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The Possible Effects of the Panama Canal Expansion on Ports in the Western Hemisphere

Presentation by Portek's Chairman Mr. Larrry Lam at the XIX Latin American Congress of Ports July 7-9, 2010

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XIX Latin American Congress of Ports
        July 7-9, 2010 • Manta, ECUADOR


The Possible Effects of the Panama Canal Expansion
       on Ports in the Western Hemisphere

               By Larry Lam
               Chairman
               Portek International Ltd




                                                     1
2
What we do
Portek is both

 •   a provider of equipment, services and solutions to ports
     worldwide, &

 •   an operator of ports in emerging countries.

 •    unique combination of skill sets, full spectrum of
     equipment engineering and port operating expertise




                                                                3
As a provider to ports, we undertake”

      Modernization and Modification of Container Cranes — upgrading Cranes from
      PX to PPX dimensions, reliability, safety and performance improvement

      Sale and Lease of Port Equipment on quick deployment basis

      Mobilisation and Relocation of Cranes

      Maintenance contracts

      Crane accidents & emergencies recovery & repairs

      Consultancy in Traffic studies, port marketing program to attract traffic, port
      planning and simulations

      Port IT & Automation modules




                                                                                        4
Port Equipment Engineering




                             5
Port IT & Automation




                       6
Ad

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The Possible Effects of the Panama Canal Expansion on Ports in the Western Hemisphere

  • 1. XIX Latin American Congress of Ports July 7-9, 2010 • Manta, ECUADOR The Possible Effects of the Panama Canal Expansion on Ports in the Western Hemisphere By Larry Lam Chairman Portek International Ltd 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. What we do Portek is both • a provider of equipment, services and solutions to ports worldwide, & • an operator of ports in emerging countries. • unique combination of skill sets, full spectrum of equipment engineering and port operating expertise 3
  • 4. As a provider to ports, we undertake” Modernization and Modification of Container Cranes — upgrading Cranes from PX to PPX dimensions, reliability, safety and performance improvement Sale and Lease of Port Equipment on quick deployment basis Mobilisation and Relocation of Cranes Maintenance contracts Crane accidents & emergencies recovery & repairs Consultancy in Traffic studies, port marketing program to attract traffic, port planning and simulations Port IT & Automation modules 4
  • 6. Port IT & Automation 6
  • 7. As a port operator, we operate 7 terminals: Bejaia Mediterranean Terminal (Algeria) Valetta Gateway Terminal (Malta) Port Owendou in Libreville & Port Gentil ( Gabon) Terminals T9 and T300 in Jakarta, Indonesia Banten Port, West Java, Indonesia 7
  • 9. How will Panama Canal expansion affect ports in the Western Hemisphere ? In this presentation, we will look at: Trade routes — Pre and Post Canal Expansion Cascade Effect & Canal Expansion on Size of Container Ships deployed Impacts on ports, winners and losers Bulk trades 9
  • 10. Western Hemisphere refers basically to the Americas: North America, Central America & the Carribean South America. 10
  • 11. Canal Expansion affects all shipping Container shipping — presently 30% of Panama traffic Bulk shipping Liquid Cruise, general cargo, Project cargo and Others. 11
  • 12. Trade routes generally fall into 2 categories: East — West trade routes: Far East — US West Coast (USWC) — Transpacific Far East — US East Coast (USEC) via Panama Far East — US East Coast via Suez Far East — S America West Coast (WCSA) Far East — S America East Coast. (ECSA) via Cape Europe — USEC (Transatlantic) North South trade routes: Europe — S America North America — Central and S America Intra-Latin America 12
  • 13. Cascade Effect Cascade Effect: Large ships displacing small ships in all trade routes due to emergence and large scale deployment of large post panamax ships For Cascade effect to take place, we must have: increased volume, hence justifying larger ships or same volume, but reduced sailing requencies, or both of above happening To analyse the full impact on ports, we will therefore consider Combined action of: Canal expansion + Cascade Effect. 13
  • 14. Cascade Effect By end of 2007, there were 188 Vessels of greater than 10,000 Teus on order, though some may have been postponed or cancelled. By 2011, Post Panamax Vessels will contribute about 45% of all container slots, after adjusting for some order cancellations 14
  • 15. LPPX/ SPPX 6,500+ – 12,500TEUs Displacing LPX/ PPX 4,000 – 6,500TEUs Displacing MPX 2,000 – 4,000TEUs Displacing SPX/Feeders 800 – 2,000TEUs 15
  • 16. Trade Route: Asia — US West Coast (Transpacific) CMA-CGM: South China / USWC Vessels >8000 teus Source CMA-CGM • Presently, high volume shuttle services using Large PPX vessels 8,000 to 10,000 TEUs • Pacific SW = LA + Long Beach + Oakland > 16m TEUs in 2008 • Pacific NW = Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Seattle, Tacoma > 6.3 m TEUs 16
  • 17. Effects on USWC Ports Post Canal Expansion 2014 — effects on USWC ports: Vancouver, P Rupert, Seattle, Tacoma, Portland, San Franscisco, LA /Long Beach Continue as gateway ports, handling own traffic; based on shuttle service from Asia Transshipment traffic unlikely, due to location, capacity and productivity. Will lose significant intermodal traffic to all water Panama route. US$2,000 to rail a container from USWC to USEC. Presently only 30% of Asian cargo go through USEC ports by all water route (via Panama or Suez) However, both railroads and ports are preparing to fight back to retain traffic. 17
  • 18. Trade Route: Asia —West Coast South America (WCSA) Presently, Asia-WCSA : Mainly direct long haul from Asia, using Panamax vessels Multi port calls. Long transit time 84 days Mostly Panamax vessels, though MSC now using 6,000 teu ship. Beside direct calls, there are also transshipment services via Balboa 18
  • 19. Trade Route: Asia — West Coast South America (WCSA) Post Canal Expansion Direct long haul multi port service may decrease in favour of transshipment via Balboa Transshipment to WCSA ports may come in two forms: • Piggy back on USEC traffic, on 8,000 to 10,000 TEU ships and transshipped via Balboa on feeders • Shuttle services from Far East to Lazaro Cadenas and Balboa, plus one other port, then transshipped via these to WCSA ports More capacity being created at Balboa - PPC & PSA Panama. A natural transshipment hub for Central America /WCSA traffic. Panama -The Singapore of Western Hemisphere. 19
  • 20. Effects on WCSA ports Balboa will be clear winner, transshipment hub for Central America and WCSA Manzanillo (Mexico), Lazaro Cadenas — Transshipment for Central America Will a transshipment hub emerge in WCSA? Present Load distribution still not in favour. Chilean ports presently contributes 3.0 m out of 5.8 m TEUs of WCSA total traffic. But Peruvian traffic fastest growing. Can Callao be a sub-regional transshipment hub? Feedering to Guayaquil, Paita, Arica, Iqueque, Antofagasta. Manta has ambitions: good depth and location, but lack of hinterland cargo is a disadvantage. It could be complimentary to Balboa, as a spill over port 20
  • 21. Case for Manta Port ? Source: Maersk Shipping Presently, Maersk’s Asia—Central America AC2 & AC3 services show dedicated shuttle service has sufficient volume Manta is one day sailing from Balboa, hence possible for shipping lines to extend one more port call to Manta within the shuttle service. Provided capacity is available, productivity is good. 21
  • 22. Trade Route: Asia — US East Coast (USEC) - Panama Source APL Trans-Pacific-443 Presently, this trade is characterized by Panamax ships less than 5100 teu, transiting through Panama Canal Only about 30% of Asian imports are shipped through USEC ports Transit time about 21 days. 16 weekly services of average capacity of4,000 teu 22
  • 23. Trade Route: Asia — US East Coast (USEC) Post Canal expansion, Quantum jump in ship size - Post Panamax ships of probably up to 10,000 teu Intermodal traffic through USWC will substantially migrate to all water USEC. Cost savings per slot of 30% to 40% between 10,000 and 4,000 TEU ships Bayonne Bridge in New York —New Jersey limit ship size to about 7,000 TEUs New York-New Jersey represent 1/3 of USEC port throughput (15.5 m TEUs). Deployment of >10,000 TEU ships to USEC not justified due to insufficient load, if they cannot call New York/New Jersey. Bridge of the Americas in Panama can also be a limitation for vessels > 14,000 teus. 23
  • 24. Impact on USEC Ports New York/New Jersey mayl miss the boat, limited to 7,000 TEUs. However, studies have been done to raise from 151 ft to 215 ft. Senate recently approved bridge heightening. Also PONYJ is builidng new terminal at Bayonne In Panama, Bridge of the Americas has an air draft of 201 ft Savannah, Virginia, Charleston will gain market share, expand their hinterlands, become gateways for intermodal traffic. More likely 8,000 to 10,000 teu ships. However, most other ports will also need upgrade for greater ship sizes due combined Canal Expansion & Cascade Effect 24
  • 25. Trade Route: Asia — USEC via Suez 25
  • 26. Trade Route: Asia — USEC via Suez Presently, 5 weekly services with vessels ranging from 5,000 teu to 8,500 teu These arise exactly because of constraints at Panama Canal. Transit time 31 days from Yantian to New York — long More suited for SE Asia / Indian Continent cargo Post Canal expansion Will see reduced services, only catering to Indian sub-continent Panama Canal route transit 21 days — 10 days shorter than Suez routes. 26
  • 27. Trade Route: Asia — East Coast South America (ECSA) via Cape of Good Hope Source CSAV 27
  • 28. Trade Route: Asia — East Coast South America (ECSA) Presently Direct long haul from Far East —ECSA via Cape of Good Hope. Mainly Panamax ships Multiport calls covering Bueno Aires, Montevideo, and all major Brazilian ports Post Canal expansion, Ship size will continue to increase due to increased load and Cascade factor. Multiport calls, with Santos as the dominant port Some cargo may shift to piggyback on Asia-USEC trade, and transship via Coco Solo, Panama to Brazilian ports. 28
  • 29. Impact on ECSA ports of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina Direct, Multiport services from Asia and Europe still dominant Some minor impact from Canal expansion Brazilian ports are high cost (USD 300 vs USD 100), lack of capacity Santos an obvious load centre, substantial investments being made, however, need to look at port tariffs. Argentina (La Plata), Uruguay (Montivideo) expanding port capacity. All major ports will see higher volume, larger ships, due to GDP expansion 29
  • 30. Trade routes: Carribean / Central American /Gulf Source CMA-CGM Region is served by direct multiport calls from Europe, as well as Asia 30
  • 31. Trade routes: Carribean / Central American /Gulf Source CSAV Also by feedering from Carribean hubs such as Kingston, Caucedo 31
  • 32. Trade routes: Carribean / Central American /Gulf Presently, This region is served by direct service from Asia, and Europe & also piggybacking on the Asia- USEC services via transshipment. Transshipment hubs: Kingston, Caucedo, Bahamas, Colon & Manzanillo in Panama, Cartagena Most of Carribean / Central American / Gulf ports are feeder ports. Post Canal Expansion Same trade pattern but with larger vessels and trending towards higher proportion of transshipment, and reduced direct service 32
  • 33. Impact on Carribean / Central American /US Gulf ports Post Canal expansion: Major ports will see dramtic increase in ship sizes 5,000 to 10,000 teus Balboa will be clear winner on Pacific side Coco Solo (MIT & CCT), Cristobal (PPC) winners on Atlantic side Kingston, Caucedo, Cartagena will also benefit US Gulf Ports may lose some direct calls due to location, low load level, and become more of feeder ports. Cascade effects will put pressure on all ports to receive larger ships. Some ports need to reform labour practices, customs procedures. Central American state run ports. 33
  • 34. Trade Route: Europe — USEC (Transatlantic) North Europe - US East Coast Transatlantic trade will not be much affected by Canal Expansion. Cascade effect will push ship sizes. 34
  • 35. North- South Trade: Europe — South America Source CSAV 35
  • 36. North- South Trade + others: Europe — Latin America trade will be predominantly influenced by Far lower volume, hence Panamax vessel sufficient. Cascade effect — migrating to bigger vessels in step with growing volume. Similarly for N America — S America trade. Intra —Latin American trade in terms of bulk commodities and re-distribution of cargo from Logistic and distribution centres established in Panama and elsewhere. North - South trade does not have same Impact on Ports as East-West Trade. 36
  • 37. Factors influencing types and size of ships calling at ports Navigational factors — water draft, air draft, Canal restrictions. Load or Volume of cargo - Pull factor Cascade Effect — Push factor Port factors — turn-around time: productivity, capacity, equipment, labour practices Other factors like security, piracy, legislation such as Jones Act, Cabotage laws 37
  • 38. Concentration Effect Deployment of large SPPX ship leads to concentration effects: Cargo will be concentrated in fewer ships, larger ships Cargo will be concentrated in a few hub ports, and transshipped to final destinations Slot sharing or joint service Sailing frequency may reduce — recent example of slow steaming as a response to high fuel costs and excess capacity at expense of shippers. 38
  • 39. Effect of Canal Expansion on Bulk cargo trade Presently 85,000 dwt bulk Panamax bulkers transit Canal Post expansion will see Cape sized vessel of 120,000 dwt, upto 175,000 dwt. Draft increase from 39.5 ft (12m) to 50 ft (15m) Lower freight from better utlisation of Panamax vessels or from use of larger vessels Will see increase of following trades: Grain flow from US Gulf, to Asia and WCSA Metallurgical coal from USEC to Asia Iron ore from northern Brazil, thermal coal from Colombia to Asia Minerals from Chile and Peru to USEC and Europe will get a boost. 39
  • 40. General Comments / Questions: For Latin America, strong economic growth, commodity cycle, and increased world trade will drive container traffic and port business. A replay of South East Asia in the 90’s. Canal expansion is only a facilitator, not a cause. Extent of Canal impact will largely depend on the Canal tariff. Alternatives are already available. Shipping lines are flexible, and able to re-route to avoid high costs. Increased trade volume, ship size, and canal expansion favour transshipment. However, not a winners take all case. Numerous minor transshipment ports will co-exists with the major hubs to take the spill over, and provide non available berthing windows at the major hubs. Port Authorities need to take a business like view of port development. New transshipment centres requires huge investment outlay and competitive pricing. Not every one’s game in today’s deleveraging world. 40
  • 41. General Comments / Questions: Is there a lack of coastal shipping choices to stimulate feeder shipping? New impetus for Policy makers to overhaul Cabotage laws to promote freer and competitive short seas shipping, to reduce distortions to economies. Example: it costs more to ship a container from San Antonio to Iquique than San Antonio to Callao Development of feeder port vital for economy and industries of the particular province. Example: In Mexico, Mazatlan and Guayamas not well served by feeder shipping. Cabotage trade now mainly done by trucking. Long coast lines of S America favour seaborne traffic versus land transport. To be encouraged as a greener alternative. 41
  • 42. Thank you 42