someone who is special to me
and others that inspired and assisted
Renaud Legrand of Terraneuves who :
First of all he gave me the book that is an integral part of this presentation
The mindful International Manager
(competences for working efficiently across cultures)
Jeremy Comfort and Peter Franklin
York Associates International
First edition, 2008
Secondly. Patiently looked over parts of this paper and gave me some advices.
Thirdly. Is a man of intellect& a professional whom I highly respect.
A thanks also to Laurent Philibert of Personnalité who mentioned to me for the first time of the 7 dwarfs
metaphor which I was inspired to use it in this presentation.
Finally a thank to two French guys who shared, off-the- record and over lunch, their ideas about stereotypes and
people over lunch in Paris on August 10th
Until the late ‘80s we lived in a bi-polar world run on a fragile equilibrium of the Mutual Auto
Destruction (M.A.D.) policy of Nuclear deterrence between the U.S.S.R. and satellites Countries
and the Western World, lead by the USA.
With the fall of the Berlin Wall the world became suddenly UNIPOLAR.
The USA felt that the fall of the Soviet Union and the disbanding of the European Eastern Block
demonstrated the validity of principles/pillars that had governed America for over 200 years, i.e.:
parliamentarian democracy, free enterprise, equal opportunity for all citizens, etc...
This lead to a UNIPOLAR world run for over ten years by the USA.
9/11 was the outcome.
Hate, injustice, poverty, diseases, dictatorships, authoritarianism are realities of today and will stay
with us tomorrow.
Hate, injustice, poverty, diseases, dictatorships, authoritarianism.
The context in which they exists can generate perceptions which often transform themselves into
stereotypes and prejudices leading to possible low intensity a-symmetrical (e.g.:Afganistan) conflicts
of today or large scale ones tomorrow between Nations (e.g.: Water Management of the Mekong
River, Deforestation of the Amazons, Intensive Land Exploitation in sub-Saharan Africa, etc... ).
That is where Intercultural Management fits.
You will be the future players, deciders, leaders, actors or simply citizens of the world of today.
By understanding what is useful and not good in Stereotypes, what leads to Prejudices (which are
blind judgements) and at the same time the importance of the role played by CULTURECULTURE as well as
context you will become citizens of the world, as I am, remaining who I amremaining who I am (Personality), not
denying where I come fromwhere I come from & whose cclass product I amlass product I am (Culture) as well as keeping in mindkeeping in mind
where & when I have operated inwhere & when I have operated in (Context & Time) and how (Behaviour)
Objective of the
“”To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass
misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required -- not
because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a
free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich.””
JFK, extract from the Inaugural Speech, January 21st
How to talk totalk to each other, understandunderstand each other, argue withargue with each other, discuss withdiscuss with each
other, dispute over something withdispute over something with the Other, agree withagree with the Other, compromise withcompromise with the
Other, grow withgrow with the Other, coming from different horizons, different cultural backgrounds,
different countries in order to know, in the event we have to fight, who are we fighting, why we
are fighting and what we are fighting for!
This is the aim of this course
talk totalk to,, understandunderstand,, argue withargue with,, discuss withdiscuss with,, dispute over something withdispute over something with,,
agree withagree with,, compromise withcompromise with,, grow withgrow with
each other, each other, each other, each other,
the Other, the Other, the Other, the Other
WHO WHERE & WHEN WHY
Personal Preferences 18
both interact between with themselves , operate in and determine
Stereotypes, generally the less reliable ones, come from factors such as:
Minimal or no experience
Stereotypes are fixed, general imagesimages that a lot of people believebelieve represent a particular group of people.
These images may be accurate in describing what the group is like in reality or, they may be rudimentary,rudimentary,
incomplete and inaccurateincomplete and inaccurate !!!!!!
These inaccurate and less reliable stereotypes can be harmful in a number of ways.
In particular, they may be result in us seeing only the stereotypes when we encounter somebody from a
We must thus ignore the individual, who may - in fact – be different from the stereotype !!!!
Source :The mindful International Manager 19
We use stereotypes , regardless they are accurate or inaccurate, to help us make sense of the world,
Especially when we have little information about the situation we are in and when we have little time
This allows us to reduce the complexity of perceiving, understanding and handling new or unknown
For this reason, and because we often unconsciously use stereotypes in dealing with newsituations ,
it is important that our stereotypes are based on knowledge which is accurate and up-to-date.
Source :The mindful International Manager
May be helpful as a tool as long as
a. You know that it is a stereotype
b. It is accurate and based on sound, up-to-
date and reliable knowledge and availabele
c. You can modify it on the basis of further
knowledge, information and first hand
d. It does not evaluate (or express a judgement
of) a group but only describe it
e. You know it describes the group norm and
not every member of the group
May be harmful because it may
Lead to ignoring the individuality
Be based on very limited knowledge,
information and experience, hearsay or
Influence the way we process information
and what we remember
Fail to take account of the new knowledge,
information and experience which
contradict the stereotype
Create expectations and self-fulfilling
Source :The mindful International Manager
before we move on you all need to
understand the definition and use - in
context - of the following
Who was Aleksej Grigor'evi Stachanovč
Aleksej Grigor'evič Stachanov was a mine worker in the Soviet Union who regularly surpassed
production quotas and was specially honored and rewarded
On 31 August 1935, Stachanov had mined a record 102 tonnes of coal in 5 hours and 45 minutes
(14 times his quota).
On 19 September 1935, Stakhanov was reported to have set a new record by mining 227 tonnes of
coal in a single shift.
His example was held up in newspapers and posters as a model for others to follow, and he even
appeared on the cover of Time Magazine.
today’s Definition of Stakhanovist
Stakhanovist means a person :
A. who for any reason follows a routine gruelling pace in a certain activity,
B. who works so tirelessly (often with additional negative connotations, such as lack of
respect for self).
The adjective Stakhanovism has become synonymous with total (and excessive) dedication to work
Aleksej Grigor'evi Stachanovč
l’homme d’acier (the iron man)
Who was von Sacher-Masoc
Leopold Rittervon Sacher-Masoch (27 January 1836 – 9 March 1895) was an Austrian writer and journalist,
who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life. The term masochisms derived from his name.
During his lifetime, Sacher-Masoch was well known as a man of letters, a utopian thinker who espoused
Socialist and humanist ideals in his fiction and non-fiction.
An example of his private life which will tell you something about him
On 8 December 1869, Sacher-Masoch and his mistress Baroness Fanny Pistor signed a contract making him
Her slave for a period of six months, with the stipulation that the Baroness wear furs as often as possible,
Especially when she was in a cruel mood. Sacher-Masoch took the alias of "Gregor," a stereotypical male
servant's name, and assumed a disguise as the servant of the Baroness.
The two traveled by train to Italy. As in Venus in Furs, he traveled in the third-class compartment, while she
had a seat in first-class, arriving in Venice (Florence in the novel), where they were not known, and would not
definition and use - in context - of the word/term
1.1. willingness or tendency to subject oneself to unpleasant or trying experiences.willingness or tendency to subject oneself to unpleasant or trying experiences.
2. gratification gained from pain, deprivation, degradation, etc., inflicted or imposed on oneself, either as a result
of one's own
actions or the actions of others, especially the tendency to seek this form of gratification.
3. The deriving of pleasure, or the tendency to derive pleasure, from being humiliated or mistreated, either by
another or by
oneself, tendency to find pleasure in self-denial, submissiveness, etc.
4. The deriving of sexual gratification, or the tendency to derive sexual gratification, from being physically or
Définition du mot Masochisme : Jouissance par la souffrance
Le masochisme est la recherche du plaisir dans la douleur.
Cette douleur peut être psychologique (humiliation) ou physique.
Un écrivain autrichien du XIXe siècle, Sacher-Masoch, a décrit le plaisir particulier procuré à un individu par sa
propre souffrance. Il a donné son nom au masochisme, qui subordonne la satisfaction sexuelle à un châtiment
physique, ou mental comme l'humiliation, infligé par le partenaire.
Sources : www.fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masochisme freely adapted
www.psychologies.com/Dico-Psycho/Masochism freely adapted
Italians eat bad food ?eat bad food ?
French are excessive but adaptable ?are excessive but adaptable ?
Are Israelis tribal ?tribal ?
Chinese are cultivated?are cultivated?
French are between themselves, have no sense of qualityare between themselves, have no sense of quality
Northern countries (e.g.: Norway, Finland, Sweden, ) have all AAA Standard & Poor Ratingshave all AAA Standard & Poor Ratings ?
Are English corrupt ?corrupt ?
Are Africans show-offs?show-offs?
Americans are rude ?are rude ?
Israelis vote to the right nationally and to the left locally?vote to the right nationally and to the left locally?
French are vigilant and “mondialiste”?are vigilant and “mondialiste”?
Are Greeks inflexible egocentrics?inflexible egocentrics?
Are Indians “Mafiosi” ?“Mafiosi” ?
Are Pakistanis “”“”masochist stakanovists””masochist stakanovists””??
Are Italians cold & cynic calculators ?cold & cynic calculators ?
Are Japanese corrupt ?corrupt ?
Are Germans always look at their belly button?always look at their belly button?
Are French out of step with today’s world?out of step with today’s world?
American cheat ?cheat ?
Are African doers ?doers ?
English copy ?copy ?
Chinese are uncultured arrogant that think only money ?are uncultured arrogant that think only money ?
Are Russians conservative?conservative?
try toconnect (or not)(or not) the people with what you
see as close stereotypes/Prejudicesstereotypes/Prejudices
Reading this list I ask myself
• Are many stereotypes of other negative ?
• Are many stereotypes of self positive?
• Do we recognize with more ease stereotypes
that define the group we belong to ?
French vote to the right nationally and to the left locallyvote to the right nationally and to the left locally
Israelis are rudeare rude
French are cultivatedare cultivated
Northern countries (e.g.: Norway, Finland, Sweden, ) have all AAA Standard & Poor Ratingshave all AAA Standard & Poor Ratings
English are cold & cynic calculatorsare cold & cynic calculators
Africans are tribalare tribal
Americans are excessive but adaptableare excessive but adaptable
Israelis are vigilant and “mondialiste”are vigilant and “mondialiste”
French always look at their belly buttonalways look at their belly button
Greeks are out of step with today’s worldare out of step with today’s world
Indians are doersare doers
Pakistanis are corruptare corrupt
Italians are show-offsare show-offs
Japanese areare masochist stakanovistsmasochist stakanovists??
Germans are inflexible egocentricsare inflexible egocentrics
French are conservativeare conservative
American are uncultured arrogant that think only moneyare uncultured arrogant that think only money
African are corruptare corrupt
English eat bad foodeat bad food
Chinese are between themselves, have no sense of qualityare between themselves, have no sense of quality
Are Russians are “Mafiosi” ?are “Mafiosi” ?
thoughts of mine
and talks with two Frenchmen August 2011 in Paris
Should I agree with the following stereotypes ?
French vote to the right nationally and to the left locally
Northern countries (e.g.: Norway, Finland, Sweden, ) have all AAA Standard & Poor Ratings
Americans are excessive but adaptable
Israelis are vigilant and “mondialiste”
Indians are doers
Italians are show-offs
French are conservative
American are uncultured arrogant that think only money
African are corrupt
English eat bad food
Israelis are rude
I find these stereotypes incorrect
French are cultivated
English are cold & cynic calculators
Africans are tribal
French always look at their belly button
Greeks are out of step with today’s world
Japanese are masochist stakanovists?
Are the following stereotypes correct or not ? – I will find out !
Pakistanis are corrupt
Germans are inflexible egocentrics
Chinese are between themselves and have no sense of quality 32
1. In Time
2. In Space
Up – to - date information
Your socio-cultural background
And other tens, hundreds & thousands of factors that gyrate around you
Decide for yourself by forming an open opinion
Interact with the other
An there is where
PERSONALITY comes into
what dimension is missing ?
He is very, very shy!
He‘s always blushing and twisting his beard into knots.
He loves listening to stories and is always fluttering his eyelashes at
Bashful is often embarrassed by the presence of any attention
directed at him. 37
very wise and likes to think carefully about problems.
He tries to be the leader but he’s not always very good at it
because he gets very nervous.
The leader of the seven dwarfs, .
Dopey isn’t really dopey.
He just likes having fun and playing tricks.
He never minds if he looks silly while he‘s playing his games!
He is clumsy and mute, with Happy explaining that he has simply "never
tried to speak
No matter what anyone says, Grumpy is always complaining.
He never agrees with anyone!
But, if any of his friends are in trouble, he’s always first to the rescue.
Happy is always cheerful and happy about everything.
He thinks everything is funny and just can’t help making jokes.
Happy is the joyous dwarf and is usually portrayed laughing. 41
Sleepy is very lazy.
He likes to sleep as much as he can when he’s not at
work in the mine.
He yawns so much because he just can’t stop himself.
Sleepy is always tired and appears laconic in most situations. 42
Sneezy doesn’t sneeze all the time,
just at the wrong time like when he doesn’t want anyone to know where
I am BLIND
I do not see
Others do not
I & Others
do not see
known Un-knownSelf 44
based on the four dimensions
Relation Management or How do you relate to the other
Information treatement or How do you process & use information
Decision making or How do you make & take (come to) a decision
Organization or How do you organize the implementation of the
This will result in a possible personality wheel
Team Management Wheel by Mergerison – McCann is a TMS Copyright
Personality wise we are
Explorer-Promoter - Persuader, "seller"; Likes varied, exciting, stimulating
work; Easily bored; Influential and outgoing
Assessor-Developer - Analytical and objective; Developer of ideas; Enjoys
prototype or project work; Experimenter
Thruster-Organizer - Organizes and implements; Quick to decide; Results-
oriented; Sets up systems; Analytical
Concluder-Producer - Practical; Production-oriented; Likes schedules and
plans; Pride in reproducing goods and services; Values effectiveness and
Controller-Inspector - Strong on control; Detail-oriented; Low need for
people contact; An inspector of standards and procedures
Upholder-Maintainer - Conservative, loyal, supportive; Personal values
important; Strong sense of right and wrong; Work motivation based on purpose
Reporter-Adviser - Supporter, helper, tolerant; A collector of information;
Dislikes being rushed; Knowledgeable; Flexible
Creator-Innovator - Imaginative; Future-oriented; Enjoys complexity; Creative;
Likes research work
Source Team Management Systems
Source : The Canadian Institute for Enneagram studies
Personality wise we are
if context changes do
prejudices change ?
When you do not know the
other what do you ask
you ask him/her
Who are you?
Who is he ?
You know what the fellow said - in Italy, for thirty years under the Borgias,
they had warfare, terror, murder and bloodshed,
but they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and the
In Switzerland, they had brotherly love, they had five hundred years
of democracy and peace – and what did that produce?
The cuckoo clock
Quote from Harry Lime interpreted by Orson Wells
In « The third man » film adaptation of the book by Graham Greene
Ask not what you can do for your Country
Ask what's for lunch.