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Normal newborn

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Normal newborn care, by Dr Amal Khalil, Dean of Nursing college, Port said University, Port said. Presented in the NICU nursing workshop, organized by Nursing syndicate in Suez canal & Sinai in cooperation with Port said university college of nursing & Port said neonatology society, December,2014 Port said

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Normal newborn

  1. 1. ‫بورسعيد‬ ‫جامعة‬ ‫التمريض‬ ‫كلية‬ ‫خليل‬ ‫أحمد‬ ‫أمل‬ /‫د‬ .‫أ‬ ‫الفطفال‬ ‫تمريض‬ ‫استاذ‬ ‫الكليه‬ ‫وعميد‬ E-mail: dr.amalkhalil@yahoo.com
  2. 2. 2 Normal Newborn
  3. 3. 3 Introduction: 1. Definition of neonatal period: A period from birth 4 weeks postnatal. After the initial observation for neonatal condition requiring immediate intervention, the baby is sent to the normal newborn nursery or maternity floor for the purpose of follow up and stabilization.
  4. 4. 4 The role of the neonatal nurse & physician inside the normal newborn nursery or maternity floor:
  5. 5. 5  Admission Care: The role of the nurse is: - To carry out good interpersonal communication. - To take complete history about the mother and neonate. - To be sure that the neonate has identification band. - To perform complete physical assessment (General appearance, V.S, G.M, Gestational age assessment). - Prevention of hemorrhage (administer vit K if not given in the delivery room). - Documentation.
  6. 6. 6  Assessment: The initial assessment: APGAR scoring system Purpose: is to assess the newborn´S immediate adjustment to extrauterine life
  7. 7. 7 Transitional assessment (Periods of reactivity): I) First period of reactivity: Stage 1: during the first 30 min. through which the baby is characterized as Physiologically unstable ( ), very alert, cries vigorously, may suck a fist greedily, & appears very interested in the environment.
  8. 8. 8 Stage 2: it lasts for about 2-4 hours, through this period; all V.S & mucus production are decreased. The newborn is in state of sleep and relative calm.
  9. 9. 9 II) Second period of reactivity: it lasts for about 2-5 hours, through which the newborn is alert and responsive, heart & respiratory rate, gastric & respiratory secretions are increased & passage of meconium commonly occurs. Following this stage is a period of stabilization through which the baby becomes physiologically stable & a vacillating pattern of sleep and activity.
  10. 10. 10 passage of meconium
  11. 11. 11 Assessment of Gestational age: (High-risk neonate)
  12. 12. 12 Systematic Physical examination: - Growth measurements - Vital Signs - General appearance: . Posture: Flexion of head & extremities, taking them toward chest & abdomen
  13. 13. 13 Head Circumference
  14. 14. 14 Posture
  15. 15. 15 . Skin: General description: At birth; color: bright red, texture: soft and has good elasticity. Edema is seen around eye, face, and scrotum or labia. Cyanosis of hands & feet (acrocyanosis)
  16. 16. 16 General description of the skin
  17. 17. 17 Acrocyanosis
  18. 18. 18 1. Vernix Caseosa: Soft yellowish cream layer that may thickly cover the skin of the newborn, or it may be found only in the body creases and between the labia. The debate of wash it off or to keep it.
  19. 19. 19 Vernix Caseosa
  20. 20. 20 2. Lanugo hair: - Distribution - The more premature baby is, the heavier the presence of lanugo is. - It disappears during the first weeks of life
  21. 21. 21 Lanugo hair
  22. 22. 22 3. Mongolian spots: Black coloration on the lower back, buttocks, anterior trunk, & around the wrist or ankle. They are not bruise marks or a sign of mental retardation, they usually disappear during preschool years without any treatment.
  23. 23. 23 Mongolian spots
  24. 24. 24 Mongolian spots
  25. 25. 25 Mongolian spots
  26. 26. 26 4. Desquamation: - Peeling of the skin over the areas of bony prominence that occurs within 2-4 weeks of life because of pressure and erosion of sheets.
  27. 27. 27 Desquamation
  28. 28. 28 5. Physiological Jaundice: 6. Milia: - Small white or yellow pinpoint spots. - Common on the nose, forehead, & chin of the newborn infants due to accumulations of secretions from the sweat & sebaceous glands that have not yet drain normally. They will disappear within 1-2 weeks, they should not expressed.
  29. 29. 29 Physiological Jaundice
  30. 30. 30 Physiological Jaundice
  31. 31. 31 Milia
  32. 32. 32 7. Head: The Anterior fontanel: is diamond in shape, located at the junction of 2 parietal & frontal bones. It is 2-3 cm in width & 3-4 cm in length. It closes between 12-18 months of age. The posterior fontanel: is triangular in shape, located between the parietal & occipital bones.
  33. 33. 33 Fontanels should be flat, soft, & firm. It bulge when the baby cries or if there is increased in ICP. Two conditions may appear in the head: Caput succedaneum & cephlhemtoma
  34. 34. 34 Caput succedaneum • An edematous swelling on the presenting portion of the scalp of an infant during birth, caused by the pressure of the presenting part against the dilating cervix. The effusion overlies the periosteum with poorly defined margins. • Caput succedaneum extends across the midline and over suture lines. Caput succedaneum does not usually cause complications and usually resolves over the first few days. Management consists of observation only.
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 36 Caput succedaneum
  37. 37. 37 Caput succedaneum
  38. 38. 38 Caput succedaneum
  39. 39. 39 Cephalhematoma: Cephalhematoma is a subperiosteal collection of blood secondary to rupture of blood vessels between the skull and the periosteum, in which bleeding is limited by suture lines (never cross the suture lines).
  40. 40. 40 Cephalhematoma
  41. 41. 41 Cephalhematoma
  42. 42. 42 8. Eyes: - Usually edematous eye lids - Gray in color. True color is not determined until the age of 3-6 months. - Pupil: React to light - Absence of tears - Blinking reflex is present in response to touch - Can not follow an object (Rudimentary
  43. 43. 43 Normal Eye
  44. 44. 44 Eyelid Edema
  45. 45. 45 9. Ears: Position: Startle Reflex: Pinna flexible, cartilage present.
  46. 46. 46 Normal Ears
  47. 47. 47 Ear Tag
  48. 48. 48 10. Nose: Nasal Patency (stethoscope). Nasal discharge – thin white mucous
  49. 49. 49 Normal Nose
  50. 50. 50 Dislocated Nasal Septum
  51. 51. 51 11. Mouth & Throat: - Intact, high arched palate. - Sucking reflex – strong and coordinated - Rooting reflex - Gag reflex - Minimal salivation
  52. 52. 52 12. Neck: Short, thick, usually surrounded by skin folds.
  53. 53. 53 Neck
  54. 54. 54  System assessment of the neonates: 1. Gastrointestinal System: Mouth should be examined for abnormalities such as cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Epstein pearls are brittle, white, shine spots near the center of the hard palate. They mark the fusion of the 2 hollows of the palate. If any; it will disappear in time.
  55. 55. 55 Cleft Palate
  56. 56. 56 Cleft Lip
  57. 57. 57 Cheeks: Have a chubby appearance due to development of fatty sucking pads that help to create negative pressure inside the mouth which facilitates sucking.
  58. 58. 58 Epstein Pearls & cheeks
  59. 59. 59 Normal Tongue Ankyloglossia
  60. 60. 60 Ankyloglossia
  61. 61. 61 Gum: May appear with a quite irregular edge. Sometimes the back of gums contain whitish deciduous teeth that are semi- formed, but not erupted
  62. 62. 62 Irregular edges with Natal Teeth
  63. 63. 63 Natal Tooth
  64. 64. 64 13. Abdomen:
  65. 65. 65 Abdomen • Cylindrical in Shape
  66. 66. 66 Normal Umbilical Cord • Bluish white at birth with 2 arteries & one vein.
  67. 67. 67 14. Circulatory system: Heart: Apex- lies between 4th & 5th intercostal space, lateral to left sternal border.
  68. 68. 68 15. Respiratory system: • Slight substernal retraction evident during inspiration
  69. 69. 69 16. Urinary System: Normally, the newborn has urine in the bladder and voids at birth or some hours later.
  70. 70. 70 Female genitalia
  71. 71. 71 Female genitalia Cont. • Labia & Clitoris are usually edematous. • Urethral meatus is located behind the clitoris. • Vernix caseosa is present between labia
  72. 72. 72 Normal Male genitalia • Urethral opening is at tip of glans pens. • Testes are palpable in each scrotum. • Scrotum is usually pigmented, pendulous & covered with rugae.
  73. 73. 73 17. Endocrine system: Swollen breasts: Appears on 3rd day in both sex, & lasts for 2-3 weeks and gradually disappears without treatment. N.B: The breasts should not be expressed as this may result in infection or tissue damage.
  74. 74. 74 Maternal hormonal withdrawal • Female genitalia, normal with vaginal discharge
  75. 75. 75 18. The Central Nervous system: Reflexes: Successful use of reflex mechanism is a strong evidence of normal functioning CNS.
  76. 76. 76 Reflexes • Moro Reflex
  77. 77. 77 Extremities • Nail beds pink
  78. 78. 78 Extremities Cont. • Meconium Stained fingernails
  79. 79. 79 Extremities • Creases on anterior two thirds of sole.
  80. 80. 80 Common feet abnormalities • Club Feet
  81. 81. 81 Immediate Care of the Newborn:
  82. 82. 82 Immediate Care of the Newborn: 1. Clear airway. 2. Established respiration. 3. Maintenance of body temperature. 4. Protection from Hge. 5. Identification.
  83. 83. 83 APGAR Score Score / Item 2 1 zero Heart beats > 100 b/min Strong < 100 b/min Or weak beats No heart beats Cry & breathing Strong crying weak crying / irregular breathing No cry / breathing Color Pink body & face Pink body & blue extremities Pale or blue body Movement & tone Active Some movements Flaccid Grimace Try to keep cath. away Grimace of face No response
  84. 84. 84 The Four modalities by which the infant lost his/ her body temperature: 1-    Evaporation: Heat loss that resulted from expenditure of internal thermal energy to convert liquid on an exposed surface to gases, e.g.: amniotic fluid, sweat. Prevention: Carefully dry the infant after delivery or after bathing.
  85. 85. 85 2- Conduction: Heat loss occurred from direct contact between body surface and cooler solid object. Prevention: Warm all objects before the infant comes into contact with them.
  86. 86. 86 3- Convection: Heat loss is resulted from exposure of an infant to direct source of air draft. Prevention: ·        Keep infant out of drafts ·        Close one end of heat shield in incubator to reduce velocity of air.  
  87. 87. 87 4- Radiation: It occurred from body surface to relatively distant objects that are cooler than skin temperature.
  88. 88. 88 ‫التعليميه‬ ‫الدهداف‬ ‫:تابع‬ 3.‫إستخدامه‬ ‫يتم‬ ‫ومتي‬ ‫وكيف‬ ‫أبجار‬ ‫لمقياس‬ ‫المكونه‬ ‫العناصر‬ ‫معرفة‬ ‫أهميته‬ ‫إدراك‬ ‫ثم‬ ‫ومن‬. 4.‫السري‬ ‫بالحبل‬ ‫العنايه‬ ‫كيفية‬ ‫معرفة‬. 5.‫ثبات‬ ‫علي‬ ‫المطمئنان‬ ‫فور‬ ‫للمولود‬ ‫الروتينيه‬ ‫العنايه‬ ‫تقديم‬ .‫الطبيعيه‬ ‫معدلتها‬ ‫حول‬ ‫الحيويه‬ ‫العلمات‬ 6.‫الرضاعه‬ ‫إعطاء‬ ‫في‬ ‫المبكر‬ ‫البدء‬ ‫ومميزات‬ ‫أهمية‬ ‫إدراك‬ .‫المولود‬ ,‫أ‬ ‫لل م‬ ‫بالنسبه‬ ‫سواء‬ ‫الطبيعيه‬
  89. 89. 89 *) General management: 1-    Infant should be warmed quickly by wrapping in a warm towel. 2-    Uses extra clothes or blankets to keep the baby warm. 3-    If the infant is in incubator, increase the incubator’s temperature. 4-    Use hot water bottle (its temperature 50 °C). 5-    Food given or even intravenous solution should be warm. 6-    Avoid exposure to direct source of air drafts. 7-    Check body temperature frequently. 8-    Give antibiotic if infection is present.
  90. 90. 90 Thank you

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