro...
Developing Intuition<br />Listening to the voice within the heart<br />Developing the intellect<br />Silence the mind<br /...
Research criteria (based on Harman 2008)<br />Commonly used criteria for scientific research such as objectivity and repli...
University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />37<br />
The reflective model for intuition<br />Experiences form the data: sharable, inter-subjective validity, in some sense repe...
5. What is the potential role of intuition in entrepreneurship and education?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  D...
There are two ways of bringing in the concept of intuition in entrepreneurship: <br />as a coping style to manage the exte...
Intuition can be helpful in the following situations:<br />The entrepreneur needs to decide fast.<br />The rules entrepren...
Teaching <br />In coursework related to entrepreneurship one should pay attention to intuition. <br />Educators and studen...
The following steps can be taken in this process:<br />Address this topic in courses by reflecting on the students own int...
Conclusion<br />Intuition is part of spiritual awareness<br />An entrepreneur is like a channel - receiving information fr...
Thanks to <br />Margot Borden, research partner in France for editing my paper<br />Mr. Vyas from India for his images<br ...
H I M A model for Exploring Intuition<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN -  Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepre...
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Entrepreneurship and Intuition - Intent Conference

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Entrepreneurship and Intuition - Intent Conference

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Entrepreneurship and Intuition - Intent Conference

  1. 1. KeynoteaddressSharda Nandram, July 6th 2010<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />1<br />
  2. 2. How Do Spirituality and Entrepreneurship go Together?: The Role of Intuition <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Parameters<br />An inner essence in all of us, mostly hidden.<br />It is full of potential.<br />We all have an aspiration or purpose in life. <br />Align the day to day activities - inner aspiration.<br />Approach inner box – techniques spiritual wisdom.<br />Spirituality is a state beyond the mind - indirectly.<br />Science - the outer side of spirituality.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Content<br />1. What is spirituality?<br />2. Where do the fields of spirituality and entrepreneurship meet? <br />3. What is the place of intuition in the literature on entrepreneurship?<br />4. What could be the epistemology on intuition as part of spirituality? <br />5. What is the potential role of intuition in entrepreneurship and education?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />4<br />
  5. 5. 1. What is spirituality?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />5<br />
  6. 6. I state that spirituality in my approach has <br />-an external and internal aspects <br />-it is non-denominational and <br />-we can take a scientific perspective towards spirituality<br />-both first and third person approach<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Interest in Spirituality in Management<br />Increase in complexity and sheer speed of modern life/ fragmentation.<br />Desire to have the source of meaning in all areas of our lives. <br />Corporate scandals, the economic, ethical crisis requires fundamental changes.<br />Large number of Cultural creatives.<br />Globalization and Dow Jones Dharma Index.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Disciplines involved<br />theistic view-existence of God, immortal soul. <br />atheism-nonexistence of God, soul. In this view, matter is the only reality.<br />agnosticism -question of whether or not God, exists cannot be answered. <br />non-denominational view of spirituality–psychology, anthropology and business and management <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Definition of Spirituality<br />The outer spirituality- adapting the mind to spiritual concepts; our relationship to others and the world. <br />Inner spirituality- reflects an inner, transformative process which involves transcending our habitual state of being, expanding the consciousness, becoming more subtle and ultimately connected and fully aligned to the indwelling Divine. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Measures of spirituality in management<br />Miller (2004): pro-social beliefs and importance of a Higher Being.<br />Piedmont and Leach (2002): a belief in the unity and purpose of life; a feeling of joy and contentment that results from prayer and/or meditation and a sense of personal responsibility and connection to others. <br />Ashmos and Duchon (2000) developed a measure with three dimensions of spirituality: conditions for community; meaning at work and inner life.<br />Not coming from spiritual levels of consciousness<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Respect for others. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Fun at work based on a connection with your passion and alignment with the genetic code of an organization. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />The cognitive dimension related to thinking about the meaning of life, and reflecting upon actions. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Acting decently according to ethical codes related to ethical behavior, openness towards others and voluntary work. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Considering consequences <br />of actions related to relationships <br />with others and <br />environmental issues.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Entrepreneurs on spirituality<br />Consciousness and religious orientations are mentioned <br />but less frequently. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Working definition of spirituality- integrating<br />Psychic process - finding the authentic Self (this is the inner, hidden Self)<br />Mental process - a cognitive evaluation of the facilities and sources needed to fulfill the needs of the authentic Self.<br />Vital process - bringing balance, a continuous connection between the authentic Self and the needs of the environment- balance at the workplace.<br />Strategy or physical process - concrete steps in terms of behaviors and values to implement and align thought, word and action to the authentic Self. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />17<br />
  18. 18. 2.Where do the fields of spirituality and entrepreneurship meet? <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Relevance of spirituality for entrepreneurship<br />Role of creativity, imagination of opportunities, their intuition and reflection as the best source for decisions and successes. <br />Businesses have a lot of ideas- lack of peace in the mind.<br />Without that there is no focus<br />Growth will be initiated based on opportunities<br />But opportunities are like buses<br />Good decision only come when the decision maker is focused. <br />Entrepreneurs, through developing peace of mind, can play a sustainable role in society.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Theoretical framing from Resource Based View<br />Creation of value: spirituality creates value- impact on creativity, satisfaction, commitment.<br />Rareness: spiritual practice requires time and yet it can create a competitive advantage- better in coping with stress, setbacks.<br />Imperfectly imitable: spirituality is complex, comes from within, can’t be traced easily by others to imitate.<br />Notsubstitutable: the unique ways and qualities it contributes to the entrepreneur and the venture are not substitutable.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Theoretical framing from Resource Based View<br />This view, if it stretches further to take into consideration evolutionary pull of consciousness or spiritual drive, as a resource opens up new dimensions for entrepreneurs and their company.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Intangible aspect of entrepreneurship:<br />Focus on intuition<br />Two modes of thinking <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />22<br />
  23. 23. University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Applied to Entrepreneurship- abilities that are needed in the invention stage are:<br />thinking about idea <br />thinking about creating a new application for a technological discovery<br />thinking about inventing a product or service to satisfy a need <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Applied to Entrepreneurship- activities involved in the innovation stage:<br />defining the demand <br />planning on needed resources<br />manufacturing and marketing plans<br />making schemes on actions<br />arrangements and operations<br />defining the team needed and organizing and controlling the activities<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 3. What is the place of intuition in the literature on entrepreneurship?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />26<br />
  27. 27. Intuition in entrepreneurship research<br />Olson 1985; Allinson, et al. 2000; Kickul et al. 2009; Ornstein 1977; Barbosa et al. 2004<br />Cognitive Style Index <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />27<br />
  28. 28. 4. What could be the epistemology on intuition as part of spirituality? <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />28<br />
  29. 29. Epistemology on Intuition<br />What is intuition?- process towards reaching consciousness by acquiring types of knowledge.<br />How is intuition acquired? – reflection and spiritual practices.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />29<br />
  30. 30. Epistemology on Intuition<br />What do people know about their intuition ?- they often think about gut feelings, instinct, mind is limited to grasp the subjective state.<br />How do we knowwhat we knowaboutintuition?- objectivescienceaboutmind and spiritual insightsabout the state beyond the mind.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />30<br />
  31. 31. Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 1<br />Indirect knowledge, mediated by senses, – information<br />In ordinary science- third person approach, listening to others, objective experiments, surveys<br />No role for intuition <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />31<br />
  32. 32. Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 2<br />Inner processes (emotions, desires, thoughts), direct knowledge, experience private and subjective<br />Third person - interview or survey<br />First person - objective introspection inner processes “my hands feel cold”- subject is observing<br />This knowledge gives source to intuition as a flash of awareness - various fragments or ideas in the mind all of a sudden come together and take on a cohesive form<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 3<br />Experience inner processes and identification, feelings of happiness or anger- pre conscious and pre reflective<br />First person approach, “today I am really happy”- person is the thought<br />Experiential knowledge, learning by doing, training in skills<br />This knowledge gives source of intuition from higher or transcended part of the mind<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Sri Aurobindo: Type of knowledge 4<br />True knowledge, no separation between self and knowledge, beyond the mind<br />Process of transformation<br />Is a gradual process <br />Not approachable in research <br />This knowledge gives source of intuition in the form of divine intervention<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />34<br />
  35. 35. Developing Intuition<br />Listening to the voice within the heart<br />Developing the intellect<br />Silence the mind<br />Descent the light from above<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />35<br />
  36. 36. Research criteria (based on Harman 2008)<br />Commonly used criteria for scientific research such as objectivity and replicability cannot be applied to intuition.<br />Reflective models based on introspection, usually considered as not empirical. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />36<br />
  37. 37. University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />37<br />
  38. 38. The reflective model for intuition<br />Experiences form the data: sharable, inter-subjective validity, in some sense repeatable<br />Observation over a period of time<br />Including phenomenological descriptions and seeking partial agreement<br />Two meanings objectivity: unbiased data and external versus subjective data<br />Interaction ‘out there’ with ‘mental processes’ <br />Interaction between observer and observed<br />Include all human experience<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />38<br />
  39. 39. 5. What is the potential role of intuition in entrepreneurship and education?<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />39<br />
  40. 40. There are two ways of bringing in the concept of intuition in entrepreneurship: <br />as a coping style to manage the external stimuli. <br />as a core training part so that it works as an internal resource in all entrepreneurial processes. Intuition is then a key competence in entrepreneurship for which students can get trained.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />40<br />
  41. 41. Intuition can be helpful in the following situations:<br />The entrepreneur needs to decide fast.<br />The rules entrepreneurs face are ambiguous. <br />There is a complex problem.<br />The information that is available is incomplete. <br />The situation asks for risky decisions.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />41<br />
  42. 42. Teaching <br />In coursework related to entrepreneurship one should pay attention to intuition. <br />Educators and students should be aware of the role of intuition. <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />42<br />
  43. 43. The following steps can be taken in this process:<br />Address this topic in courses by reflecting on the students own intuitive power. <br />Ask students to explore this concept in existing businesses which may result in a case study.<br />Ask entrepreneurs who acknowledge the role of intuition to share their view amongst students.<br />Institutionalize and integrate practical tools to elicit intuitive power in every course related to entrepreneurship.<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />43<br />
  44. 44. Conclusion<br />Intuition is part of spiritual awareness<br />An entrepreneur is like a channel - receiving information from 'beyond form' and then translating it into form (right and left brainside)<br />Research in intuition – non ordinary approach<br />In courses we should pay attention to intuitive power<br />Intuitive power gives a comparative advantage/ a resource, fosters entrepreneurial spirit<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />44<br />
  45. 45. Thanks to <br />Margot Borden, research partner in France for editing my paper<br />Mr. Vyas from India for his images<br />You for your attention <br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />45<br />
  46. 46. H I M A model for Exploring Intuition<br />University of Applied Sciences HAN - Dr. Sharda S. Nandram, Professor Entrepreneurship<br />46<br />

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