Cassandra   как распределенная NoSQL база данных       Павел Яскевичpavel@datastax.com / @pyaskevich
Dynamo, 2007Bigtable, 2006                          OSS, 2008        Incubator, 2009       TLP, 2010
Twitter: “Fifteen monthsago, it took two weeks toperform ALTER TABLEon the statuses [tweets]table.”
Cassandra in production•   Netflix: “Cassandra is best for cross-regional    deployments and scaling with no single points ...
Почему всё таки        Cassandra?•   Реляционные БД плохо масштабируются•   Б-деревья (B-Tree) не лучший выбор
Почему всё таки        Cassandra?•   Большие обьемы данных•   Устойчивость к нагрузкам•   Легкая масштабируемость и реплик...
Модель данныхKeyspace a.k.a Database ColumnFamily a.k.a TableRow             Row             Row - key           - key    ...
Запись                                         Reader     Writer                Memtable       CommitlogThe Log-Structured...
Атрибуты записи•   Не используется чтение•   Не используется “seek”•   Атомарность в пределах ColumnFamily•   Данные всегд...
Чтение•   По ключу или диапозон ключей•   По имени или диапозону имен колонок•   Никаких блокировок (lock free)•   Row Cac...
Структура SSTable<key 1>               <row data 1><key 2>  ...          <row data 2>               <row data 3>          ...
Маштабирование   W           A  (T, W]   (W, A]  (L, T]    (A, L]    T         L
Key “C”              W                      A          T                  L
W                         A             (A, F]                              F    (F, L]T                     L
Key “D”              W       A                          F          T                  L
Надежность•   No single point of failure•   Поддержка многих датацентров•   Легкость в мониторинге•   Доступность в рамках...
Y                        Key “C”            A    WU                   F    T           L        P
Y                        Key “C”            A    WU                   F    T           L        P
Y                        Key “C”            A    WU                   F    T           L        P
Y                        Key “C”            A    WU                   F    T           L        P
Y                        Key “C”    W       AU                    F    T        P   X   L
Y                           Key “C”    W          AU                       F    T   hint           P   X   L
Y                           Key “C”    W          AU                       F    T   hint           P   X   L
Y    W           AU                    F    T           L        P
Y    W           AU                    F    T           L        P
Y    W           AU                    F    T           L        P
Y                            Key “C”                    A    WU                       F        T           L              ...
Y                        Key “C”                A    WU                    F    T                L        P
Настраемаемая      согласованность•   ONE, QUORUM, ALL (LOCAL_QUORUM,    EACH_QUORUM)•   R +W > N•   Выбор между доступнос...
Пример ColumnFamily                  users                            Name:driftx    Password:*                           ...
Псевдокод             (c использованием CLI)•    Создание ColumnFamily users:    CREATE COLUMN FAMILY users      WITH key_...
Псевдокод           (c использованием CLI)•   Добавление данных:    ‣ SET users[xedin][name] = ‘Pavel’;    ‣ SET users[xed...
Индексы          Site:   datastax.com    jbellis                      xedin                                         ...GET...
Динамическая   ColumnFamily(миллиарды колонок)•   Примеры:    •   Активность друзей (a lá twitter feed)    •   Лента комме...
Тюнингпроизводительности•   Два возможных пути    -   тюнинг записи    -   тюнинг чтения
Тюнинг записи•   Перенести Commitlog на отдельный    физический диск    -   Тяжело сделать в “Облаке”•   Увеличить количес...
Тюнинг чтения!   Определите свой паттерн чтения•   key cache•   row cache•   OS file cache + JNA
Compaction -  убийца скорости  чтения
Производительность•   MySQL    ➡ write ~300 ms    ➡ read ~350 ms•   Cassandra    ➡ write ~0.12 ms    ➡ read ~15 ms
Мониторинг•   JMX•   DataStax OpsCenter for Apache Cassandra•   Ваш собственный?
API•libpq             •Thrift•JDBC              •Hector•JPA               •Hector object                    mapper• CQL (>...
Вопросы
Cassandra @JEEConf  March 21, 2011 (Kiev, Ukraine)
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Cassandra @JEEConf March 21, 2011 (Kiev, Ukraine)

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  • Cassandra &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x444;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439;: Bigtable &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; Google (2006) &amp;#x438; Dynamo &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; Amazon (2007), &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; - Google &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x445;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;, &amp;#x430; Amazon &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438; P2P &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439;. Facebook&amp;#x2019;y &amp;#x431;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x445;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x44E;, &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430; Cassandra. &amp;#x421;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x443; Bigtable, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x443; Dynamo. &amp;#x412; 2008 Facebook &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x451; Apache co&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x443;.\n
  • &amp;#x412; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43F; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;.\n\nTradeoff &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; Cassandra - &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;-&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x411;&amp;#x414;, &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;, &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;. &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439;. \n
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&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;, &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; (no single point of failure). &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x201D; 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&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x443; - &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;, &amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x410; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; (W, A], &amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x422; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; (L, T]. &amp;#x427;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;, &amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E;, &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x435; (&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; RandomPartitioner). &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441; 0 (&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;) &amp;#x438; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; 2 &amp;#x432; 160 &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;.\n
  • &amp;#x414;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;: Cassandra &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x447; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;, &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;, &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;, &amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;. &amp;#x412; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; Parititioner (&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x451;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;) &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435; (RandomPartitioner) &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435; (ByteOrderedParitioner).\n
  • &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x443; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;, &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435; - A &amp;#x438; L. &amp;#x41D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439; F &amp;#x431;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; (A, F] &amp;#x438; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; L. &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435; - &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435; L &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;. &amp;#x418;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; - &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442; 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  • &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435; - 1/(&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;. &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;).\n
  • &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435; - 1/(&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;. &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;).\n
  • &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435; - 1/(&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;. &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;).\n
  • &amp;#x415;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; (&amp;#x432; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435; L) &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;, &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;-&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; L &amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;, &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; HintedHandOff.\n
  • &amp;#x415;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; (&amp;#x432; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435; L) &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;, &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;-&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; L &amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;, &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; HintedHandOff.\n
  • &amp;#x421;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; - StreamingRepair (AntiEntropy) - &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440; F &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44F;, &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x201D; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x201D;, &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; F &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; (&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;) &amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;, &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x201C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x201D; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; MerkleTree, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44E;.\n
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&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x444;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x445;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; Cassandra, &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;, &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;, &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44C;.\n\n&amp;#x412; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x411;&amp;#x414; (ACID Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability) Cassandra &amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; (BASE for Basically Available Soft-state Eventual consistency). &amp;#x41C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x432; Cassandra &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x201C;eventual consistency&amp;#x201D; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;-&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; (&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;). &amp;#x41F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;-&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x445;.\nR=&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;, W=&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;, N=&amp;#x444;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438;, Q=QUORUM (Q = N / 2 + 1)\nIf W + R &gt; N, &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;\nW=1, R=N\nW=N, R=1\nW=Q, R=Q &amp;#x433;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435; Q = N / 2 + 1\n\n&amp;#x412;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; R + W &gt; N (&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; + &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438; &gt; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438;). ConsistencyLevel ONE &amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; R &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; W &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; 1 (&amp;#x432; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438;). ConsistencyLevel QUORUM &amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; R &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; W &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;. 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  • &amp;#x41A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x444;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x443; Site.\n
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&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;: &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; 2 &amp;#x413;&amp;#x431; (&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430; Thrift, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x411;&amp;#x414;), &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445;, &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x447;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;/&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A; - &amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x201D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x201D;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;.\n\n&amp;#x422;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B; - &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; - &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;, &amp;#x43A; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x443; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x451; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439;, &amp;#x412;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x411;&amp;#x414; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x451; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; 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&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x438; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x446;.\n
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  • \n
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&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x431;-&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x444;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x430;: &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;, &amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x437; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;-&amp;#x432;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445;/&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x448;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;, &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x430;, &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; keyspace&amp;#x2019;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x438; ColumnFamily &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x436;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x439;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F;.\n\nJMX &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x451;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x433;: Roll your own!\n
  • \n
  • &amp;#x421;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x43C;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B; &amp;#x434;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445;, &amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x430;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x446;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;, Thrift - &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x443;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x431;&amp;#x449;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x44F; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x411;&amp;#x414;, &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430; &amp;#x435;&amp;#x433;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x44F; Hector, &amp;#x430; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x434; &amp;#x43D;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x441;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x44E; &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x44C; &amp;#x440;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x436;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; Hector object mapper.\n\nCQL - &amp;#x44D;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x43E; &amp;#x43F;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x44F;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43A; &amp;#x437;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x43F;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x432; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x430;&amp;#x432;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x43D;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x439; &amp;#x44F;&amp;#x437;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; SQL, &amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x431;&amp;#x443;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x442; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43A;&amp;#x43B;&amp;#x44E;&amp;#x447;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x43D; &amp;#x432; &amp;#x411;&amp;#x414; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x43C;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x442;&amp;#x435; &amp;#x441; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x44B;&amp;#x445;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x434;&amp;#x43E;&amp;#x43C; &amp;#x432;&amp;#x435;&amp;#x440;&amp;#x441;&amp;#x438;&amp;#x438; 0.8.\n
  • \n
  • Cassandra @JEEConf March 21, 2011 (Kiev, Ukraine)

    1. 1. Cassandra как распределенная NoSQL база данных Павел Яскевичpavel@datastax.com / @pyaskevich
    2. 2. Dynamo, 2007Bigtable, 2006 OSS, 2008 Incubator, 2009 TLP, 2010
    3. 3. Twitter: “Fifteen monthsago, it took two weeks toperform ALTER TABLEon the statuses [tweets]table.”
    4. 4. Cassandra in production• Netflix: “Cassandra is best for cross-regional deployments and scaling with no single points of failure”• Digital Reasoning: NLP + entity analytics• OpenX: largest publisher-side ad network in the world• SimpleGEO: location-as-API• Ooyala: video analytics and business intelligence• ngmoco: massively multiplayer game worlds
    5. 5. Почему всё таки Cassandra?• Реляционные БД плохо масштабируются• Б-деревья (B-Tree) не лучший выбор
    6. 6. Почему всё таки Cassandra?• Большие обьемы данных• Устойчивость к нагрузкам• Легкая масштабируемость и репликация• CAP теорема• Низкая стоимость администрирования
    7. 7. Модель данныхKeyspace a.k.a Database ColumnFamily a.k.a TableRow Row Row - key - key - key Column Column Column - name - name - name - value - value - value - timestamp - timestamp - timestamp ... ... ...
    8. 8. Запись Reader Writer Memtable CommitlogThe Log-Structured Merge-Tree,Bigtable: A Distributed Storage Systemfor Structured Data
    9. 9. Атрибуты записи• Не используется чтение• Не используется “seek”• Атомарность в пределах ColumnFamily• Данные всегда записаны
    10. 10. Чтение• По ключу или диапозон ключей• По имени или диапозону имен колонок• Никаких блокировок (lock free)• Row Cache - для избежания использования (чтения) SSTable• Key Cache - для избежания поиска по индексу
    11. 11. Структура SSTable<key 1> <row data 1><key 2> ... <row data 2> <row data 3> ...
    12. 12. Маштабирование W A (T, W] (W, A] (L, T] (A, L] T L
    13. 13. Key “C” W A T L
    14. 14. W A (A, F] F (F, L]T L
    15. 15. Key “D” W A F T L
    16. 16. Надежность• No single point of failure• Поддержка многих датацентров• Легкость в мониторинге• Доступность в рамках одного датацентра• Доступность в рамкам многих датацентров
    17. 17. Y Key “C” A WU F T L P
    18. 18. Y Key “C” A WU F T L P
    19. 19. Y Key “C” A WU F T L P
    20. 20. Y Key “C” A WU F T L P
    21. 21. Y Key “C” W AU F T P X L
    22. 22. Y Key “C” W AU F T hint P X L
    23. 23. Y Key “C” W AU F T hint P X L
    24. 24. Y W AU F T L P
    25. 25. Y W AU F T L P
    26. 26. Y W AU F T L P
    27. 27. Y Key “C” A WU F T L P
    28. 28. Y Key “C” A WU F T L P
    29. 29. Настраемаемая согласованность• ONE, QUORUM, ALL (LOCAL_QUORUM, EACH_QUORUM)• R +W > N• Выбор между доступностью и согласованностью
    30. 30. Пример ColumnFamily users Name:driftx Password:* Brandon Name: Site:jbellis Password:* Jonathan datastax.com Site:xedin Password:* Name: Pavel datastax.com
    31. 31. Псевдокод (c использованием CLI)• Создание ColumnFamily users: CREATE COLUMN FAMILY users WITH key_validation_class=UTF8Type AND comparator=UTF8Type AND default_validation_class=UTF8Type AND column_metadata=[ { column_name:password, validation_class:UTF8Type }, { column_name:site, validation_class:UTF8Type, index_type:KEYS, index_name:SiteColIndex } ];
    32. 32. Псевдокод (c использованием CLI)• Добавление данных: ‣ SET users[xedin][name] = ‘Pavel’; ‣ SET users[xedin][site] = ‘datastax.com’;• Чтение данных: ‣ GET users[xedin]; ‣ GET users WHERE name = ‘Pavel’; ‣ LIST users;
    33. 33. Индексы Site: datastax.com jbellis xedin ...GET users WHERE site = ‘datastax.com’;
    34. 34. Динамическая ColumnFamily(миллиарды колонок)• Примеры: • Активность друзей (a lá twitter feed) • Лента комментариев за определенный период (час, день, месяц, год)
    35. 35. Тюнингпроизводительности• Два возможных пути - тюнинг записи - тюнинг чтения
    36. 36. Тюнинг записи• Перенести Commitlog на отдельный физический диск - Тяжело сделать в “Облаке”• Увеличить количество Memtable до записи на диск (по-умолчанию: 4)?
    37. 37. Тюнинг чтения! Определите свой паттерн чтения• key cache• row cache• OS file cache + JNA
    38. 38. Compaction - убийца скорости чтения
    39. 39. Производительность• MySQL ➡ write ~300 ms ➡ read ~350 ms• Cassandra ➡ write ~0.12 ms ➡ read ~15 ms
    40. 40. Мониторинг• JMX• DataStax OpsCenter for Apache Cassandra• Ваш собственный?
    41. 41. API•libpq •Thrift•JDBC •Hector•JPA •Hector object mapper• CQL (>= 0.8)
    42. 42. Вопросы

    ×