The industrial revolution


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The industrial revolution

  1. 1. The Industrial Revolutionin Great Britain<br />
  2. 2. The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom, then subsequently spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.<br />
  3. 3. The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations,made in the second half of the 18th century:<br /><ul><li>Textiles – Cotton spinning using Richard Arkwright's water frame, James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny, and Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule (a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame). This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783. The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills. Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worsted yarn for various textiles and flax for linen.
  4. 4. Steam power – The improved steam engine invented by James Watt and patented in 1775 was initially mainly used to power pumps for pumping water out of mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power other types of machines. This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.
  5. 5. Iron making – In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal. This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping (for which a patent expired in 1786) or puddling (patented by Henry Cort in 1783 and 1784).</li></li></ul><li>The Industrial Revolution began in Britain because:<br /><ul><li>There was political stability after the Glorius Revolution;
  6. 6. The development of the strong banking system from the 17th century;
  7. 7. Abundant raw materials;
  8. 8. Colonies produced a huge domestic market;</li></ul>There were major changes in several industries such as: <br /><ul><li>Textile manufacture
  9. 9. Metallurgy
  10. 10. Mining
  11. 11. Steam power
  12. 12. Chemicals
  13. 13. Machine tools
  14. 14. Gas lighting
  15. 15. Glass making
  16. 16. Paper machine and other</li></li></ul><li>Social effects<br />Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory. Arguably the first was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. However, the rise of the factory came somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanised.<br />The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed "Cottonopolis", and arguably the world's first industrial city. For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler.<br />Cottonopolis<br />
  17. 17. Child labour<br />Chimneys<br />
  18. 18. Factories<br />
  19. 19. The Great Exhibition<br />The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations was organized by Prince Albert, Henry Cole, Francis Henry, George Wallis, Charles Dilke and other members of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce as a celebration of modern industrial technology and design. It can be argued that the Great Exhibition was mounted in response to the highly successful French Industrial Exposition of 1844. Additionally, by hosting this exhibition, "Great Britain made clear to the world its role as industrial leader.“ It was the first in a series of World's Fair exhibitions of culture and industry that were to become a popular 19th-century feature. A special building, nicknamed The Crystal Palace, or "The Great Shalimar" was built to house the show.<br />
  20. 20. Crystal Palace<br />
  21. 21. Conclusion<br />Between 1760 and 1860 many changes in Britain occured. It was a slow and complex change in the economy and society alike. It was a change from an agriculture based society to a society evolved in factory manufacturing (The Industrial Revolution). The idea that men should work and support the family was unsuccessful during this time, leading the women and children to work also (Harris 13). This was known as family labor. Women and children worked in the worst conditions and for long hours. The worst part was that owners would not accept direct responsibility for what was happening in their factory. They ignored the conditions of the labor, the long hours that were worked, and the employment of children at certain ages (Mathias 202). As time went on, Parliament produced Acts to regulate what was happening during the Revolution. Women began to strike for better pay as time went on (Harris 21). One may wonder what the world would be like today if Britain did not start the change from the domestic system to the factory system in the 19th century and if the U.S., China and Japan didn’t follow?<br />