What do the research questions below have in common?1. What opportunities can listening basedgames provide to EFL learners of CancelesSchool, who have a poor English languageinput and that is located in anunderprivileged context?How does the use of listening basedgames influence or impact thedevelopment of listening skills in secondgraders students of Canceles School?
What does the application ofan adapted version ofReciprocal Teachingexperienced with shelteredInstruction inform us aboutthe English readingcomprehension and oralproduction of Seventh gradeEFL learners?
What are the learner‟sperceptions regarding listeningactivities using bottom-uplistening strategies in an eighthgrade English class?What is the impact in terms ofEnglish language learning withthe application of applyingbottom- up listening strategies toEFL eighth grade learners?
What errors does syntacticnegative transfer provoke in Pre-intermediate English Learners‟writing in an English as a foreignlanguage teaching program?What leads EnglishPre‐Intermediate students tomake errors in writing indetermined syntactic categories?
The RESEARCH Research is the QUESTION is the The figures in theprocess whereby beginning of the following slide questions are research process encompass the raised and and the focus of entire reseach answers are both the reader process. sought and the researcher.
Primary research Practical problems • Ferris (1995) realized• The that teachers spend a collection of lot of time providing original primary feedback to Ss‟ compositions: Does data feedback actually helps Ss improve their writing? Secondary sources • Such as textbook or theoretical papers presented at conferences. • They summarize other people‟s research.
What are the types of research questions?Descriptive Relational Causal
• To describe what is going on or what exists.• Describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied.• Descriptive research cannot be used to Relational • A study designed to create a causal determine whether relationship, where one or more variables one variable affects • A study is designed to causes or affects one another. look at the or more outcome relationshpis between variables. two or more variables. • Examines whether Descriptive some X variable is systematically related Causal to some Y variable
Wong (2009):1. How do the untrained native English speaking tutors teach their tutees?2. What problems do the untrained native English speaking tutors face in their teaching?3. How do the untrained native English speaking tutors view their own teaching?
Jiang (2011):What are the contributions of L1 literacy andL2 proficiency to L2 reading comprehension?What is the relationship, if any, betweenparticipants‟ attitudes and vocabularyacquisition?Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt (2010):What is the relationship, if any, betweenparticipants‟ attitudes and vocabularyacquisition?
Alessi and Dwyer (2000): Will vocabulary assistance (either before or during reading) affect reading time?
•What is a variable: •The variables of a •For example,What it is Examples Variable and construct study are clearly language ability is a identified and construct that varies •„not consistent or defined. (i.e., people vary in having a fixed language ability). pattern; liable to • In fact the term change‟ construct is usually •Gender is a variable replaced by the term variable. in that it has two possibilities: male and female. • If something does •Examples of other not vary, it is not a variable. possible variables are nationality, language proficiency, method of instruction, and so on.
• An independent variable (IV) is regarded as the variableIndependent of influence—that is, it affects the variation (or change) in another variable. variable • The variable being influenced (or changed) is labeled Dependent the dependent variable (DV), in that its variation depends on changes in the independent variable. variableThe way you • The way you can identify the two variables is to note which one is thought to affectcan identify (i.e., impact, change, cause, influence, etc.) the other. The one doing the affecting is the independent them variable, and the one being affected is the dependent variable. • The Zahar et al. (2001) study entitled “Acquiring Vocabulary Through Reading: Effects of Frequency and Example Contextual Richness” indicates two IVs, frequency and contextual richness, and one DV, vocabulary acquisition.
1. Which type of gloss, paper or electronic, will result in higher scores on vocabulary learning test?2. Which types of looked up information in the electronic dictionary (L1 translation, L2 definition, example of usage, or combinations of these) are associated with better vocabulary learning scores?
1. What is learners‟ perceived value of the two tasks conditions (FonF and FonFs) and word occurrences with regard to word retention?2. How many of the four major derivative classes (i.e., noun, verb, adjective, adverb) of a particular word do learners know to a productive degree of mastery?3. What is the relationship between productive derivational word knowledge and more global knowledge of a word?
What do youwant to know Read about it: about it? find a book, an article, etc. What do you Look at the text already know features to see about it? what you want to learn more about. Then ask a question about it.
„SKINNY‟ QUESTIONShave simple answers which can be answered in one word or sentence. Avoid questions that They begin with: can‟t be answered when, how many, and/or opinion who, where. questions. „FATTY‟ QUESTIONS cannot be answered in one sentence. They make you think of other questions. They begin with: why, which, how.
Avoid using inactive verbs such as “do” at the beginning of your question. Questions beginning with “do”, like questions that begin with “should”, can be answered by“yes,” “no”, “maybe,” or “I don‟t know”,” andare stoppers. They elicit an opinion rather than some activity directed toward research.
Set the population Avoid using verbs such from whom you can Determine your as „to improve‟ or „to collect the information constructs, which can develop‟, such necessary for be your dependentquestions are imposible answering your and/or independentto be answered in your question(s) and the variables. theses projects. context to which the population belongs.
A construct is a concept that a given discipline(e.g. applied linguistics) has constructed to identifysome quality that is thought to exist. One of thepopular constructs that applied linguistics has iscommunicative competence.
They are defined in two ways: either by using other constructs or byoperational definitions.By using other constructs: Canale and Swain (1980) defined communicative competency by using 4 other constructs. In observable terms (operational definition): MacInttyre et al. (2002) defined willingness tocommunicate WTC as „an underlying continuumrepresenting the predisposition toward or awayfrom communicating, given the choice‟ (p. 538)
1. What is the impact of the instructional use of video material in the listening skills of Basic English students in a Teaching English as a Foreign Language Program?2. What does the application of illustrated stories tell us about vocabulary range of third graders?3. What does the application of Reciprocal Teaching inform us about the English oral production of seventh grade EFL learners?
Do teachers from HHH school teach communicatively? How do first-semester pre-services English teachers in Colombian universities respond to English CBLI? What functions of code-switching are evident in the oral speech of students? How does instruction affect students‟ writing performance? What is the response towards the instructionally use of culturally relevant and highly visual material of fifth grade English Foreign Language students in a Colombian public school?