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Physical, Sexual or Mental harm or suffering to women

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  1. 1. Violence against women Physical, Sexual or Mental harm or suffering to women Dr. Pooja.S.Kushwaha Jaipuria Institute of Management, Indore
  2. 2. History • The history of violence against women remains vague in scientific literature. • many kinds of violence against women often go unreported or under-reported due to societal norms, taboos, stigma, and the sensitive nature of the subject. • 18th-century English common law allowing a man to punish his wife using a stick "no wider than his thumb." This rule for punishment of wives prevailed in England and America until the late 19th century • There is no region of the world, no country and no culture in which women’s freedom from violence has been secured. • UN designated November 25 as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women. • Women who have HIV/AIDS infection are also among the targets of the violence.
  3. 3. Initiation • Violence against women (in short as VAW) is technical term used to refer violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. • Violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women. • Forced subordinate position
  4. 4. Priority actions for parliaments • Adopt laws that work • Make sure they are implemented • Educate and sensitize • Build partnerships • Show strong political will • Establish a sound institutional framework
  5. 5. Types • Rape • Domestic Violence • Sexual harassment • Coercive use of contraceptives • Female infanticide • Dowry violence • Forced marriage • Honor Killing • Female genital mutilation • Forced sterilization • Forced abortion • Trafficking • Forced prostitution
  6. 6. Female genital mutilation • Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is defined by the World Health Organization(WHO) as all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. • FGM is practiced as a cultural ritual by ethnic groups in 27 countries in Sub-Sahara and northeast Africa • It is carried out without anesthesia by traditional circumciser using knife or razor. • The age of the girl varies from weeks after birth to puberty. • The health effects depend on the procedure but can include recurrent infections, chronic pain, cysts, an inability to get pregnant, complications during childbirth and fatal bleeding • As of 2013 anti-FGM legislation had been passed by 33 countries outside Africa and the Middle East. Sweden banned the practice in 1982, the first Western country to do so.
  7. 7. Stages of violence against women 1. pre-birth 2. infancy 3. girlhood 4. adolescence and adulthood 5. elderly
  8. 8. throughout the life cycle………. • Pre-birth Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy on birth outcomes • Infancy Female infanticide; physical, sexual and psychological abuse • GirlhoodChild marriage; female genital mutilation; physical, sexual and psychological abuse; incest; child prostitution and pornography • Adolescence and adulthood Dating and courtship violence (e.g. acid throwing and date rape); economically coerced sex (e.g. school girls having sex with “sugar daddies” in return for school fees); sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution and pornography; trafficking in women; partner violence; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; abuse of women with disabilities; forced pregnancy • Elderly Forced “suicide” or homicide of widows for economic reasons; sexual, physical and psychological abuse
  9. 9. An analysis by the UN of several international studies found domestic violence against women to be most prevalent in Ethiopia
  10. 10. Is law is there?? • Gender equality is in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles • Our laws, development policies, Plans and programmes have aimed at women‟s advancement in different spheres
  11. 11. Constitutional Provisions for women • Article 14, confers on men and women equal rights and opportunities in political, economic and social sphere. • Article 15, prohibits, discrimination against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex etc. • Article 16, provides for equality of opportunities matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state. • Article 39(a)(d), mentions policy security of state equality for both men and women the right to a means of livelihood and equal pay for equal work for both men and women. • Article 42, Direct the State to make provision for ensuring just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
  12. 12. Legal Provisions for women • Factories Act 1948: Under this Act, a woman cannot be forced to work beyond 8 hours and prohibits employment of women except between 6 A.M. and 7 P.M. • Maternity Benefit Act 1961: A Woman is entitled 12 weeks maternity leave with full wages. • The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961: Under the provisions of this Act demand of dowry either before marriage, during marriage and or after the marriage is an offence. • The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976: This act provides equal wages for equal work: It provides for the payment of equal wages to both men and women workers for the same work or work of similar nature. • The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971: The Act safeguards women from unnecessary and compulsory abortions.
  13. 13. India still has one of the lowest sex ratios on the world with approximately 35 million women "missing". The highest number of missing women at birth is in the north-western states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana, etc. Research indicates that 12% of this gap is found at birth which increased to 25% in childhood.
  14. 14. The National Crime Research Bureau statistics indicate that an Indian woman is most unsafe in her marital home with 43.6% of all crimes against women being "cruelty" inflicted by her husband and relatives. These numbers do not include incidences of marital rape, as India does not recognize marital rape as an offence of the 24,923 rape incidences in India in 2012, 98% of the offenders were known to the victim. In India grow up in a situation where they see violence against women as the norm.
  15. 15. The Nirbhaya effect • amendments included recognizing acid attacks, sexual harassment, voyeurism, stalking and trafficking of persons as criminal acts under the amendments to the Indian Penal Code, 1860. • Five exclusive fast track courts were set up to deal with cases of sexual violence against women. • Women’s distress helpline number, 1091 was launched in various Indian cities.
  16. 16. The Verma Committee suggested that marital rape should be recognized as a criminal offence but the suggestion was opposed by all major Indian political parties.
  17. 17. Views!! • Instilling particular values to boys and girls, at home, at school and in the public sphere • India’s first female Assistant Solicitor General, Indira Jaising, pointed out that “no amount of Fast Track Courts and Special Courts will deliver justice to women, if those who hold the high office of a Judge of the High Court hold and express male chauvinistic views”.
  18. 18. Together we can!! • If a brother, friend, classmate, or teammate is abusing his female partner. DON’T REMAIN SILENT. • If you suspect that a woman close to you is being abused or has been sexually assaulted, gently ask if you can help. • Educate yourself and others about how larger social forces affect the conflicts between individual men and women. • As a mother , sister mentor and teach young boys about how to be men in ways that don’t involve degrading or abusing girls and women.
  19. 19. There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of the women is improved. It is not possible a bird to fly only on one wing. Vivekananda
  20. 20. Thank You