October 26, 2012 – GDAŃSK - CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY•                               CRASH COURSE              ...
The presentation „Environmental Impact Assessment              of Offshore Wind Farms” by Niels-Erik Clausen        •     ...
Environmental Impact Assessmentof Offshore Wind FarmsPeggy Friis (presenting)Niels-Erik ClausenDTU Wind Energy            ...
Outline    Introduction to offshore Environmental issues    The Danish offshore monitoring program    Key results from the...
Environmental Impact AssessmentEIAThe EIA-report serves a dual purpose:1. Anticipate the effect of a proposed wind farm on...
The EIA report et WF lifetimeThe project and the EIAs have 3 distinct phases:Construction (traffic, type of ships)Operatio...
Enviromental impact assessment at sea.Which issues do we need to cover?7   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Issues to be considered                     Hydrogeology                                              Designated areas    ...
Birds and wind turbines    Loss of habitat (IMPORTANT)    Deterioration or fragmentation of habitat or disturbance from   ...
Shipping navigation routes10   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Marine mammals                                                        Harbor porpoise11   DTU Wind Energy, Technical Unive...
Visual ImpactSimple Geometrical Patterns: In flatareas it is often a good idea to placeturbines in a simple geometricalpat...
Visual Impact - colourLight grey paint to maketurbines blend in with theskylineGreen paint at the basegradually changing t...
Visualisation Nysted wind farm14   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
MiddelgrundenCurved layout give a beautiful overall impression with a perspective    DTU Wind Energy, Technical University...
Visualization of new offshore windfarm near the Great Belt Bridge16   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
150 m height – distance 2 km                                                    Source: Kystnære havmølleplaceringer (Loca...
150 m height – distance 4 km18   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
150 m height – distance 6 km19   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
150 m height – distance 12 km20   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
The Danish Offshore MonitoringProgram PSO-funded program 1999-2006 All data publicly available Program managed by The Envi...
Danish offshore wind farms in the study                                                                     1.Vindeby     ...
Horns Rev 14-20 km offshore                                                 2002     23    DTU Wind Energy, Technical Univ...
Nysted - 10-15 km offshore24    DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Nysted location near protected area                         Protected area for birds                                      ...
Monitoring program issues Hydrography & coastal morphology Bottom flora & fauna Introduction of hard substrate habitat Fis...
Extent of program Temporal variation EIA/Baseline Construction period Operation period Spatial variation Impact area (wind...
Selected resultsDTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
29   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
30   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Final results at Horns Rev is expectedafter some 5-6 years when theartificial reef is mature. At Nysted theattraction to f...
32   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Birds – habitat loss, methodsAerial surveys are carried out spring  and autumn from 250 ft or 76 m     DTU Wind Energy, Te...
Common Scoter                                                Horns Rev                   18 surveys                       ...
Long-tailed duck                                      Nysted                 21 surveys                           5 survey...
Results - Loss of habitatBoth Nysted and Horns Rev were characterised bylow local feeding densities of birds, so majoreffe...
Results - Loss of habitat…2During the monitoring programme it was observedthat the Common Scoter stayed away from the wind...
Results - Loss of habitat…3 Long-tailed Duck showed a statistically significant reduction in numbers after the constructio...
39   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
41   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
42   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
43   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Marine mammals -harbour porpoises                                                     a.Before construction               ...
Foto: Nicky Pløk (UNI-FLY)In January 2007 the common scoter was back at Horns Rev     DTU Wind Energy, Technical Universit...
Follow-up survey winter 2007                                                        Over 3 days 356,635 birds             ...
National follow-up research 2009-2012 Harbour porpoise – additional studies of effects of ramming and ways to mitigate the...
Measurement of underwater noiseemitted by an offshore wind turbineat Horns Rev. November 2005                             ...
Cummulative effects49   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
SummaryIn general little impact is found on marine lifeBirds seems to adjust and results suggest that loss of habitat can ...
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Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy – Gdańsk (26.10.2012) – EIA by Niels-Erik Clausen, Peggy Friis

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The presentation „Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms” by Niels-Erik Clausen is a result of many years of investigation on offshore wind power at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø).

It was given by Peggy Friis during 'Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy' which was held on 26 October 2012 in Gdańsk. The event was organized by two partners of the SB OFF.E.R (South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions) Project part-financed by the EU (European Regional Development Fund): POMCERT from Poland and DTU Wind Energy from Denmark.

All presentations given during this event are:

Introduction to offshore wind energy in Poland, Andrzej Tonderski, POMCERT
Offshore wind power meteorology, Alfredo Peña, DTU Wind Energy
Technology status, outlook and economics, Peggy Friis, DTU Wind Energy
Design and construction of OWF, Witold Skrzypiński, DTU Wind Energy
Environmental impact assessment, Peggy Friis, DTU Wind Energy
Legal aspects and outlook for Poland. Grid connection, Mariusz Witoński, PTMEW

All of them are available on SlideShare.

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  • Our Experience says that the topics in large letters are the most important.
  • Clausen, DTU Wind: Environmental impact assessment Klaipeda 20 April 2012
  • Clausen, DTU Wind: Environmental impact assessment Klaipeda 20 April 2012
  • Clausen, DTU Wind: Environmental impact assessment Klaipeda 20 April 2012
  • Clausen, DTU Wind: Environmental impact assessment Klaipeda 20 April 2012
  • Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy – Gdańsk (26.10.2012) – EIA by Niels-Erik Clausen, Peggy Friis

    1. 1. October 26, 2012 – GDAŃSK - CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY• CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY
    2. 2. The presentation „Environmental Impact Assessment of Offshore Wind Farms” by Niels-Erik Clausen • is a result of many years of investigation on offshore wind power at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø). It was given by Peggy Friis during Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy which was held on 26 October 2012 in Gdańsk.• The event was organized by two partners of the SB OFF.E.R (South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions) Project • part-financed by the EU (European Regional Development Fund): POMCERT from Poland and DTU Wind Energy from Denmark.
    3. 3. Environmental Impact Assessmentof Offshore Wind FarmsPeggy Friis (presenting)Niels-Erik ClausenDTU Wind Energy Offshore wind crash course 26 October 2012 South Baltic Offshore Energy Regions Project DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    4. 4. Outline Introduction to offshore Environmental issues The Danish offshore monitoring program Key results from the program Follow up 2009-2012 Summary4 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    5. 5. Environmental Impact AssessmentEIAThe EIA-report serves a dual purpose:1. Anticipate the effect of a proposed wind farm on a specific area,(technical assessment) and2. To ensure that all affected parties, from the authorities tovarious organisations and the general public, obtain a real insightinto the character and extent of the project in question(information purpose) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    6. 6. The EIA report et WF lifetimeThe project and the EIAs have 3 distinct phases:Construction (traffic, type of ships)Operation (traffic, type of ships)Demolition (recycling or landfill) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    7. 7. Enviromental impact assessment at sea.Which issues do we need to cover?7 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    8. 8. Issues to be considered Hydrogeology Designated areas Morphology Benthos Tourism Landfill Fishery Oil and gas Geology Dredging Birds Archaeology Waste water Flora Shellfish Noise Protected species Intertidal Visual impact Aviation Navigation Military and ammunition Transportation Sediment chemistry Fish Employment Coastal erosion Flooding Marine Mammals Waste Electromagnetic fields Disposal Television and communication DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    9. 9. Birds and wind turbines Loss of habitat (IMPORTANT) Deterioration or fragmentation of habitat or disturbance from human activity Collision risk (PRESS and NIMBY) The birds are hit by the blades or hit the tower. Especially raptor birds. In general few examples with a conflict. Altamont pass California, Golden Eagle: A rare species + slow reproduction = great care. Old wind turbines with lattice towers provide outlook post for the hunting eagles With modern wind turbines we have seen a conflict recently in Norway at the Smøla wind farm (150 MW) in Norway. Nine white tailed eagles were killed since 2005 where phase II of the wind farm were opened.9 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    10. 10. Shipping navigation routes10 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    11. 11. Marine mammals Harbor porpoise11 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    12. 12. Visual ImpactSimple Geometrical Patterns: In flatareas it is often a good idea to placeturbines in a simple geometricalpattern which is easily perceived bythe viewerTurbines placed equidistantly in astraight line work well, but theexample from Kappel is even moreelegant, where the wind farm followthe contours of the landscape Turbines on the dike at Kappel, Lolland DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    13. 13. Visual Impact - colourLight grey paint to maketurbines blend in with theskylineGreen paint at the basegradually changing to grey(Enercon)Red markings on blades due toair traffic regulations (Germany)Aviation lights DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    14. 14. Visualisation Nysted wind farm14 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    15. 15. MiddelgrundenCurved layout give a beautiful overall impression with a perspective DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    16. 16. Visualization of new offshore windfarm near the Great Belt Bridge16 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    17. 17. 150 m height – distance 2 km Source: Kystnære havmølleplaceringer (Locating offshore wind turbines17 near the shore by The Danish Energy Authority and Sweco Architects2012 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark 25 Sept A/S June 2012 In Danish
    18. 18. 150 m height – distance 4 km18 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    19. 19. 150 m height – distance 6 km19 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    20. 20. 150 m height – distance 12 km20 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    21. 21. The Danish Offshore MonitoringProgram PSO-funded program 1999-2006 All data publicly available Program managed by The Environmental Group: The Danish Energy Authority, The Danish Forest and Nature Agency, Energi E2 & Elsam (now Vattenfall & DONG Energy) International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology evaluates the outcome21 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    22. 22. Danish offshore wind farms in the study 1.Vindeby 2.Tunø Knob 3.Middelgrunden 4.Horns Rev 5.Rønland 6.Nysted 7.Samsø 8.Frederikshavn80 x 2 MW 72 x 2.3 MW DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    23. 23. Horns Rev 14-20 km offshore 2002 23 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark 25 Sept 2012Photos: ELSAM A/S
    24. 24. Nysted - 10-15 km offshore24 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    25. 25. Nysted location near protected area Protected area for birds 2003 seal sanctuary25 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    26. 26. Monitoring program issues Hydrography & coastal morphology Bottom flora & fauna Introduction of hard substrate habitat Fish Electromagnetic fields Sand eels Birds Seals Harbour porpoises Socio- and environmental economic effects26 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    27. 27. Extent of program Temporal variation EIA/Baseline Construction period Operation period Spatial variation Impact area (wind farms) Reference areas27 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    28. 28. Selected resultsDTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    29. 29. 29 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    30. 30. 30 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    31. 31. Final results at Horns Rev is expectedafter some 5-6 years when theartificial reef is mature. At Nysted theattraction to fish is less pronounceddue to a development of a largemono-culture of mussels of Denmark31 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University
    32. 32. 32 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    33. 33. Birds – habitat loss, methodsAerial surveys are carried out spring and autumn from 250 ft or 76 m DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    34. 34. Common Scoter Horns Rev 18 surveys 9 surveys 34 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    35. 35. Long-tailed duck Nysted 21 surveys 5 surveys Note DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    36. 36. Results - Loss of habitatBoth Nysted and Horns Rev were characterised bylow local feeding densities of birds, so majoreffects on bird distributions were never expectedTemporary displacement (Common Scoter atHorns Rev and Long-tailed Duck at Nysted)Attraction to gulls – e.g. Herring Gull and LittleGull especially at Horns Rev. Cormorants areresting on the superstructures at Nysted.36 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    37. 37. Results - Loss of habitat…2During the monitoring programme it was observedthat the Common Scoter stayed away from the windfarm area after construction of the wind farm.The number of birds in the area (outside the windfarm) increased significantly. It cannot be excludedthat this reflects changes in the food availabilityrather than a change in the behaviour of the birdsthemselves.37 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    38. 38. Results - Loss of habitat…3 Long-tailed Duck showed a statistically significant reduction in numbers after the construction of Nysted wind farm. But the absolute numbers are small and of no significance to the population of the species.38 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    39. 39. 39 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    40. 40. DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    41. 41. 41 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    42. 42. 42 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    43. 43. 43 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    44. 44. Marine mammals -harbour porpoises a.Before construction b.During.. c.After … DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    45. 45. Foto: Nicky Pløk (UNI-FLY)In January 2007 the common scoter was back at Horns Rev DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    46. 46. Follow-up survey winter 2007 Over 3 days 356,635 birds were observed46 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    47. 47. National follow-up research 2009-2012 Harbour porpoise – additional studies of effects of ramming and ways to mitigate the effects Common scoter (Horns Rev), divers and long-tailed ducks (Nysted) long term effects of wind farms e.g. impact on the food ressource for scoters at Horns Rev I and II Fish – long term effects on fish population at Horns Rev I and possible impact on fisheries interests Cummulative effects of several wind farms in the same area47 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    48. 48. Measurement of underwater noiseemitted by an offshore wind turbineat Horns Rev. November 2005 The overall sound pressure level is mainly concentrated in two spectral lines. The frequency of these lines depends on the rotation speed; at nominal speed they are approximately 150 Hz and 300 Hz. The maximum levels at 100 m from the turbine were 122 dB re 1 μPa at 150 Hz and 111 dB at 300 Hz. No sound emitted from the turbine was found at frequencies above 800 HzSource: ITAP –Institut für technische und angewandte Physik GmbH DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    49. 49. Cummulative effects49 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    50. 50. SummaryIn general little impact is found on marine lifeBirds seems to adjust and results suggest that loss of habitat can beavoidedMigrating birds avoid flying inside the wind farms (low collision risk)Harbour porpoises return to the sites after constructionSeals behaviour not affectedArtificial reef effect leads to added bio-diversityIn general high public acceptance for offshore developmentNEXT: We are studying cumulative effects when we make several windfarms in the same area 50 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark

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