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PowerLogistics Asia 2013- "The Future of Project Cargo Movement by Air" - Michael Goodisman, Ruslan International

Future directions of project cargo via air Various technologies that may be used Conventional and unconventional air craft types

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The Future of
Project Cargo by Air
2011 Revenue tonne-kilometer (RTK)
12,000
10,500 billion RTK
10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

202 billon RTK

0.5 billion RTK
which is
0.25% of Air Cargo RTK

Air Cargo

Ruslan Charters

0
Maritime

2
Aircraft

3
Project Cargo market size does not justify completely new aircraft designs.
So project cargo aircraft come from two sources:
1. Existing or modified commercial aircraft, e.g. B747
2. Existing or modified military freighter aircraft, e.g. An-124

4
Boeing, USA

B747-8F

B747 Dreamlifter

Payload 140T, Cabin 48.6 x 6.1 x 3.0m
Nose Door 2.6 x 2.5m Side Door 3.4 x 3.0m

Payload 113.4T, Cabin 1,840 CBM

The B747-8F is the latest B747 freighter variant which
follows the successful B747-200F and B747-400F.
Primarily used for general cargo, but also regularly
carries project cargo.

Produced by large modifications to B747-400 airframes.
4 produced. Entered service in 2007. Used by Boeing to
transport major assemblies of the B787.
It will operate beyond 2025

The B747-8F entered service in 2011. It will operate
beyond 2030

5
Airbus, France

A300-600F Payload 55T, Cabin 33 x 5.3 x 2.5m
Side Door 3.6 x 2.5m

A300-600ST Beluga
Payload 47T, Cabin 37.7 x 7.1 x 7.1m 1,400 CBM
Based on modifications to the A300-600, 5 have
been produced. Entered service in 1995. Primary
task is to carry Airbus components, but also offered
for charter flights.

A330-200F Payload 65T, Cabin 45 x 5.3 x 2.5m
Side Door 3.6 x 2.5m

6

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PowerLogistics Asia 2013- "The Future of Project Cargo Movement by Air" - Michael Goodisman, Ruslan International

  • 1. The Future of Project Cargo by Air
  • 2. 2011 Revenue tonne-kilometer (RTK) 12,000 10,500 billion RTK 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 202 billon RTK 0.5 billion RTK which is 0.25% of Air Cargo RTK Air Cargo Ruslan Charters 0 Maritime 2
  • 4. Project Cargo market size does not justify completely new aircraft designs. So project cargo aircraft come from two sources: 1. Existing or modified commercial aircraft, e.g. B747 2. Existing or modified military freighter aircraft, e.g. An-124 4
  • 5. Boeing, USA B747-8F B747 Dreamlifter Payload 140T, Cabin 48.6 x 6.1 x 3.0m Nose Door 2.6 x 2.5m Side Door 3.4 x 3.0m Payload 113.4T, Cabin 1,840 CBM The B747-8F is the latest B747 freighter variant which follows the successful B747-200F and B747-400F. Primarily used for general cargo, but also regularly carries project cargo. Produced by large modifications to B747-400 airframes. 4 produced. Entered service in 2007. Used by Boeing to transport major assemblies of the B787. It will operate beyond 2025 The B747-8F entered service in 2011. It will operate beyond 2030 5
  • 6. Airbus, France A300-600F Payload 55T, Cabin 33 x 5.3 x 2.5m Side Door 3.6 x 2.5m A300-600ST Beluga Payload 47T, Cabin 37.7 x 7.1 x 7.1m 1,400 CBM Based on modifications to the A300-600, 5 have been produced. Entered service in 1995. Primary task is to carry Airbus components, but also offered for charter flights. A330-200F Payload 65T, Cabin 45 x 5.3 x 2.5m Side Door 3.6 x 2.5m 6
  • 7. Freighter Aircraft for military use are designed for:  Short landing distances  Minimum ground handling equipment, e.g. no high loaders. A high wing design means cabin floor is closer to ground. Ramp loading. These traits are co-incidentally ideal for the movement of outsized and heavy project cargo. 7
  • 8. An124-100 Wing at top of fuselage allows lower cargo cabin floor 3m (and 0m when “kneeling”) B747-400F Wing at bottom of fuselage means higher main deck floor 5m
  • 9. B747-400F An124-100 73 m 32.0° 65 m 37.5°  Longer range at high payload  Shorter runway at high payload
  • 10. Antonov Company, Ukraine An-124-100 Payload 120T, Cabin 36.5 x 6.4 x 4.4m An-225 Payload 250T, Cabin 43 x 6.4 x 4.4 m An-124 was originally produced in Ukraine and Russia as a military transporter in 1982. The An-124-100 commercial variant had its first commercial flight in 1989. The are currently around 26 aircraft flying commercially today of which 17 are offered by Ruslan International. The world’s largest aircraft. Produced in Ukraine in 1988 to carry the “Buran” space plane. First commercial flight in 2001. One airframe offered for charter world-wide on an ad-hoc basis.. Holds many world records including flying a 186.7T piece. Life-extension programme means they can operate through to around 2027 (oldest) to 2046 (newest). Upgraded 150T payload version under evaluation. Life-extension programme means it can operate through to around 2033. Production line under consideration for 150T payload version with increased range. 10
  • 11. Lockheed, USA McDonnell Douglas / Boeing, USA C-5B C-17 Payload 122.5T, Cabin 38.1 x 5.8 x 4.1m All delivered to U.S Air Force: 1969 to 1973 81 C-5A aircraft delivered. 1986 to 1989 50 C-5B aircraft delivered. 2 C-5C airframes produced with larger cargo cabin. 1998 C-5 AMP (Aviation Modernization Program) 2006 C-5M Super Galaxy (Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program - RERP) planned to extend its service life beyond 2040. Currently around 94 C-5 aircraft with U.S. Air Force. Payload 77.5T, Cabin 20.8 x 5.5 x 3.8 to 4.5m Operated primarily by U.S. Air Force and air forces in UK, Australia, Canada, India, Qatar, UAE… First flew in 1991. Still in production. Design lifetime of 20 years, so will be flying beyond 2033. 230 aircraft had been produced by 2011. The MD-17 (later BC-17) was proposed for commercial use. Lockheed planned a civil version, the L-500. 11
  • 12. Ilyushin, Russia Antonov Company, Ukraine An-12 IL-76TD-90VD Payload 47T, Cabin 18 x 3.4 x 3.2m Payload 18T Cabin 13.6 x 3.0 x 2.4m 900 built. Produced between 1957 to 1973. Used for both military and commercial flights. Offered for charter world-wide. Volga-Dnepr Airlines has 5 modernized IL-76TD-90VD in its fleet. A business plan for the project requires construction of up to 15 IL-76TD90VD aircraft up to 2020. It will operate beyond 2040. This variant meets current and projected engine noise requirements worldwide. An-178 Payload 18T Cabin 12.9 x 2.8 x 2.8m Derived from An-158 passenger aircraft. Plans to fly first airframe in 2014 12
  • 13. New generation of the short takeoff and landing tactical military medium transports Airbus Military, Spain Antonov Company, Ukraine A400M An-70 Payload 47T, Cabin 19.1 x 4 x 4.1m Payload 37T, Cabin 17.7 x 4 x 4m Runway length 770m landing for 20T payload. First flight 2009. Customers include Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Malaysia, Spain, Turkey and UK... Runway length 600 to 700m for landing with 20T payload and 1550m landing for 47T payload First flight 1994. First two serial production versions will be delivered to Ukraine Ministry of Defence in 2014. 174 sold. 1 delivered to France in 2013. 13
  • 14. Xi’an Aircraft Industrial Corp, China Y-20 Payload 66T, Cabin Service entry 2017 Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan XC-2 Payload 37.6T, Cabin 16 x 4 x 4m Lockheed Martin, USA C-130J-30, Super Hercules Payload 21.7T, Cabin 16.8 x 3.1 x 2.7m Latest version C-130 series UAC/HAL, Russia/India IL-214 - MTA Payload 18.5T Cabin 13.9 x 3.5 x 3.4m Shaanxi Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co., China Y-9 Payload 30T Cabin 16.2 x 3.2 x 2.4m Alenia Aermacchi, Italy C-27J Payload 11.5T Cabin 8.6 x 2.5 x 2.6m Embraer, Brazil KC-390 Payload 23T, Cabin 12.7 x 3.4 x 3.0m Airbus Military, Spain C-295 Payload 9.7T Cabin 12.7 x 2.4 x 1.9m 14
  • 15. Beriev Aircraft Company, Russia Be-2500 Payload 1000T A super-heavy transport seaplane concept intended for transoceanic routes. Would operate to major ports. Can fly using Wing-In-Ground effect (WIG) above the ocean or aircraft mode. Would be developed with foreign partners. 15
  • 17. l Payload Increases with Aircraft Area 20T 20T total L 20T 2l 80T total Payload Increases with Airship Volume 20T total 2L 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 160T total 3L 3l 20T 180T total 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 20T 540T total 17
  • 18. Advanced Technologies Group (ATG) Airship Cargo Freight Rates - Estimated in 2002 Payload (Tonne) 20 200 1000 Freight Rates ($ per Tonne-Km) 1.50 0.20 0.06 Comments from Authors of “The Rebirth of Airships” “slightly more costly than conventional air freight” “comparable to marine freight” ATG’s rate estimates were based upon computer simulations Source: “The Rebirth of Airships” by Barry E. Prentice, Al Phillips, Richard P. Beilock, and Jim Thomson. Journal of the Transportation Research Forum, Spring 2005 18
  • 20. Fixed Lift Airship Hybrid Airship Variable Lift Airship Airframe Lifted by Helium Buoyancy Helium Buoyancy Helium Buoyancy Helium Buoyancy Dynamic lift Helium Buoyancy Payload Lifted by Payload swapped with ballast during onload & offload Shape of airship acts as wing. Must fly forwards. Helium is compressed to vary the buoyancy Hover and vertical take-off and landing. Yes Generally No Some models can lift reduced payloads vertically. Yes Ballast needed? Always Sometimes Never Standard Smaller than others Standard Airship Size For a given payload Note: Vectored thrust also contributes to airship lift control (as well as airship position and orientation) 20
  • 21. Fixed Lift Airships Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH, Germany CargoLifter AG, Germany “CL 160” Payload 160T, Cargo Bay 50 x 8 x 8m “Graf Zeppelin II (LZ130) “Useful Lift” (equivalent to payload) 58T Designed as a passenger airship, it flew from 1938 to 1940. Another airship the “ZRCV” proposed in 1936 would have had a “useful lift” of 135T Instrumental in raising the profile and progressing some technologies for project cargo airships. However, CL 160 never came to fruition and the company closed in 2002. Shareholder has since founded CL CargoLifter GmbH & Co. KG and is focusing on smaller airships. 21
  • 22. Hybrid Airships Lockheed Martin, USA P791 LMZ1M This technology demonstrator first flew in 2006 In January 2013, Lockheed Martin posted with FAA proposed hybrid certification criteria for the LMZ1M  envelope has 1,285,000 cubic foot displacement  four thrusters to allow thrust vectoring  manned cargo lifting hybrid airship  a gondola accommodating eight passengers and two crewmembers  and a large cargo bay, and external load capabilities. Partner, Aviation Capital Enterprise (ACE) from Canada announced in March 2011 plans for three variants of “SkyTug” ranging in size from 20 tons (18T) to several hundred tons. Source: Defence Industry Daily 20 tons (18T) SkyTug - 90m long 70 tons (64T) SkyFreighter 500 tons (454T) SkyLiner Payload ?T, “a large cargo bay and external load capabilities” 1,285,000 Cubic foot is 36,400 CBM, so approximately 18T payload Lockheed Martin website states it is working with the commercial market to bring the first generation commercial Hybrid Airship to the market in 2014, and that it is planning hybrids up to 500 tons (454T) payload. 22
  • 23. Hybrid Airships Northrop Grumman, USA and LEMV Payload 6.8T (in heavy-lift configuration) Hybrid Air Vehicles, UK Airlander 200 Payload 200T (80T vertically), Cabin 49.4 x 7.5 x 5.0m Airlander 50 Payload 50T (20T vertically), Cabin 6x 20ft containers Airlander 20 Payload 20T. Long Endurance Multi-Intelligence Vehicle (LEMV). A surveillance airship for U.S. military. It first flew in 2012. Project is currently on hold. The “Airlander” variants above are planned (not yet built / flying). Hybrid Air Vehicles has asked the U.S. military to return to them the retired LEMV. Altitude 20,000 ft, 3 weeks flight duration (when remotely operated) with 1.2T. Range 2,400 nm (4400km) with 6.8T. Other designs: HAV606 Payload 200T Envelope 457,500 CBM Airship 185 x 77 x 47m HAV366 Payload 50T Envelope 80,000 CBM Airship 109 x 56 x 33m HAV304 Payload 6.8T Envelope 38,000 CBM Airship 91 x 34 x 26m 23
  • 24. Hybrid Airships Shanghai Vantage Airship Manufacture Co., Ltd, China CA-200T Payload 200T, Cabin 60 x 12 x 8m CA-60T Payload 60T, Cabin 30 x 8 x 4m The “Combined Loading Airships” CA-200T and CA-60T are at the design and development stage. Intention is to progress these types with international partners. Ohio Airships, USA Dynalifter Series DL-1000 Payload 145T, Cabin 45.7 x 12.2 x 4.6m DL-800 Payload 45T, Cabin 30.5 x 7.9 x 4.6m DL-600 Payload 20T, Cabin 24.4 x 6.1 x 4.3m DL-100 Prototype built in 2013 and is being tested. 24
  • 25. Variable Lift Airships Worldwide Aeros Corporation, USA Dragon Dream Payload 0T, No cargo cabin A half-scale demonstrator which successfully passed all Pentagon and NASA tests under the 'Project Pelican' Program. Dragon Dream’s first flight was very recently, in September 2013. However, a set-back occurred after returning the airship to the hangar when part of the roof fell on to the airship. “Aeroscraft” Series ML-86X ML-868 ML-866 Payload 454T, Cabin 138.7 x 22.6 x 16.5m Payload 227T, Cabin 115.8 x 18.6 x 13.7m Payload 60T, Cabin 67.1 x 12.2 x 9.1m At the Paris Air Show this year, the CEO stated his goal to have the first ML-866 in-service in 2016 with a total of 24 ML-866 and ML-868 airships in service by 2021 ML-868 Data: Range 4,800 nm (8,900 km), Altitude 12,000 ft, (18,000 ft if pilots wear oxygen masks) 25
  • 26. Variable Lift Airships Augur - RosAeroSystems, Russia ATLANT-100 Payload 55T, Cabin 28 x 10 x 6m ATLANT-30 Payload 15T, Seeking to develop and fly an ATLANT airship in 2017. Ground test rigs built of the air pressurization system and thrust vectoring systems Skylifter , Australia Skylifter 150T, External payload Varialift Airships plc, UK ARH-250 Payload 250T, Cabin 250 x 100 x 20m ARH-50 Payload 50T, Cabin 100 x 50 x 10m Skylite Aeronautics, USA GeoShip Payload 1000T, Cabin 50m x 50m x 10m KNARR, Denmark KNARR – Designed to carry wind turbine blades 26
  • 27. Helium Worldwide Helium Use 2012 by Katie Peek. August 2013 issue of Popular Science 27
  • 28. Helium Very approximately how long will global helium resource last? Total Global Resource around 50,000 million CBM Global Helium Consumption 180 million CBM per year (Source: US Geological Survey in 2012) So enough helium for 50,000/180 = 278 years at 2012 consumption rate. Very approximately how many airships can be produced each year? Assuming 1 to 5% global helium consumption used for cargo airships  1.8 to 9.0 million CBM of helium per year Equivalent to:  4 to 20 airships (200T payload) per year based on 457,500 CBM envelope size of HAV606 hybrid airship OR  23 to 112 airships (50T payload) per year based on 80,000 CBM envelope size of HAV366 hybrid airship 28
  • 29. Aircraft Airships Technology Proven technology Still under development. Unproven in military environment and commercial markets. Helium Does not restrict production rate of aircraft. No effect on repairs. Does restrict production rate of airships. Might delay repairs. Commercial role. Carrying max payload Smaller, Faster (4x faster), Higher altitude. Faster positioning Faster loaded flights. Airport to airport. Fewer weather delays. Higher $ per tonne-km Larger, Slower, Lower altitude. Slower positioning Slower loaded flights. Door to door (or nearly). More weather delays. Lower $ per tonne-km Military role. Carrying max payload Smaller, Faster, Higher altitude Less likely to be hit, but can tolerate fewer hits Larger, Slower, Lower altitude More likely to be hit, but can tolerate more hits. One DoD study suggested option of using airships to carry cargo close to hostile area and aircraft to carry cargo last leg into hostile area (dependent on threat level). 29