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Introduction to PLC

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PLC is a Valuable Perferct Course, which will be very usefull for the Planners,Designers and Engineers to upgrade their Skills.

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Introduction to PLC

  1. 1. Programmable Logic Controller Study Material PRESENTED BY POWER INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS TRICHY-17.
  2. 2. Welcome The purpose of this Presentation is to give you a very simple look Programmable Logic Controllers and its programming using Ladder Logic. There is no need for you to be familiar in any way with this field. The only requirement is that you enter with an open mind.
  3. 3. To begin with.. What is automation?
  4. 4. Stage 1 AUTOMATION : Allocation of Human control sequence to an technical equipment is called Automation. Egs : Tank Level Maintatinance
  5. 5. Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to monitor and control the production. Automation is the use of machines, control systems and information technologies to monitor and control the production. In other words, an automated system is any system that require minimum or no human intervention.
  6. 6. Automation has made our life extremely simple.
  7. 7. Earlier, processes were carried out by operator, hence were much prone to human errors.
  8. 8. WATER TANK LEVEL MAINTAINANCE WATER TANK WATER TANK PLC WATER LEVEL SENSOR 0% 100% 50%
  9. 9. ADVANTAGES • LESS MANPOWER. • HIGH ACCURACY. • HIGH PRODUCTIVITY. • SAFETY. • MUCH EFFICIENCY AND RELIABLE.
  10. 10. APPLICATIONS • SMALL & MEDIUM ENTERPRISES. • LARGE INDUSTRIES. • VERY LARGE INDUSTRIES.
  11. 11. SMALL & MEDIUM ENTERPRISES • FIXED TYPE PLC • NO EXPANSION PORT • FIXED INPUTS AND OUTPUTS INPUTS OUTPUTS
  12. 12. LARGE INDUSTRIES • MODULAR TYPE PLC. • EXPANSION PORT. INPUTS OUTPUTS
  13. 13. VERY LARGE INDUSTRIES • RACK TYPE PLC. • MORE No. Of Input and output connectors.
  14. 14. TYPES OF AUTOMATION  Building automation Example: lifts, smoke detectors  Office automation Example: printers, city cameras  Scientific automation Example: rocket launching  Light automation Example: street solar lightening  Industrial automation Example: automated bottle filling stations , steel factories etc
  15. 15. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION  The use of Computerized or robotic devices to complete manufacturing tasks. PLANT FIELD INSTRUMENT CONTROL SYSTEM HARDWARE CONTROL SOFTWARE CONTROL
  16. 16. So we can imply that with Industrial control, factory automation, and PLC (if are done well), we can save a lot of time, materials, energy, and money.
  17. 17. Where do we begin?
  18. 18. Let’s recall the story of an explorer in Africa who asked the native tribesman,
  19. 19. How does one eat a huge animal like an elephant?" The tribesman looked at the explorer in astonishment and replied, "We eat it just like everything else, one bite at a time."
  20. 20. Simple as it is, industrial control is comprised of many smaller circuits. By exploring and learning simple smaller circuits, you can learn to build a complete automated system.
  21. 21. Programmable logic controllers Lets Start With… What is
  22. 22. a small computer with a built-in operating system which monitor inputs and other variable values, make decisions based on a stored program, and control outputs to automate a process or machine. Programmable logic controllers What is
  23. 23. Well, that was simple isn’t it ? Lets put it in another way..
  24. 24. PLC(PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER)  Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is an industrial computer that monitors inputs, makes decisions based on its program and controls outputs to automate a process or machine.  The automation of many different processes, such as controlling machines or factory assembly lines, is done through the use of small computers called a programmable logic controllers (PLCs).
  25. 25. WHY PLC?  To reduce human efforts .  To get maximum efficiency from machine and control them with human logic .  To reduce complex circuitry of entire system .  To eliminate the high costs associated with inflexible, relay-controlled systems.
  26. 26. UNDERSTANDING OF PLC (Example ) Machine can be controlled by PLC without human efforts
  27. 27. A PLC is similar to a computer which is designed to be programmed once, and run repeatedly as needed.
  28. 28. Elements of PLC Let’s have al look at..
  29. 29. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A PLC PROCESSOR POWER SUPPLY I M N O P D U U T L E O M U O T D P U U L T E PROGRAMMING DEVICE From SENSORS Pushbuttons, contacts, limit switches, etc. To OUTPUT Solenoids, contactors, alarms etc.
  30. 30. Input Modules Senses the input signal, isolates it and converts it to DC level.
  31. 31. CentralProcessor Unit (CPU) microprocessor system that contains the system memory and its decision making unit very similar to that of a computer’s CPU. Input Modules Senses the input signal, isolates it and converts it to DC level.
  32. 32. Output Module receives the convert control signals from the CPU and them converts them into digital or analog values that can be used to control various output devices. CentralProcessor Unit (CPU) microprocessor system that contains the system memory and its decision making unit very similar to that of a computer’s CPU. Input Modules Senses the input signal, isolates it and converts it to DC level.
  33. 33. Programming Device Personal computer or a Laptop And Communication Cable Output Module receives the convert control signals from the CPU and them converts them into digital or analog values that can be used to control various output devices. CentralProcessor Unit (CPU) microprocessor system that contains the system memory and its decision making unit very similar to that of a computer’s CPU. Input Modules Senses the input signal, isolates it and converts it to DC level.
  34. 34. PLC INPUT OUTPUT PUSH BUTTONS
  35. 35. PLC scan What is a
  36. 36. PLC scan
  37. 37. PLC scan
  38. 38. Programming PLC
  39. 39. The first and still most popular programming language used with PLC is Ladder Logic Programming (LAD).
  40. 40. They are called "ladder" diagrams because they resemble a ladder, with two vertical rails (supply power) and as many "rungs" (horizontal lines). The first and still most popular programming language used with PLC is Ladder Logic Programming (LAD).
  41. 41. Basic Ladder Logic Symbols Normally Open (NO) contact Passes power (on) when coil driving the contact is on. Contacts
  42. 42. Normally Closed (NC) contact Passes power (on) when coil driving the contact is off. Basic Ladder Logic Symbols Normally Open (NO) contact Passes power (on) when coil driving the contact is on. Contacts
  43. 43. Output or Coil When power flows through the Coils via contacts they are energized. Basic Ladder Logic Symbols
  44. 44. Schematic of ladder diagram
  45. 45. Selecting a PLC Criteria • Number of logical inputs and outputs. • Memory • Number of special I/O modules • Scan Time • Communications • Software
  46. 46. Functional Operation AND Operation OR Operation NOT Operation
  47. 47. Lets have a look at their truth table and Ladder Logic diagram
  48. 48. 48 AND Operation Both inputs S4 and S5 must be true (1) in order for the output L3 to be true (1). Ladder diagram
  49. 49. OR Operation Ladder diagram Either input S1 or S2 is true (1), or both are true, then the output L2 is true (1).
  50. 50. 50 NOT Operation If input S1 is be true (1), then the output L1 is true (0) or when A is (0), output C is 1. Ladder diagram
  51. 51. Programming Functions Timers Counters
  52. 52. Timers On-Delay Timer (TON) Off-Delay Timer (TOF) Retentive On-Delay Timer (TONR)
  53. 53. Counters Count UP Counter (CTU) Count DOWN Counter (CDU) Count UP/DOWN Counter (CTUD)
  54. 54. ProgrammingExamples Lets start with simple examples…
  55. 55. Programming Examples D = (A AND B) OR C
  56. 56. Programming Examples Triggering the Relay Coil
  57. 57. Ladder Diagram for Triggering the Relay Coil
  58. 58. LOGON TO : www.powerintegrated.in

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