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Biogas - status quo in Germany  Michael Seiffert, Frank Scholwin  September 2011 Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemei...
Content <ul><li>Basic aspects  </li></ul><ul><li>Status quo Germany  </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas technologies </li></ul><ul><...
Basic aspects Advantages of biogas production decentralised energy supply diversification of agricultural income reduction...
Basic aspects Provision pathways substrates return of fermentation residue biogas plant selling and trading gas grid <ul><...
Status quo Germany Installed capacity Electrical power generation from biogas: 9,2 TWh el  (real), equals approx. 50% of p...
Status quo Germany Share of substrates n = 413
Biogas technologies Overview System Continuous  Discontinuous Category Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR)  Plug flow d...
Biogas technologies Continous stirred tank reactor
Biogas technologies Continous stirred tank reactor <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective construction > ...
Biogas technologies Plug flow reactor
Biogas technologies Plug flow reactor <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective construction for small plant...
Biogas technologies Batch/percolation
Biogas technologies Batch/percolation <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of solid substrates </li></ul><...
Applications in the food industry Milk processing Waste water treatment plant and solid organic waste digestion Radeberg, ...
Applications in the food industry Chewing gum production Anaerobic waste water treatment at WRIGLEY, Poland, 600 m³/d Prod...
Waste water treatment in a brewery, Samara, 2500 m³/d Production of clean wastewater and gas for process heat supply Examp...
Applications in the food industry Potatoe processing Production of clean wastewater and green process heat Anaerobic waste...
Economics Investment costs <ul><li>Specific investment costs: 3,800 – 5,000 USD/kW el </li></ul><ul><li>Investment costs d...
Economics Operating costs <ul><li>Substrate costs </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for spreading of digestate </li></ul><ul><li>Mai...
Economics Annual total costs Source: Bundesmessprogramm II, FNR, 2009 Depreciation Base rate Purchase of energy crops Othe...
Economics Production costs Source: Bundesmessprogramm II, FNR, 2009 Production costs for electrical energy [€/kWh el ] Ele...
Economics Revenues <ul><li>Revenues for electricity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed-in-tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subst...
<ul><li>Plants already operating: 52 plants that produce about 280 million Nm³/year </li></ul><ul><li>Plants in constructi...
Latest trends  Integration of bioethanol and biogas production Sources: Agraferm, 2010, Verbio AG, 2010
Summary <ul><li>Improvements in the legislative framework lead to a boom in biogas production and use.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Biogas production Status quo and prospects  German Biomass Research Centre Torgauer Straße 116  D-04347 Leipzig www.dbfz.d...
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4.2 - "Biogas - status quo in Germany" - Michael Seiffert, Frank Scholwin [EN]

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4.2 - "Biogas - status quo in Germany" - Michael Seiffert, Frank Scholwin [EN]

  1. 1. Biogas - status quo in Germany Michael Seiffert, Frank Scholwin September 2011 Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Torgauer Str. 116, D-04347 Leipzig, www.dbfz.de
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Basic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Status quo Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Applications in the food industry </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Latest trends </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic aspects Advantages of biogas production decentralised energy supply diversification of agricultural income reduction of odour emission renewable energy – CO 2 -reduction reliable energy supply reduction of CH 4 -emission strengthening of rural infrastructure saving of mineral fertilizers
  4. 4. Basic aspects Provision pathways substrates return of fermentation residue biogas plant selling and trading gas grid <ul><li>Flexible options of energy recovery (electricity + heat in CHP plants, only heat, fuel) </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of production and energy recovery concerning location, quantity and time is getting possible -> exploitation of heat sinks </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the gas grid and natural gas storages for the storage of renewable energy </li></ul>source: dena electricity (CHP) heat fuel
  5. 5. Status quo Germany Installed capacity Electrical power generation from biogas: 9,2 TWh el (real), equals approx. 50% of power generation from biomass in total, respectively 2,9 % of German brutto electrical power generation 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009* Number of biogas plants 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Installed electrical capacity [MWel] > 500 kWel > 70 to 500 kWel < 70 kWel install. el. power [MWel]
  6. 6. Status quo Germany Share of substrates n = 413
  7. 7. Biogas technologies Overview System Continuous Discontinuous Category Continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) Plug flow digestor Batch/ Percolation Symbol Example Substrate characteristics Liquid, 12% total solids Viscous, up to 40% total solids Solid, structured, stackable, humidification through sprinkling
  8. 8. Biogas technologies Continous stirred tank reactor
  9. 9. Biogas technologies Continous stirred tank reactor <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective construction > 300 m³ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible flow-through/storage operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance without reactor emptying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover sheet for large reactors is complex/expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short circuit currents may occur, retention time insecure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scum and sink layers may occur </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Biogas technologies Plug flow reactor
  11. 11. Biogas technologies Plug flow reactor <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective construction for small plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of fermentation steps in plug-flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No scum nor sink layers, short retention time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal retention time due to prevention of short circuit currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low heat losses due to compact construction form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of stirring devices requires emptying of digester </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Biogas technologies Batch/percolation
  13. 13. Biogas technologies Batch/percolation <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of solid substrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular construction, flexible adaption to demands, low investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few material handling equipment, reduced investment and maintenance costs, low process energy demand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed operation of several modules for continuous production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete mixture: zones with reduced gas production may occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of security equipment required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large quantities of inoculate needed for high biogas yields </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Applications in the food industry Milk processing Waste water treatment plant and solid organic waste digestion Radeberg, 56000 t/a; Production of clean wastewater and fertilizer and energy
  15. 15. Applications in the food industry Chewing gum production Anaerobic waste water treatment at WRIGLEY, Poland, 600 m³/d Production of clean wastewater and gas for process heat supply
  16. 16. Waste water treatment in a brewery, Samara, 2500 m³/d Production of clean wastewater and gas for process heat supply Example from Germany Capacity : 500.000 hl/a beer Substitution of fossil fuels for process heat supply with solid and liquid residues utilisation for biogas production Investment : 6,2 Mio € Annual result : 0,7 Mio € Methane produced : 7,9 Mio m³ Applications in the food industry Brewery
  17. 17. Applications in the food industry Potatoe processing Production of clean wastewater and green process heat Anaerobic waste water treatment at potato processing, Germany, 110 m³/d Example from Germany Capacity : 200.000 t/a potatos Substitution of fossil electricity with waste water for biogas production Investment : 1,2 Mio € Annual result : 0,35 Mio € Methane produced : 0,9 Mio m³
  18. 18. Economics Investment costs <ul><li>Specific investment costs: 3,800 – 5,000 USD/kW el </li></ul><ul><li>Investment costs depend on…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical equipment of the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development costs of property (road, canalization, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to energy grid, heat grid, manure storage tank if necessary </li></ul></ul>Installed electr. capacity [kW el ] Specific investment costs [€/kW el ]
  19. 19. Economics Operating costs <ul><li>Substrate costs </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for spreading of digestate </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance costs </li></ul><ul><li>Labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Process energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for consumables </li></ul><ul><li>Costs for depreciation and interest </li></ul>
  20. 20. Economics Annual total costs Source: Bundesmessprogramm II, FNR, 2009 Depreciation Base rate Purchase of energy crops Other direct costs Labor costs Maintenance contracts Other operating costs Relative annual expenditures [% of total costs]
  21. 21. Economics Production costs Source: Bundesmessprogramm II, FNR, 2009 Production costs for electrical energy [€/kWh el ] Electrical utilization ratio [%]
  22. 22. Economics Revenues <ul><li>Revenues for electricity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed-in-tariff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution of expensive own consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues from direct marketing/sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revenues for heat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant heat demand, especially in summer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs for heat conduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative heat costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revenues for disposal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional costs for treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues free plant (without additional transport costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If applicable higher environmental regulations for the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revenues for digestate (substitute for mineral fertilizer ) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Plants already operating: 52 plants that produce about 280 million Nm³/year </li></ul><ul><li>Plants in construction and in design status (beginning of operation: 2011 till 2012): 69 plants that will produce about 350 million Nm³/year </li></ul><ul><li>New plants will mainly be built in eastern Germany (availability of acreage) </li></ul><ul><li>Largest share of biomethane is used in CHP plants - just a small amount is used in the heating market or as fuel </li></ul>Latest trends Biogas injection
  24. 24. Latest trends Integration of bioethanol and biogas production Sources: Agraferm, 2010, Verbio AG, 2010
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Improvements in the legislative framework lead to a boom in biogas production and use. </li></ul><ul><li>Biogas production technology is state of the art to provide sustainable heat, electricity as well as biofuel </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure towards cost reduction increases, future positive market development requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved process biology and technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing total efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved heat utilization (CHP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation of all markets: Electricity, Heat, Fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investors: more and more energy suppliers, investment funds, agriculture </li></ul>
  26. 26. Biogas production Status quo and prospects German Biomass Research Centre Torgauer Straße 116 D-04347 Leipzig www.dbfz.de Dr.-Ing. Michael Seiffert [email_address] Prof. Dr.-Ing. Frank Scholwin [email_address]

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