Tourism and hospitality education : Trends in scholarship in hospitality


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CAUTHE 2011 Conference
Adelaide, Australia
Keynote speech of Prof Jean Pierre Poulain

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Tourism and hospitality education : Trends in scholarship in hospitality

  1. 1. Cauthe 2011, Adelaide-AustraliaTrends in hospitality scholarships The French paradox Prof. Jean-Pierre Poulain, Socio-anthropologist, Dean of CETIA, CERTOP-TAS, UMR-CNRS-5044, University of Toulouse II-Le Mirail Jean-Pierre Poulain
  2. 2. Plan• The French paradox in tourism and academic disciplines.• Hospitality between Tourism and food sectors.• Some examples – Impact of Modernization: – The construction of Excellence in gastronomy Jean-Pierre Poulain
  3. 3. The french paradox in sociology of tourism• A first glance on the journals, and • But there is no more professors in collection of books specialized in sociology of tourism. social sciences, it could appear • To become full Professor they have to relatively well institutionalized. change the discipline or develop other – J. Dumazedier and M. F. Lanfant was topics : DR at CNRS – J. D. Urbain in semiology – A research team was accredited by CNRS during 4 years 1990 – R. Amiroux in psychology – J. Viard and political sciences – R. Sue and the sociology of time Jean-Pierre Poulain
  4. 4. A field which has a public and associations• Works of quality are not lacking • AFEST : Association Française des (Dumazedizer 1962,1988; Lanfant 1972; Experts Scientifiques du Tourisme Urbain 1991; Amirou 1995; Girard, (French Association of Scientifics 1996) and some have been Experts in Tourism) favorably viewed by a large public, which is a rather rare • But no RC in AISLF Association phenomenon in sociology Internationale des Sociologues de (Dumazedier, 1962; Urbain 1991). Langue Française (International Association of French speaking Sociologists ) and AFS Association Française de Sociologie (French Association of Sociology) Jean-Pierre Poulain
  5. 5. Epistemoligical obstacles• Tourism seems a futile subject, at best a pass time for sociologists or anthropologists at the end of their careers, a “preparation for retirement”.• Always in the shadow of stronger theoretical objects: – ‘spare time’ could be only considered as a contra point of the ‘working time’. – ‘leisure’ seeks to exceed the contradictory tension between the lyric glorification of this “formidable social conquest” of the workers and a reading of leisure as a consequence (positive one, nevertheless still a consequence) of the industrial development.• The dominant prospect consisted of setting the tourist phenomenon as a reading field of social changes (Urbain, 1991) Sociology through tourism, but is it a sociology of tourism? Jean-Pierre Poulain
  6. 6. The french academic organisation Professional life Other Master 700 Bachelor Degree Licence Pro Other Diplomas +2 (Professional BD) years 2 108 taux de P 80 % BTS (Higher Dip.) Other Diplomas 1 792 taux de p 81 % Bac Pro (Pro. BD)Vocationnal 12 500 taux de p 7 % Jean-Pierre Poulain
  7. 7. Tourism and hospitality in the French academic world• Tree models • Some signs of transformation – Economy or business based – Scientific interaction with : (University of Nice, IAE Dijon, • sociology economics • sociology of consumption ESSEC Paris, Toulouse until • sociology of social time 1999…) • Pragmatic perspective – Geography based (University of Angers, Paris, Pau, Avignon, – ASTRE Association Tourisme Recherche Bordeaux…) Enseignement Supérieur (Association of – Sociology based but on… Tourism Research in Higher sociology of food and gastronomy education) – Some lecturers are at the periphery of the field Jean-Pierre Poulain
  8. 8. Bac pro (Higher Diplomas ) and BTN, 12 500 students Jean-Pierre Poulain
  9. 9. The french academic organisation Professional life Other Master 700 Bachelor Degree Licence Pro Other Diplomas +2 (Professional BD) years 2 108 taux de P 80 % BTS (Higher Dip.) Other Diplomas 1 792 taux de p 81 % Bac Pro (Pro. BD)Vocationnal 12 500 taux de p 7 % Jean-Pierre Poulain
  10. 10. BTS and Licence Pro Jean-Pierre Poulain
  11. 11. The french academic organisation Professional life Other Master 700 Bachelor Degree Licence Pro Other Diplomas +2 (Professional BD) years 2 108 taux de P 80 % BTS (Higher Dip.) Other Diplomas 1 792 taux de p 81 % Bac Pro (Pro. BD) 12 500 taux de p 7 %Vocationnal Jean-Pierre Poulain
  12. 12. CETHIA Master in Master in Tourism and hospitality Gastronomy Master Teaching andMaster Common base Common base Training in Hospitality and Pathway Pathway culinary arts Management in Sociale Sciences Management and Management of Tourism Gastronomy Hospitality and applied ito mass catering Tourism industries and developpement Culinary arts Gastronomy engineering Bachelor degree Professional Bachelor Degrees Tourism Food Hospitality Common base N T I C (new Technologies of Mass BD3 Modules of specialization information & communication) Hospitality and tourism catering and Tourism Hospitality and tourism Teaching in applied to engineering Management and Gastronomy Hospitality and tourism and development Engineering culinary arts National Diploma Diploma of Higher education Diploma of Higher education Other Diploma of Higher education National Interpreter Tourism & leisure structure Economic development of territories andtrainings Haven Keeper Guide manager at HQE industries by the TIC Jean-Pierre Poulain
  13. 13. Expertise and Research… From management to research: back and forth Applied Research Expertise Management ResearchKnowledge Application Decisional aids Action decision Jean-Pierre Poulain
  14. 14. Research Action Expertise Management ResearchForms of Recognition Double By By therecognition by peers recognition : professional, operationaland using Peers and political or results of the academic industry legal institution orlegitimacy criteria environments the organizationResults Meant to be Meant to be Destined to Focused published and applied and support and towards action, disseminated published legitimate a control and decision orientationNature of Methodological Methodological Knowledge Establishedgathered knowledge & theoretical (results) set in Knowledge Unknown knowledge various (results) +knowledge results Unknown environments Empirical results knowledge Jean-Pierre Poulain
  15. 15. Evaluation of academic activity• “Peer control” but: who are my peers ?• To become a professor you need to get a HDR (Habilitation à Diriger la Recherche) in English an ‘’RSA’’ (Research supervision Accreditation ) controlled by disciplines and to be accredited by a national panel.• 138 journals supposed to be academic have the word ‘’tourism’’ in their titles.• Bibliometry versus scientific influence• All the disciplines haven’t made the choice of: – English: To write in English or to promote translation ? – Journals: What could be the good place? Tourism or disciplinary revues – The Importance of scientific essays in sociology. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  16. 16. Plan• The French paradox in tourism and academic disciplines.• Hospitality between Tourism and food sectors• Some examples : – Impact of Modernization: – The construction of Excellence in gastronomy Jean-Pierre Poulain
  17. 17. Epistemological debate• Tourism as a macro-economic sector versus hospitality articulates the agro-food chain and leisure economic sectors Jean-Pierre Poulain
  18. 18. Strategical point of view• French ministry of tourism • Ministry of agriculture « Without a true plan to manage the higher education research areas, stuck between – 1800 researchers permanent studies absorbing 9/10th of their budget and permanent staff who are not – A lot of grants numerous enough to simply give value to what yet exists, the research policy in terms of – Big companies tourism has nothing to expect from its trusteeship» (Viard, 1998). – Professors – Research committees in• Atomization of the AS, AISLF. partnership with industry• No Professor Jean-Pierre Poulain
  19. 19. The CETHIAA pedagogic project focused on sociological issues Interweaving of tourism, Hospitality, food and health fields. Redefining of competencies related to an internationalization of the tourism Hospitality & food sectors. ‘’Re-pyramidalization’’ of employments in the mass catering sector(flow of RPL recognition of prior learning). ‘’Masterization’’ of hospitality teaching & framing teaching. The demand for students mobility and international Higher education partnerships. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  20. 20. Tourism FoodImpact of food on tourism Impact of tourism onactivity Food market• Food as a part of the • The role of legitimacy of tourist onidentity of a region Articulation of both food heritage• inter-cultural issues of • Valorization of food heritage byfood and tourism fields tourism• Food as an entry in the • Geographical indicationsvisited cultures • Gastronomic tourism • • Oenological tourismAnd also • Food souvenir market• Food crisis management • Restaurant design and• Food safety engineering • Innovation and tradition Jean-Pierre Poulain
  21. 21. Pragmatic point of view of tourism Social roles Travel Living Food pratices conditions Social roles Place of stay Living Foodconditions habits Place of residence Jean-Pierre Poulain
  22. 22. Food HealthImpact of health problems on Impact of food practices and culturesfood consumption on the health of population• Specific needs in food services • Obesity• Specific product Healthy food Articulation of both fields •Food and cancer• Obesity epidemic • Food and Alzheimer diseases• Foods crises • Food and well being • Specific product Healthy food •Slimming centers Jean-Pierre Poulain
  23. 23. Tourism HealthImpact of health problems on Impact of tourism and leisuretourism activity on the health of population•Flu •Rate of departure•Food crisis Articulation of both fields •Connexion with health indicators•Food safety•Health of population and typesof tourism and rate of • Medical tourismdeparture • Well being• Etc. • New concept Jean-Pierre Poulain
  24. 24. Modernity and its impacts• Ebb and flow of movements • They result from between social and medical, juridical and political. – The reflexive society individualism, rationalization – Desocialization movements • Medicalization – Of an outsourcing and relocation • Judiciarization dialectic of food – Some new socialization shapes • Politicization • Patrimonialization • Environmental concern Jean-Pierre Poulain
  25. 25. The patrimonialization of food.• Extension of the concept – From the private sphere to the public sphere – From material to immaterial (Unesco)• Inclusion of lower class food habits and practices of distinction in gastronomy – Regional food and high cuisine are part of a same gastronomic patrimony.• Consequences – Inventory of local gastronomical traditions – Relocation of food Jean-Pierre Poulain
  26. 26. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  27. 27. Plan• The French paradox in tourism and academic disciplines.• Hospitality between Tourism and food sectors.• Some examples : – Impact of Modernization: – The construction of Excellence in gastronomy Jean-Pierre Poulain
  28. 28. 2004, The world’s 50 best restaurants.1. The French Laundry, California, USA2. The Fat Duck, Bray, UK3. El Bulli, Montjoi, Spain4. LAtelier de Joël Robuchon, Paris5. Pierre Gagnaire, Paris6. Guy Savoy, Paris7. Nobu, London8. Restaurant Gordon Ramsay, London9. Michel Bras, Laguiole, France10. Restaurant Le Louis XV, Monaco11. Gramercy Tavern, New York12. Daniel, New York13. Tetsuyas, Sydney14. Hakkasan, London15. The Waterside Inn, UK16. St John, London17. LAmi Louis, Paris18. Jean Georges, New York19. Le Gavroche, London20. Flower Drum, Melbourne, Australia Jean-Pierre Poulain
  29. 29. 14 March 2007 during the announcement• French tire manufacturer Michelins CEOMichel Rollier (R) poses with chef Paul Bocuse(L), The Michelin Guide Director Jean-LucNaret (2nd L) and the Michelin mascotBibendum (C) in Tokyo, during theannouncement by Michelin that they willpublish Asias first edition of the guide book"Michelin guide Tokyo" in November 2007.• 600 000 copies sold in a few weeks Jean-Pierre Poulain
  30. 30. The traditional hierarchization of arts Sphere of legitimacy to Sphere of legitimable Sphere of arbitrary universal claim Music Cinema, photography Fashion, cosmetics Peinture sculpture Gastronomy, Cuisines Litterature Jazz music Decoration…Academicism, universities Concurrent legitimating Non legitimate authorities of authorities of critics legitimating: advertisement - Advertising methods + Jean-Pierre Poulain
  31. 31. Guides typologyTypes ExamplesHierarchical Classification Michelinguides without any commentGuide of author Classification with Gault et Millau, explanations Bottin gourmand Champerard,Community guide A way to share good Zagat, Routard, Club addresses des sans clubAdvertising guide Technical Relais et châteaux classification Jean-Pierre Poulain
  32. 32. Amplification effects • A lot of non specialized journalists Journalists • Third circle • Build the prestige • Newspapers, TV, radios, Web Columnists • Second circle • Extension of legitimacy • A very small number of guides and critics Critics • First circle and +- 10 • Give the legitimacy Jean-Pierre Poulain
  33. 33. The expérience of Restaurant Magazine • In 2002, The professional English magazine Restaurant magazine decided to classify nothing less than “the best restaurants of the world”. It went unnoticed. • In 2004, the context of the second war of Iraq creates conditions of media coverage. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  34. 34. • They have noticed that the list counts 13 English restaurants. If we always ate well in the British catering, is it realistic to claim 30% of the best restaurants of the world?• The critics begin to question the ranking • If one consults the list with attention, one is delighted by the deserved presence of several Australians credibility establishments, but a little surprised to find only two Italian restaurants. Only one German, chef holding the• Who decides ? What is place of honour (no doubt still the old Europe…). No the composition of the Swiss, did Freddy Girardet get any followers? No one jury? Their nationalities form Quebec. ? Their restaurant • However, good idea to include: 3 restaurants from selection procedures ? international palaces, too often underestimated: 1 from Hong Kong, another from India and a last one from Dubai. But why not from Singapore, or Malaysia or from Thailand: countries in which the Hotel and Hospitality level is amongst the best? • But why no restaurant from Japan? Jean-Pierre Poulain
  35. 35. How to build a sustainable economic model To sale Jean-Pierre Poulain
  36. 36. Two opposed models, but in competitionThe academisation of the model The internationalisation of guides• Definition of geographic areas • Tokyo • Hong-Kong , etc.• Construction of a jury with professional, critics, journalists. • Bocuse d’or in Asia, May 2008 •• Calculation of prestige like for the Nobel price but with a geographical balance Guide Prestige system system Jean-Pierre Poulain
  37. 37. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  38. 38. • The program: « On district on industry » Jean-Pierre Poulain
  39. 39. Act 602 - LAWS OF MALAYSIA: Geographical Indications 2000• A Geographical Indication (GI) is a designation which identifies a product as originating from a location that has given that product a special quality or reputation or other characteristics. It usually consists of the name of the place of origin of the product. Some well-known examples of GI’s are "Bordeaux" (French region famous for its wines), "Darjeeling" (Indian region famous for its tea) and "Tuscany" (a region in Italy famous for its olive oil). Jean-Pierre Poulain
  40. 40. • A geographical indication is a sign used on food stuffs produced in a certain place and which possess the characteristics, qualities or reputation of a certain region.• A geographical indication usually consists of the name of the place of origin and to be protected, a product must therefore derive its qualities or reputation from that place. An example of a current geographical indication is “Tuscany” for olive oil produced in a specific part of Italy (protected by Italian Law No. 169, 1992).• Protection of a geographical indication is new in Malaysia. It may be used by the owner to prevent unauthorized parties from falsely using a geographical indication to indicate as genuine a product with specific qualities and characteristics when they are in fact an imitation. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  41. 41. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  42. 42. What is AOC ?• AOC stands for "Appellation dOrigine Contrôlée" (French certification of origin granted for wine, cheese, butters) “CDO” “Controled Designation of Origin” means that the origin of the cheese is controlled. This is an official certification of quality which ensures that the cheese is: – Made according to a traditional production process and in a specific region. – Tested according to the strictest conditions for quality control. – Tasted by a jury of professional.• There are about 50 kinds of cheese with AOC Label in France . Jean-Pierre Poulain
  43. 43. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  44. 44. Toward a market of high cultural value products • To develop cultural value of the products to get absolute advantages. • A “high identity” product like Champagne can be imitated, but not equalized! The more it is imitated the higher the value of the original is. • High cultural value products is a way to relocate the benefits of tourism to diffuse it among farmers, caterers, food artisans on the concerned area. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  45. 45. • Food studies can be useful to: – Help the tourists to understand a culture. – Develop high identity products. – Develop creativity in gastronomy. – Relocate and diffuse the benefits of tourism activity. – Develop collective certifications. – Develop protected food designation products. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  46. 46. Further researches and applications• The social construction of the market: – To develop indicators to measure the amplification effects and to compare the economical models . – To study the social interactions between the several actors (Critics, journalists, chefs….) – To study the different paradigms of the construction of gastronomy and their connections with cultural frameworks . – Construction of value – Etc.• Applications : – To manage the promotion of a chef – To set up training for critics, journalists. – etc. Jean-Pierre Poulain
  47. 47. Pour en savoir plus J.-P. Poulain, Sociologie de l’obésité, PUF, 2010. J.-P. Poulain, Sociologies de l’alimentation, PUF, 2005. J.-P. Poulain, Manger aujourd’hui, Attitudes, normes et pratiques, Privat, 2001. J.-P. Corbeau et J.-P. Poulain, Penser l’alimentation, entre imaginaire et rationalité, Privat, 2002. J.-P. Poulain et E. Neirinck, Histoire de la cuisine et des cuisiniers, Lanore, 2004. Guy Fontaine et J.-P. Poulain, Le tourisme dans les territoires d’outre-mer, 2001 J.-P. Poulain et M. Teychene, La recherche en tourisme, Lanore, 2000.