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Active Shooter Response: What 911 Needs to Know. (A PowerPhone Webinar)


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The active shooter is a unique challenge for public safety, and not just for those responding to the scene. Emergency communications personnel play a vital role in managing these volatile situations.

In light of the recent tragic events in Newtown, CT, PowerPhone is offering this Active Shooting Response webinar to our nation's call takers and dispatchers. This invaluable training will look into the psyche of an active shooter – who they are, why they do it, and what finally puts them over the edge. We’ll prepare you with the questions you need to ask to get information to your responders and the advice you need to give to protect your terrified callers. This isn’t someone else’s problem anymore, and this is what you need to know to safeguard your community.

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Active Shooter Response: What 911 Needs to Know. (A PowerPhone Webinar)

  1. 1. 1 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone#ASR911
  2. 2. For Your Information2 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Webinar is being recorded •  Telephone or VoIP •  Your phones are muted •  Q&A via Webinar Chat Type your questions here. •  #ASR911 ~ @PowerPhone#ASR911
  3. 3. About Your Speaker3 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone George Deuchar, MAS; PowerPhone Law Enforcement Training Consultant !  Retired 26-year police veteran. !  19+ years with PowerPhone !  Tens of thousands trained worldwide !  Emergency Communications Expert !  Active Shooting Response !  Domestic Violence !  Suicide Intervention !  Crisis Negotiations#ASR911
  4. 4. What are Active Shooters?4 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  An “active shooter” is one or more individuals participating in a random or systematic killing spree, demonstrating their intent to harm others with a firearm. •  Objective is mass murder. •  Attacks are dynamic incidents that vary greatly from one to another.#ASR911
  5. 5. What are Active Shooting Incidents?5 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  An intense incident with a firearm whose activity will immediately cause death and serious injury to innocent victims. •  It is important to know who is reporting. •  Law Enforcement Officers become targets of opportunity. •  To best protect responding officers, inform them of the exact location#ASR911 of the shooter.
  6. 6. Who are Active Shooters?6 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhoneBased on Jan 10, 2013 FBI Report:•  The shooter was male in 96 percent of cases analyzed.•  The shooter acted alone 96 percent of the time.•  Active shooter events most commonly occurred in a workplace environment (37 percent) or academic setting (17 percent). #ASR911
  7. 7. More on Active Shooters7 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  The shooter was deceased after 51 percent of these events. •  45 percent of active shooters were arrested. •  4 percent active shooters remain unidentified. •  A clear motivation was never determined in 40 percent of cases analyzed.#ASR911
  8. 8. More on Active Shooters8 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone•  Social isolates, harboring feelings of hate and anger, and/ or had some reported contact with mental health professionals.•  Very few had previous arrests for violent crimes.•  Most common identified motivations were found to be: –  workplace retaliation (21%) –  domestic disputes (14%) –  academic retaliation by a current or former student (7%). #ASR911
  9. 9. Why Do They Act?9 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone Common catalysts or triggers observed include: •  Loss of significant relationships •  Changes in financial status •  Loss of a job •  Changes in living arrangements •  Major adverse changes to life circumstances •  Feelings of humiliation or rejection on the part of the shooter.#ASR911
  10. 10. Frequency10 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Reports do NOT indicate an increase in active shooter incidents in the U.S. from 2006 to 2012. •  Active shooter incidents may have become more frequent since 2000. •  Anecdotal evidence suggest mass shootings are getting more deadly.#ASR911
  11. 11. Frequency11 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone 300 281 Attacks between 1966 and Dec. 21, 2012 # Attacks 8 7 4 1 0 US Can Ger GB S. Korea A NYPD report also points to the Newtown massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School and to the Aurora, Colorado movie theater and Tucson shootings. #ASR911
  12. 12. Recent Cases12 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone In the most recent notable shooting, Adam Lanza, 20, was identified by authorities as the killer who fatally shot his mother in her home, gunned down 20 children and 6 adults at Sandy Hook Elementary School, and then committed suicide on December 14, 2012.#ASR911
  13. 13. Recent Cases13 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone James Holmes, 24, is accused of shooting dead 12 people and wounding 58 others at a cinema Friday in Aurora, outside Denver, as young moviegoers packed the midnight screening of the latest Batman film, "The Dark Knight Rises."#ASR911
  14. 14. Reality14 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  The average active shooter incident lasts 12.5 minutes. •  Average law enforcement response time takes 18 minutes. •  Acts of extreme violence often cannot be prevented, despite the best effort to do so. •  Unless law enforcement is present at the time of an attack, there will always be a delay between initiation of violence and law enforcement response.#ASR911
  15. 15. Reality15 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  In the time separating the first and last shots fired in Active Shooter incidents, the only individuals who have the capacity to react are the victims and potential victims. •  The only individual predominantly in control during an Active Shooter incident is the shooter himself.#ASR911
  16. 16. PSAP Agency Tactics and Responsibilities16 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone 1.  What is the agency’s responsibility? 2.  What steps and tactics should they plan for and take?#ASR911
  17. 17. # 1 Goal: Protect Life17 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone Pilots, like dispatchers, have a moral obligation to protect life. It is one of the responsibilities we signed up for. It is our commitment to public safety. Take control of the situation or the situation will control you. Pilot “Sully” Sullenberger#ASR911
  18. 18. The Active Shooter’s Intent: Kill and Injure18 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  CHANGE IN POLICE TACTICS •  Usual tactics of negotiations, containment, and isolation may not be appropriate for Active Shooter incidents •  Immediate Action Rapid Deployment (IARD) is now the prescribed tactic for the Law Enforcement response.#ASR911
  19. 19. Immediate Action Rapid Deployment19 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Responders take a “Windshield View” as they rapidly assess the situation. •  First arriving police units will set up a quick perimeter. •  Based upon vital and accurate information from the dispatcher, officers will determine approach method and entry point.#ASR911
  20. 20. Immediate Action Rapid Deployment20 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Officers initiate immediate action to locate and stop the shooter’s action. •  Go directly to the sounds of gun fire. •  Do you know how your officers will approach?#ASR911
  21. 21. Plan for a Crisis: Active Shooter Response21 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Do you know what responders will do upon arrival? •  Have you been involved in the planning? •  Have you been advised of the training?#ASR911
  22. 22. Plan for a Crisis: Active Shooter Response22 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Know what your responders’ plans are. The information you obtain can very well establish what the responders will be directed to do. •  Be prepared to field an overwhelming amount of calls. •  Take all information, even if the description varies. •  Know that your responders are trained to seek out the shooter and go directly to the sound of gunfire. Therefore, your most critical initial question will be to ask your caller, do you know where the shooter is now? •  You may have to be innovative in trying to create a safe environment for victims and potential victims.#ASR911
  23. 23. PSAP Agency Tactics and Responsibilities23 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhoneCoordinate response plans acrosspolice, fire, EMS, hospitals, schooldistricts, and private sector.1.  Review and update procedures.2.  Raise awareness by conducting training.3.  Ensure the staff is aware of their roles.4.  Ensure that emergency communications equipment is present and operable.5.  Conduct exercises of emergency and crisis management plans.#ASR911
  24. 24. Agency Responsibilities Should Include:24 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone Your responsibilities include: •  Updating information to responders: –  Inform officers and backup units of any potential threats –  Continually update your police officers of any changes to the situation •  Giving pre-arrival survival instructions to callers and advising your responders regarding what your callers have been instructed to do#ASR911
  25. 25. Instructions to Callers25 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone Those caught in the crosshairs can exercise three possible scenarios: 1.  Evacuation 2.  Hiding 3.  Taking action: attempting to disrupt and/or incapacitate the active shooter by throwing objects, using aggressive force, and yelling#ASR911
  26. 26. Safe Environment: “Setting the Table”26 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Assess the caller’s environment for safety of all involved •  Obtain an accurate description of scene •  Work with the caller to make an unsafe scene more secure (barricade, escape) •  Is defense an option for your caller?#ASR911
  27. 27. Safe Environment: “Setting the Table”27 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Make the scene safer for the caller and the officers. •  “Are you calling from a cordless phone?” Does the caller have the ability to move around? •  Call takers need to “set the table” for your responders and view the incident through the eyes of the caller. If possible, do everything to make an environment a safer environment. Sometimes, you might have to improvise. Be creative and think things out.#ASR911
  28. 28. Victim Focus28 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone•  Telecommunicators must strive to identify the suspect(s), but not lose focus on the victim.•  Is it part of your job to assist in apprehending the suspect(s)?•  Will the responder be able to identify the victim or caller?•  Could the officer be endangered by the victim?•  Are there victims and/or callers that may be armed as well? #ASR911
  29. 29. During the Law Enforcement Response29 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Tell callers that help has been dispatched and to remain inside a secure area. •  They may be a dangerous distraction for the responding officers. •  The responders’ goal is to locate, contain, and stop the shooter. •  What type of weapon and firepower will they encounter? •  Remember the shooter’s goal is to kill and injure.#ASR911
  30. 30. Preparing and Protecting Responders30 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Keep responders updated. •  Inform responders regarding the location of reported sounds of gun shots •  Gather information regarding all possible areas of egress and entrance to building. •  NOTE: Schematics of office buildings and schools integrated with CAD and GIS would be extremely useful.#ASR911
  31. 31. Preparing and Protecting Responders31 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Inform responders when additional descriptions are received from other callers. •  Remember each new caller is potentially a new witness, with new and changing information.#ASR911
  32. 32. Preparing and Protecting Responders32 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone Think in terms of potential multiples. •  Multiples will always complicate the response •  Shooters, victims, responders, agencies •  Do all responders speak the same language? •  Use of 10-codes with multiple agencies could lead to further confusion#ASR911
  33. 33. Preparing and Protecting Responders33 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Obtain specific intelligence as it pertains to the exact location of the Active Shooter •  Gain sufficient information from caller by applying the Journalistic Investigative Approach: 5W + H + W + H + I™ (especially location and weapons) •  Think about "Victim Focus" and obtain information also related to the caller/victim –  Where are they specifically? –  Do they have any weapons?#ASR911
  34. 34. Victim Initiated Mitigation (VIM) System34 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone What’s in the Future? (from Naval Postgraduate School) •  Because the victims may be the only ones available to act in time, a VIM system has been recently developed. •  Victims initiate the system to trigger automated responses to protect victims and to corral the shooter. •  Makes it easier for police officers to go direct-to-threat and neutralize the gunman.#ASR911
  35. 35. Victim Initiated Mitigation (VIM) System35 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  Once initiated through an emergency call box installed in each room, the PSAP is alerted and two-way communications established. •  Electromagnetic doors automatically release and lock. •  Hand-held devices networked to the call boxes and distributed to first responders can provide situational awareness.#ASR911
  36. 36. Victim Initiated Mitigation (VIM) System36 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone•  Responding officers also carry key fobs that can open any locked door equipped with a proximity reader.•  Throughout the incident, the agency communicates with potential victims and responding officers to give life- saving intelligence, such as where the active shooter is currently, while alerting the business or campus and what protocols to follow. #ASR911
  37. 37. Additional Resources37 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone •  FEMA – Active Shooter Lessons Learned Information Sharing. •  Department of Homeland Security – Active Shooter Preparedness. •  NYPD Active Shooter Recommendations and Analysis for Risk Mitigation (Dec. 2012). •  DHS – FBI Bulletin: Recent Active Shooter Bulletin (Dec. 2012).
  38. 38. Active Shooting Training by PowerPhone38 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone•  Host or contract PowerPhone to provide this training at your location.•  Deeper dive into critical material. Taught by subject matter experts.•  ASR classes currently in 40+ US cities. Register online.• or 800.53.POWER for more info.#ASR911
  39. 39. Thank You!39 Copyright © 2013, PowerPhone Webinar Survey sent to you today. Link to recording sent to you later this week. Active Shooting Response Bulletin sent you on Feb. 26. Contact Us with any questions or feedback.