The nature of leadership


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The nature of leadership

  2. 2. THE NATURE OF LEADERSHIP • Why leadership has been defined in so many different ways? • The controversy about differences between leadership and management • The different indicators used to assess leadership effectiveness • What aspects of leadership have been studied the most during the past 50 years?
  4. 4. • The behavior of an individual…directing the activities of a group toward a shared goal. (Hemphill & Coons, 1957) • The process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. (Rauch & Behling, 1984.) • The process whereby one or more individuals succeed in attempting to frame and define the reality of others. (Smircich & Morgan, 1982.) • Is articulating visions, embodying values, and creating the environment within which things can be accomplished.” (Richards & Engle, 1986.)
  5. 5. • The process of giving purpose (meaningful direction) to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose. (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990.) • The ability to step outside the culture… to start evolutionary changes processes that are more adaptive (Schein, 1992.) • The ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization…(House et al., 1999.)
  6. 6. A specialized role or a shared influence process?
  7. 7. Leadership vs. Management • Stability, order, and efficiency • • • • • Flexibility, innovation and adaptation How things get done? Get people to perform better What things mean to people Get people to agree about the most important things to be done • People who do things right • People who do the right thing But associating leading and managing with different types of people is not supported by
  8. 8. Defining managing and leading as 1. Distinct roles 2. Process 3. Relationships
  9. 9. 1. Distinct roles • Leadership as one of 10 managerial roles (Mintzberg, 1973.)
  10. 10. 2. Process Processes and outcomes Predictability and order: Setting operational goals Organizing and staffing Monitoring results and solving problems Organizational change: Developing a vision Communicating Motivating and inspiring (Kotter, 1990.)
  11. 11. 3. Relationships • Authority relationship • Multidirectional influence relationship (Rost, 1991.)
  12. 12. Direct vs. Indirect Leadership • • Not mutually exclusive Can be used together Indirect • • • “Cascading” of effects Influence over formal programs, management systems, and structural forms Influence over the organization culture
  13. 13. Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about whatworking definition it, A needs to be done and how to do and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives.
  14. 14. • • • • • • What Leaders Can Influence? by The interpretation of external events members The choice of objectives and strategies to pursue The motivation of members to achieve the objectives The mutual trust and cooperation of members The organization and coordination of work activities The allocation of resources to activities and objectives
  15. 15. What Leaders Can Influence? • The development of member skills and confidence • The learning and sharing of new knowledge by members • The enlistment of support and cooperation from outsiders • The design of formal structure, programs, and systems • The shared beliefs and values of members – culture
  16. 16. LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS The consequences of the leader’s actions for followers and other organization stakeholders • The performance and growth of the leader’s group or organization • Follower satisfaction • Commitment to the group objectives • Development of followers
  17. 17. Immediate and Delayed Outcomes Causal Chain of Effects from Two Types of Leader Behavior Inspiring vision Follower effort Quality + Productivit y Training + Coaching Follower skills Unit profits
  18. 18. Major Research Approaches 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The trait approach The behavior approach The power-influence approach The situational approach The integrative approach (involves more than one type of leadership variable)
  19. 19. 1. The trait approach • One of the earliest • Underlying this approach was the assumption that some people are natural leaders, born as leaders, and that it can not be learned easily. • Hundreds of trait studies during the 1930s and 1940s – to discover these qualities • The predominant research method was to look for a correlation between a leader attributes and a criterion of leaders success • Failed to find any traits that would guarantee leadership success • However- helped us understand how traits are related to leadership behavior and effectiveness
  20. 20. • • • 2.The behavior Began in the earlyapproach 1950s after many researches became discouraged with the trait approach Look into behavior - what managers actually do on the job Two subcategories: 1. How they spent their time and the typical pattern of activities. Some, how they cope with demands, constrains…Use descriptive methods (observation, diaries, questionnaires) 2. Identifying effective leadership behavior, ..Use survey field study with BDQ (behavioral description questionnaire) Hundreds of studies examined correlation between l. behavior and various indicators of l. effectiveness
  21. 21. 3. The power-influence approach Examines influence process between leaders and other people Leader centered perspective - Assumption that causality is unidirectional, leader act, followers react. Power is important not only to influence subordinates but peers, superiors, people outside the organization. Method questionnaire to measure leader power to l. effectiveness Influence tactics research – how leaders influence the attitudes and behavior of followers Participative leadership – how power is shared and about empowerment of followers. Rooted in the tradition of behavior research
  22. 22. 4. The situational approach • Emphasizes the importance of contextual factors that influence leadership process: the characteristics of the followers, the type of organization, the nature of the work of l. unit, external environment • The approach has two subcategories • Research to discover the extent to witch type of organization, level of management and culture influence leadership processes. Method: Comparative study of two or more situations. • To identify aspects of the situation that “moderate” the relationship of leaders attributes (traits, skills, behavior) to leadership effectiveness. Contingency theories of leadership
  23. 23. • 5. The integrative approach Involves more than one type of leadership variable in the same study (two or more). • But it is still rare to find a theory that includes all of them (traits, behavior, influential process, situational variables, and outcomes) • Example of integrative approach– selfconcept theory of charismatic leadership (explains why the followers of some leaders are willing to make sacrifices to accomplish group objectives)
  24. 24. Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories
  25. 25. Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories 1. Key variables 1. 2. 3. Characteristics of the Leader Characteristics of the Followers Characteristics of the Situation 2. Level of conceptualization 1. 2. 3. 4. An intra-individual process A dyadic process A group process An organizational process 3. Other 1. 2. 3. Leader- vs. Follower-Centered Theory Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Theory Universal vs. Contingency Theory
  26. 26. Key Variables in Leadership Theories I Characteristics of the Leader • • • • • • • Traits (motives, personality, values) Confidence and optimism Skills and expertise Behavior Integrity and ethics Influence tactics Attributions about followers
  27. 27. Key Variables in Leadership Theories II • Characteristics of the Followers • • • • • • • Traits (needs, values, self-concepts) Confidence and optimism Skills and expertise Attributions about leader Trust in the leader Task commitment and effort Satisfaction with job and leader
  28. 28. Key Variables in Leadership Theories III Characteristics of the Situation • • • • • • • Type of organizational unit Size of unit Position power and authority of leader Task structure and complexity Task interdependence Environmental uncertainty External dependencies
  29. 29. Casual Relationships Among the Primary Types of leadership Processes
  30. 30. Level of Conceptualization 1. 2. 3. 4. An intra-individual process A dyadic process A group process An organizational process
  31. 31. Level of Conceptualization
  32. 32. 1. Intra-Individual Processes • Processes within a single individual. • Theories of decision making, motivation, and cognition.
  33. 33. 2. Dyadic Process • Relationship between a leader and another individual who is usually a follower. • Reciprocal influence process.
  34. 34. 3. Group Process • Leadership is a group process. • Leadership role in a task group. • How a leader contributes to group effectiveness
  35. 35. 4. Organizational Processes A group exists in a larger social system • • • • Adaptation to the environment. Identifying threats and opportunities. Strategy for adapting. Efficiency of the transformation process.
  36. 36. Other Bases for Comparing Leadership Theories (Besides Key variables & Level of conceptualization) 1. Leader- vs. Follower-Centered Theory 2. Descriptive vs. Prescriptive Theory (explain leadership process, activities of the leader… or identify what leaders must do to become effective, conditions to use particular type of behavior effectively) 3. Universal vs. Contingency Theory (applies to all types of situations or describes an aspect of leadership that applies to some situation but not to others.)
  37. 37. LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION dr Slavka Draskovic,