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Crane Accidents and Emergencies
                       Causes, Repairs and Prevention
                                                     Presented by
                                          Portek International Limited
                                                15 March 2007

                           Larry Lam                                        Chairman
                           Soon Chong Tok                                   Technical Director



               For enquiries, please email: enquiry@portek.com
The contents of this document are copyrighted and proprietary, and may not be reproduced without the permission of Portek International Limited
Definitions
A Crane Accident is an unplanned and unintentional
event involving a crane or cranes, or other objects that
result in damage or injury of some kind and normally
involves a strong human element in its causation.

A Crane Emergency situation is an unexpected and
sudden event in which the crane is subject to damage,
and where the cause is not immediately linked to the
operator.

A Crane Incident is a general term for either a crane
accident or emergency
Crane Accidents
can happen in the following ways:
 when a ship contacts a crane
 when a crane contacts a ship
 when cranes contact each other due to strong
 wind gusts during operation, often resulting in
 a multiple chain collision
 when a crane contacts another crane or an
 object during operation
Crane Accidents


             Right seaside leg hit
             diagonally by ship's
             bow

             (ship contacts crane)
Crane Accidents




Crane boom struck ship’s funnel (crane contacts ship)
Crane Accidents




Crane (blown by wind gusts) collapsed after collision
Crane emergency situations can arise from
   Exceptional situation such as typhoons, hurricanes,
   earthquakes resulting in crane collapse, derailment or
   severe damage
   Crane failure as in
       electrical fires in diesel generator or electrical room
       crane drive faults leading to free fall of load
       mechanical faults as in brake failure, twist-locks
      failures, etc resulting in uncontrolled fall of load
       structural damage as in fatigue failure, poor
      workmanship or design.
   Heavy weather or inadequate lashing during ocean
   transportation of cranes
Crane emergency situations




Structural failure - A-frame pylon bent and tipped forward
Crane emergency situations




 Right tension rod broke from fatigue
Frequency of Crane Incidents
Crane Incidents are happening with increasing
frequencies, due to:
rapidly increasing population of cranes
increasing crane dimensions, hence decreasing visibility
and control
insufficient distance between fender face and seaside
rail, and increasing flare of ship’s bow, as ships get
bigger
standards of crane maintenance not keeping up
standards of safety in crane operation and terminal
operation failing to keep up
insufficient understanding of risks involved, and lack of
precautions taken
adverse and unpredictable weather
Typical Processes in a Crane
          Incident

  Recovery phase comprising Survey and
  Salvage and Stabilization
  Repairs and Re-commissioning
Typical damage

bending and buckling of the legs, sill beams
and portal beams
derailment seaside and landside bogies
tearing apart of joints between equalizer
beam and sill beam
Typical damage



         Ship contacting
         Crane boom
Damage from Ship contacting crane
Typical damage




Contact at seaside leg, only a nick is seen
Typical damage




Derailment at seaside
Typical damage


         No derailment landside,
         but severe damage to
         leg
Typical damage


         Severe bending of
         landside leg
Typical damage




Buckling of sill beam landside
Typical damage




Joint at equalizer beam separated and twisted
Typical damage




Total destruction of boom snagged by a departing ship
Typical damage




Entire portal and boom twisted by ship pulling on boom
Typical damage




Wind gusts causing crane collisions
Damage from Collisions
Repairs
   Design and Analysis




Fatigue failure of an unloader & computer modeling of crane structure
Repairs




Simulation of failure & Redesign and Repairs
Crane Supports for Repairs




Computer simulation of crane support
Crane Supports for Repairs




Robust support in place before cutting
Repair Methodology




Damaged plate removed and replaced
Repair Methodology




Damaged sill beam cut away
Repair Methodology




Replaced with new sill beam
Repair Methodology




Heavy damage due to constraints to side way displacement
Repair Methodology




Derailment allows displacement, therefore little or no damage
Repair Methodology




Structural bolts may be weakened and need replacement
Repair Methodology




Floating crane removing boom for repairs
Repair Methodology




Re-installing repaired boom
Repair Methodology




Boom hinge inspection and NDT checks
Repair Methodology




Line boring of boom hinge
Repair Methodology




            Dimensional checks
            using theodolite
            equipment
Prevention
Prevention of crane incidents at
        different levels:
at crane design and engineering level,
at crane operating level,
at terminal operation level
Prevention at crane design level



                      Double brake
                      machinery
Prevention at crane design level




Caliper brakes on flanges of boom hoist drums
Prevention at crane design level




Thruster disc brake for gantry instead of motor-mounted multi-disk brake
Prevention at crane design level




Caliper brakes on gantry wheel – To provide even more braking power
Prevention at the crane
    operating level
Safety training of operator cannot be over-
emphasized. Emergency drills
“Boom down” is an open invitation to trouble
Prevention at the terminal
     operating level

  Berthing and un-berthing - Vessels should come
  alongside quay as parallel as possible.
  Equipment maintenance not to be compromised in
  favour of operational expediency
Risk Management Plan

• Terminate the risks – not likely. Inherently
  risky.
• Transfer the risks - Insurance
  Policy. Consequential losses not covered
• Tolerate the risks – Accepting the risks. Self
  insurance
• Treating the risks involves prevention, reducing
  the likelihood of occurrence and severity of loss
Conclusion
Risks associated with container cranes will
increase, due to

  Increasing probability of occurrence
  Greater severity of loss.
  Modern container quay cranes quantum
  leap in size, and complexity, not yet fully
  understood as to risk factors
Thank You

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