What is a projective test? - any personality test designed to yield information about someones personality on the basis of their unrestricted response to ambiguous objects or situations
This holds that an individual puts structure on an ambiguous situation in a way that is consistent with their own conscious & unconscious needs.• Reduces temptation to fake• Doesnt depend as much on verbal abilities• Taps both conscious & unconscious traits• Focus is clinical perspective - not normative - but has developed norms over the years
THE BENDER VISUAL MOTOR GESTALT TESTMore commonly referred to as the Bender-Gestalt Test, became a “mainstay in theassessment battery as an assessment tool inappraisal of intelligence as a screeningtechnique for neuropsychologicaldysfunction, as a clinical tool for samplingvisual-motor proficiency, and as a standardprojective technique in the assessment ofpersonality.”
Lauretta Bender, M.D. (1897–1987) She is best remembered for her Visual Motor Test, a neuropsychological exam that became a world standard. She also spent many years researching theChild neuropsychiatrist, cause of childhoodbest known as the schizophrenia and wascreator of the Bender- responsible for studies onGestalt Test. child suicides and violence.
a. Gestalt Psychology DefinitionGestalt psychology finds its foundationsin German psychology. The word“Gestaltism” literally means the essenceor the shape of an entity’s form. Gestaltpsychology is based on the principlesthat the brain is holistic, parallel, analog,and has a tendency to self-organize.
b. Gestalt Psychology PerceptionThe core of Gestalt psychology is foundedupon four main principles. Gestalt systems aremade up of emergence, reification,multistability, and invariance. Eachof these principles explains perception fromthe Gestalt point of view, rather thantraditional explanatory psychology.
• Emergence is, quite simply, the formation of something complex, such as a pattern or puzzle, from simpler and easier rules.• Reification is the generative aspect of perception. The experienced percept in reification is based upon detailed spatial information instead of the sensory stimulus. Reification can be explained more easily by referring to illusory contours.
• Multistability is a perception experience in which the subject’s perceptions are moving back and forth in an unstable manner creating two possible interpretations.• Invariance is the unique attribute that states simple geometrical objects are recognized by the perceiver independent of rotation, size, lighting, colors, angles, deformations, and other features of the object.
c. Gestalt Psychology ExamplesIII II IIII I• You are likely to view this as four separate groups, comprising three, two, four and one members respectively, as opposed to a line of ten different “I’s.” This doesn’t only apply to visual perception, but also music and how a melody is perceived as a melody.
Bender Gestalt Test (The Bender Gestalt Test)Used as a measure of visual-motor integrationand can be used as a screening tool forneuropsychological impairment. The testincludes 16 stimulus cards consisting ofgeometric figures. During this test the subjectson a sheet of copy paper each of the nine figures,and then draw them again frommemory. Significant errors in the figure (as seenon the right in the figure, made by a person withbrain damage) may reflect some organic braindysfunction.
4-Test Criteria correction Bender a) The square the circle or both are too flattened or deformed. b) disprop ortion between the size of the square and the circle (one isdistortion of twice larger than thethe form other).
4-distortion of the form Five or more points scored in circles, points or circles enlarged partially filled circles are not considered.
Rotation Rotation of the figure at 45 degrees or more; rotation Blast Card but then copied correctly in the rotated position.
Rotation Rotation of the figure or partthereof in more than 45 °, rotation ofthe card after being copied correctlyeven in the rotated position.Integration Fails in the attempt to join thecircle and square, the circle and thevertex of the square adjacent oroverlapping are separated by morethan 3 mm.
Distortion of the formFive or more points scored in circles,points or circles enlarged partially filledcircles are not considered for this scoringitem.
Rotation Rotation of the figure at 45 degrees or more.
Change in shape Five or more points scored in circles, points enlarged.
Distortion of the forma) Three or more curves replaced by angles (if in doubt do not compute).b) No curve in one or both lines, straight lines.
Distortion of the forma) disproportion between the size of the 2 hexagons, one must be at least twice larger than the other.b) The hexagons are excessively deformed; adicón or omission of angles.
Distortion of the form The hexagon or diamond excessively deformed, angles added or omitted.
THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TESTWidely used to research certaintopics in psychology, such asdreams and fantasies, mateselection, the factors thatmotivate peoples choice ofoccupations, and similarsubjects.
THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TESTIt is sometimes used in psychiatricevaluations to assess disordered thinkingand in forensic examinations to evaluatecrime suspects, even though it is not adiagnostic test. The TAT can be used tohelp people understand their ownpersonality in greater depth and build onthat knowledge in making important lifedecisions.
(Henry Murray ) Humanistic Personality Psychology, 1920-1940) “human personality, because of its present sorry state, had become the problem of our time—a hiveof conflicts, lonely, half-hollow, half-faithless,half-lost, half-neurotic, half-delinquent, notequal to the problems that confronted it, notvery far from proving itself an evolutionaryfailure.”
TAT is a projective personality test that wasdesigned at Harvard University in the 1930s byChristiana D. Morgan and Henry A. Murray. Along with the Minnesota MultiphasicPersonality Inventory (MMPI) and theRorschach inkblot test, the TAT is one of themost widely used psychological tests . Aprojective test is one in which a personspatterns of thought, attitudes, observationalcapacity, and emotional responses areevaluated on the basis of responses toambiguous test materials.
• PreparationThere is no specific preparation necessary before taking the TAT, although most examiners prefer to schedule sessions (if there is more than one) over two days.• RisksThe chief risks involved in taking the TAT are a bad "fit" between the examiner and the test subject and misuse of the results.• Parental concerns The TAT does not yield a score, so its results can be difficult to interpret. It is important for parents to remember that the results of a single personality test may not accurately reflect their childs skills, talents, or problems and that there should not be too much emphasis placed upon the results of a single test.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) ExamplesThe young boy hated the violin so much that even its silence was too loud for him. He pressed his fingers into his ears.
All day long the horse went back and forth across thehuge grate, dredging the pit behind the barn for lostbooks.The younger woman sold them to a secondhandbookstore in town.
"I bet my little sissy boy just cant wait to turn around and bend over for my fat cock, can he?“ "No, maam!"
The Puerto Rican boys never found out that when the middle-aged woman invited them to use her pool, she stood by the window the whole time and watched them out of the corner of her eye. Her adult son hated when the cat got fed before he did.
Even though the graveyard was Despite all the acid they hadsmall, it was so crowded with taken, the muscular young mancrosses that the bald man was was scared when his friends toldhaving trouble finding the one he him to hang onto a rope tied towanted to piss on. the back of the car as they startedHe couldnt hold it in much home from the beach.longer. But for a second it was really fun.
The young man was already excited as he posed for his lover, who wassketching the back of his head on the escorts hairless abdomen to useas a target.Then the three of them would take turns on the cavity left by the bullet.
This is a set of instructions for gainingaccess to the unconscious thoughtsand feelings one has towards one’sfather.Psychologically speaking, this gamehas much in common with projectivetests like the Rorschach-test or theThematic Apperception Testdeveloped by Henry A. Murray. Themain difference in method is theusage of a group, rather than anindividual, as the entity doing theprojection. In this game, threepersons use their unconscious andconscious minds to create a tragicstory about one of the mostimportant things in a person’s life; therelation to a husband or a father.
"This is the story of a little girl who is very disappointed. She’sbeen struggling to learn to play the violin but she can’t do it. It’sjust too difficult. She’s upset and she’s going to tell her motherand father she doesnt want to take violin lessons anymore. Shefeels frustrated that she’s tried to play it and has failed. She’sfeeling discouraged about the whole thing."
The general goal of the test is to provide dataabout cognition and personality variables such asmotivations, response tendencies, cognitiveoperations, affectivity, and personal/interpersonalperceptions. The underlying assumption is that anindividual will class external stimuli based onperson-specific perceptual sets, and includingneeds, base motives, conflicts, and that thisclustering process is representative of the processused in real-life situations.
Hermann Rorschach(created the Rorschach inkblot test in 1921) Hermann Rorschach was born on November 8, 1884, in Zurich, Switzerland. According to Ellenberger, young Rorschach was raised "in an atmosphere of extraordinary intellectual, artistic, and cultural concentration."
He studied medicine in Zurich, Nuremberg, Bern, and Berlin. Specializing in psychiatry, Rorschach came into contact with and was influenced by members of the psychoanalytic community in Switzerland, including Carl Jung. Jung had pioneered the study of word association testing as a means of tapping unconscious material, and Rorschach, too, had experimented with this procedure.
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • bat, butterfly, moth • Piotrowski: • bat (53%), butterfly(29%) • Dana (France): • butterfly(39%)When seeing card I, subjects often inquire on how they shouldproceed, and questions on what they are allowed to do with thecard (e.g. turning it) are not very significant. Being the first card, itcan provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressfultask. It is not, however, a card that is usually difficult for the subjectto handle, having readily available popular responses.
Popular responses THE INKBLOT TEST • Beck: • two humans • Piotrowski: • four-legged animal(34%, gray parts) • Dana (France): • animal: dog, elephant, bear (50%, gray)The red details of card II are often seen as blood, and are themost distinctive features. Responses to them can provideindications about how a subject is likely to manage feelingsof anger or physical harm. This card can induce a variety ofsexual responses.
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • two humans(gray) • Piotrowski: • human figures(72%, gray) • Dana (France): • human(76%, gray)Card III is typically perceived to contain two humansinvolved in some interaction, and may provide informationabout how the subject relates with other people(specifically, response latency may reveal struggling socialinteractions).
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • animal hide, skin, rug • Piotrowski: • animal skin, skin rug (41%) • Dana (France): • animal skin(46%)Card IV is notable for its dark color and its shading (posing difficultiesfor depressed subjects), and is generally perceived as a big andsometimes threatening figure; compounded with the commonimpression of the subject being in an inferior position ("looking up")to it, this serves to elicit a sense of authority. The human or animalcontent seen in the card is almost invariably classified as male ratherthan female, and the qualities expressed by the subject may indicateattitudes toward men and authority. Because of this Card IV is oftencalled "The Father Card".
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • bat, butterfly, moth • Piotrowski: • butterfly(48%), bat(40%) • Dana (France): • butterfly(48%), bat(46%)Card V is an easily elaborated card that is not usuallyperceived as threatening, and typically instigates a "change ofpace" in the test, after the previous more challenging cards.Containing few features that generate concerns or complicatethe elaboration, it is the easiest blot to generate a goodquality response about.
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • animal hide, skin, rug • Piotrowski: • animal skin, skin rug (41%) • Dana (France): • animal skin(46%)Texture is the dominant characteristic of card VI, which oftenelicits association related to interpersonal closeness; it isspecifically a "sex card", its likely sexual percepts beingreported more frequently than in any other card, even thoughother cards have a greater variety of commonly seen sexualcontents.
Popular responses THE INKBLOT TEST • Beck: • human heads or faces (top) • Piotrowski: • heads of women or children(27%, top) • Dana (France): • human head (46%, top)Card VII can be associated with femininity (the humanfigures commonly seen in it being described as women orchildren), and function as a "mother card", wheredifficulties in responding may be related to concerns withthe female figures in the subjects life. The center detail isrelatively often (though not popularly) identified as avagina, which makes this card also relate to femininesexuality in particular.
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • animal: not cat or dog(pink) • Piotrowski: • four-legged animal(94%, pink) • Dana (France): • four-legged animal(93%, pink)People often express relief about card VIII, which lets themrelax and respond effectively. Similar to card V, it represents a"change of pace"; however, the card introduces newelaboration difficulties, being complex and the first multi-colored card in the set. Therefore, people who find processingcomplex situations or emotional stimuli distressing or difficultmay be uncomfortable with this card.
THE INKBLOT TEST Popular responses • Beck: • human(orange) • Piotrowski: • none • Dana (France): • noneCharacteristic of card IX is indistinct form and diffuse, mutedchromatic features, creating a general vagueness. There isonly one popular response, and it is the least frequent of allcards. Having difficulty with processing this card mayindicate trouble dealing with unstructured data, but asidefrom this there are few particular "pulls" typical of this card.
Popular responses THE INKBLOT TEST • Beck: • crab, lobster, spider(blue) • Piotrowski: • crab, spider(37%, blue), rabbit head(31%, light green), caterpillars, worms, snakes(28%, deep green) • Dana (France): noneCard X is structurally similar to card VIII, but its uncertaintyand complexity are reminiscent of card IX: people who find itdifficult to deal with many concurrent stimuli may notparticularly like this otherwise pleasant card. Being the lastcard, it may provide an opportunity for the subject to "signout" by indicating what they feel their situation is like, orwhat they desire to know.
Wayne Holtzman (developed the inkblot technique) The HIT, developed bypsychologist Wayne Holtzman and colleagues,was introduced in 1961. The test was designedto overcome some of the deficiencies of itsfamous predecessor, the Rorschach Inkblot Test.Unlike the Rorschach, the Holtzman is astandardized measurement with clearly definedobjective scoring criteria.
In summary, it can be said that the beginningof inkblot use may be traced back to the fifteenthcentury and that a sizable amount of work wasdone towards the end of the nineteenth century.
• Inkblot procedures have been used for studying imagination, thought processes, reflex hallucinations, intelligence and personality. Currently, they are being used to understand the subjects psychopathology and to hear his/her "inner cry." Currently the work is going on in various International Centers.
Ink Blot Testing Ink blot testing is a projective technique personality test. Ink blots look like blobs of ink on paper however ink blots tell psychologists a lot of information about the personality of a patient.
SignificanceInk blot testing assesses the privateworld of a persons ideas, wishesand fears which allows apsychologist to assess the behaviorof a persons personality. Ink blotsare commonly used to test mentalpatients in psychiatric hospitals.
A Blacky picture. Subjects would be asked to create a story based on the picture.
The Blacky pictures were a series ofpicture cards used by psychoanalysts in mid-Twentieth century America and elsewhere toinvestigate the extent to which childrenspersonalities were shaped by Freudianpsychosexual development.
• The drawings depicted a family of cartoon dogs in situations relating to psychoanalytic theory. The main character, Blacky, was accompanied by Tippy, a sibling, and a mother and father. Blackys sex was decided by the experimenter, depending on the subject who was taking the test.
Draw-A-Person testThe Draw-A-Person test requires the subject todraw a person. The results are based ona psychodynamic interpretation of the detailsof the drawing, such as the size, shape andcomplexity of the facial features, clothing andbackground of the figure
• As with other projective tests, the approach has very little demonstrated validity and there is evidence that therapists may attribute pathology to individuals who are merely poor artists. A similar class of techniques is kinetic family drawing.
Smiling person (combined head and body) age 4½.The Draw-A-Person Test (DAP, DAP test, orGoodenough-Harris Draw-A-Person Test)is a psychological projective personality or cognitivetest used to evaluate children and adolescentsfor a variety of purposes.
House Tree Person DrawingsThe House-Tree-Person (H-T-P) projectivetechnique developed by John Buck wasoriginally an outgrowth of the Goodenoughscale utilized to assess intellectual functioning.
• Buck felt artistic creativity represented a stream of personality characteristics that flowed onto graphic art. He believed that through drawings, subjects objectified unconscious difficulties by sketching the inner image of primary process.
• House interpretations are loosely based on research and on the symbolic meaning of the aspects of the house. They should hopefully be nurturing places with normal levels of detail and normal size.
• Tree interpretations: The trunk is seen to represent the ego. sense of self, and the intactness of the personality. Thus heavy lines or shadings to represent bark indicate anxiety about ones self, small trunks are limited ego strength, large trunks are more strength...• Person intrepretations: Here, the idea is that the person of the same sex is like you, and the person of the opposite sex is what you may not admit is like you.