Farm to Fork
A Supply Chain Perspective
2. What is SCM
3. Food Supply Chain
4. Food Catagories
6. Processing & Pakaging
8. Cold Chain Management
9. Usage of Technology in Food Logistics
• Importance of Food.
What is Supply-Chain Management (SCM) ?
Management of the flow of goods
Movement & storage of raw materials, work-in-process
inventory, & finished goods from point of origin to point of
• It’s the design, planning, execution, control, & monitoring of supply chain
activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive
infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with
demand & measuring performance globally” 5
• Food Supply Chain or Food System refers to the processes that
describe how food from a farm ends up on our tables.
• The processes include production, processing,
distribution, consumption & disposal.
• Each step of the Food Supply Chain requires human,
natural resources & artificial resources
• Animal Based Products (Fish, Chicken, Meat, etc)
• Dairy Products (Milk, Yogurt, Cheese, etc)
• Crop Products (Wheat, Rice, Sugar-cane, etc)
• Cooked Products:
Any cooked vegetable, starch or grain products
including rice, pasta & potatoes, etc.
• Convenient Foods Products: Food like candies, Soft
Drinks, Juices, Fast Food, etc.
• Frozen Foods
Needs to be to rapid freezing & is kept frozen until used.
Freezing decreases the ability of bacteria’s to duplicate.
• Frozen Foods need special treatment when they should be
• Always a low or freezing temperature
• Hygienic conditions
• Fast Distribution and JIT – Transportation to keep the food
A food warehouse can be a food storage facility of any size, storing
any amount of food for either long or short periods of time, for
distribution in normal food channels. Food warehouses serve as a
critical link in the food chain from the farmer to processor to
distributor to retailer & ultimately to the consumer.
1. Dry Storage Warehouses
• Items which need to be kept away from moisture & Humidity
• Temperature is always between 50 & 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
• Temperature Variation can cause damage. Etc canned foods
• Examples rice, oats & grain
2. Cold or Frozen Warehouses
Refrigerated or deep-freeze storage facility for perishable goods such as
fruits, vegetables, meats, beverages to prevent rotting, sprouting, insect
damage, & other forms of degradation..
It maintains a controlled interior temperature as low as - 25°C
Necessary for logistical reasons, cold storage also enables
seasonal agricultural products to be distributed to retailers across a much
longer season or possibly year-round.
Cleanliness..does not grow bacteria, fungus or create any other health
Condition of the building... well maintained the building is, the less likely
there will be pests or rodents to contaminate the food,should not have
holes, cracks or other ways for unwanted critters to enter:
A pest control plan is a must for food grade warehousing inside & outside
of the building
Building & staff play a big role in finding the right food grade warehouse
Food grade warehouses should be registered with the Food Authorities &
up to date with local food safety inspections.
Transformation of ingredients into Food.
Produce marketable Food Products for Consumer
Involves activites like Mincing, Liquefication, Cooking; Preservation,
Range of Environment friendly materials are used.
Provides identification, protection, temperature resistance,
and physical, chemical, or biological needs.
Contains nutrition facts & barcodes label & other information
Some more functions of Packaging:
Physical Protection.. Shock, Viberation, compression
Barrier Protection.. Oxygen,Water, Dust
Contamination..for Small items not to mix etc.Liquids
Information.. For Use, Transport Recycle etc
Marketing, Convinience for Distribution, Handling Stacking 20
Primary..provides protecion to the food & information
Secondary..middle Layer of Packaging
Tertiary/ Transit...outer boxes or pallets for Transportation &
For Farm to Fork transportation is essential
A vast global transportation network is required
Include suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, retailers & the end
It is middlemen responsible for getting food from field to retail.
All means of transport are used
Whether the food is transported by road, rail, air or
sea. Some key points needs to be followed..
Restricting transportation of cargo food & hazardous
Regular information-sharing between shippers & carriers
about food handling
Mandating specific requirements for shippers & carriers
concerning record-keeping, reporting, & inspections.
Keep ready-to-eat food items that are being transported
separate from raw food.
Food is covered, Vehicle & transport boxes are cleaned
Use a cooling system to ensure that cold food is transported
below 5°C or colder by cold chain. 24
What is Cold Chain Transportation
•A cold chain is a temperature-controlled supply chain.
•An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of storage &
distribution activities which maintain a given temperature
•It is used to help extend & ensure the shelf life of products
such as fresh agricultural products, seafood, frozen food,
photographic film, chemicals & pharmaceutical drugs
Cold Chain is a process since a series of tasks must be performed for
temperature sensitive products at every step.
Means of Cold Chain Transport
There are several means in which cold chain products
can be transported, including refrigerated trucks &
railcars, refrigerated cargo ships as well as by air cargo.
How Cold Chain is managed?
A cold chain can be managed by a quality management
system. It should be analyzed, measured, controlled,
documented, & validated.
What are its functionalities?
It manages the Time how long a the good is going to be
stored in the cold storage
Offers Services like Temperature tracking– Offers the location
of the stored goods
Managing a cold Storage could be easily done
with i.e. Datex Foot Print Warehouse Management System
It includes temperature capture, the ability to restrict
inventory to specific temperature zones; catch weight; track
and trace inventory by Lot, VAT code
IMPORTANT FACTORS WHILE HANDLING COLD CHAIN
• Shipment in insulated shipping containers or other specialised packaging.
• Temperature data loggers and RFID tags help monitor the temperature
history of the truck, warehouse, & the temperature history of the product
being shipped. They also can help determine the remaining shelf life.
• Documentation is critical. Customs delays occur due to inaccurate or
incomplete customs paperwork, so basic guidelines for creating a
commercial invoice should be followed:
Global Cold Chain Facts: Food Sector
Meat Fish &
In European countries & American, the rate of
refrigerated transport is up to 80-90%,
pre-cooling preservation is up to 80-100%,
the loss rate is below 5%.
25% of the total food production is processed foods.
If you are a logistics company & your major product is fresh food
To presevere the freshness of food as supplier to your retailers
what would you do?
• Build more cold storage Warehouses?
• Invest on your Transportation?
• Any other Suggestion?
Computers & Technlogy are essential in development of food
Products.. Need to be updated with latest Technology
Especially in Food manfacturing etc. Designing , Processing
managing operations, resources of plants.
Most commanly used softwares are CAD, CAM,MRIPII & CIM:
• Nutritional analysis
• Calculate costs, amounts
• Packaging desingns
• Production Flowcharts
• HACCP Requirements
• Monitor temperature ,
• Controlling Conveyor belt
• A method for the effective
planning of all resources of
a manufacturing company.
• CAD/CAM, process controls,
groups technology systems,
MRPII, financial systems,
etc, are linked & interfaced.
Farmers problems... restiected markets...short term contratcs
food processors & marketers receive big share a trust needs
to built up between these strategic partners
Safety & environmental attributes should be cared
CAD,CAM difficult to set up need skilled workers.
1/3 of food pakaging goes in waste that is 1.3 billion ton per
annum.. Solution is flexible pakacaging
Massive transportation of food over great distances causes
pollution peak oil & emission of CO2
Greenhouse effect causes
DSD, TP&E, WMS