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Shea chapter 15

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Shea chapter 15

  1. 1. 15 Foreign and National Security Policy
  2. 2. Video: The Big Picture 15 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch15_Foreign_and_National _Security_Policy_Seg1_v1.html
  3. 3. Video: The Basics 15 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_ForeignDefense_v2.html
  4. 4. Competing Principles for American Foreign Policy  Transformers  Maintainers  Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan  Echoes from the Past  Implementing Policy 15.1
  5. 5. Transformers  Neoconservatives  As superpower, U.S.’s role is enforcer  Military is the central instrument of foreign policy  Unilateralism is the best approach  U.S. should spread democracy around the world  Neoliberals  Other countries should build democracy from within  Non-military is the focus of foreign policy  Stress the importance of international institutions 15.1
  6. 6. FIGURE 15.1: Four Perspectives on Foreign Policy 15.1
  7. 7. Maintainers  Conservatives  Believe the U.S. must be prepared to act militarily  U.S. interests are not the same as global interests  Power is the key  Exercise of U.S. power is best when considered legitimate by others  Isolationists  U.S. foreign policy must focus on protecting us  U.S.’s obligations to allies is minimal  U.S. must focus on cultural, commercial and diplomatic interaction 15.1
  8. 8. U.S. Troops Leaving Iraq 15.1
  9. 9. Conflicting Evaluations of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan  Neoconservative Evaluation  View wars as essential to American security  Neoliberal Evaluation  Non-military means should have been tried; UN should play a greater role  Conservative Evaluation  International efforts in Afghanistan are better; Iraq war distracted the U.S. and upped the anti-U.S. mood  Isolationist Evaluation  Afghanistan was okay, Iraq was a “fool’s errand” 15.1
  10. 10. Echoes from the Past  George Washington  Urged neutrality and isolationism  Spanish American War  U.S. became a major player on the world stage  World War I  U.S. helped to defeat Germany  World War II  U.S. helped to rebuild Europe and Japan  Sept. 11, 2001  Focus on global terror 15.1
  11. 11. 15.1 Which foreign policy philosophy believes that international institutions should play a prominent role? 15.1 a. Neoconservatives b. Neoliberals c. Conservatives d. Isolationists
  12. 12. 15.1 Which foreign policy philosophy believes that international institutions should play prominent role? 15.1 a. Neoconservatives b. Neoliberals c. Conservatives d. Isolationists
  13. 13. Explore the Simulation: You Are the President of the United States During a Foreign Policy Crisis 15.1 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media _1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=20
  14. 14. Video: In Context 15.1 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_ForeignDefense_v2.html
  15. 15. Links Between Foreign and Domestic Policy  Domestic policy values guide American foreign policy  International factors influence U.S. political activity  International and domestic gains and losses 15.2
  16. 16. Domestic Policy Values Guide American Foreign Policy Emphasis is on individual legal rights and civil liberties  Pays less attention to economic and social rights  Hostile, overly strong foreign governments are a threat to human rights  Stronger federal government is not needed to promote human rights  Rejects violence in the struggle for human rights 15.2
  17. 17. International Factors Influence U.S. Political Activity  Foreign Countries  Seek foreign aid and weapons deals (Turkey)  Seek sanctions against other countries (Nelson Mandela and South Africa)  Foreign Companies  Seek favorable tax and environmental policies for their affiliates operating in the U.S  Concerns  The more Congress listens to foreign lobbyists, the less it will listen to Americans  Globalization might seek to influence American economic policies in ways harmful to the U.S. 15.2
  18. 18. Oil Company Executives 15.2
  19. 19. Greek Protests 15.2
  20. 20. International and Domestic Gains and Losses  Farm subsidies  Developing countries refuse to enter into trade agreements with the U.S. until farm subsidies end  Costs of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq  Forced sacrifices in domestic program spending  Battlefield deaths  International trade and civil liberties protections  High on public attention radar 15.2
  21. 21. 15.2 Which two policy areas tend to rank highest on Americans’ radar when it comes to foreign policy? 15.2 a. International trade and civil liberties b. International trade and environmental issues c. Environmental issues and legal rights d. None of the above. e. All of the above.
  22. 22. 15.2 Which two policy areas tend to rank highest on Americans’ radar when it comes to foreign policy? 15.2 a. International trade and civil liberties b. International trade and environmental issues c. Environmental issues and legal rights d. None of the above. e. All of the above.
  23. 23. Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist 15.2 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_ForeignDefense_v2.html
  24. 24. The Domestic Context of American Foreign Policymaking  Public Opinion  Elections  Interest Groups  Political Protest 15.3
  25. 25. Public Opinion  Influence  Source of public policy innovation, such as the Department of Homeland Security  Source of public policy restraint to maintain the status quo, such as early resistance to intervention in Nazi Germany  Vietnam syndrome  Public no longer supports military action that caused major losses  “Rally ’round the flag” effect  Public support following a crisis 15.3
  26. 26. Mitt Romney giving speech to the American Israel Political Action Committee 15.3
  27. 27. Elections  Elections as a pathway for influencing foreign policy?  Evidence mixed: both candidates often agree on major policy issues  American electorate tends not to be very well informed about foreign policy  Debate is less about the policy and more about who is qualified to execute it  Foreign governments avoid serious business with the U.S. during elections  Foreign policy measures initiated at this time run the risk of failure 15.3
  28. 28. Interest Groups  Interest high in China  Business, labor, human rights interests  Groups such as AFL-CIO, Amnesty International, Christian Coalition, etc.  Ethnic Identity Groups  American-Israeli Public Affairs Committee  Cuban-American National Foundation  Religious-based interest groups  Opposed spread of Communism during Cold War  Now focus on family planning 15.3
  29. 29. Political Protest  Globalization  Images of protesters clashing with Seattle police during 1999 World Trade Organization  Brought back memories of Vietnam era clashes  Protests  Often dismissed as unimportant by the administration  Protests add new voices to the debate 15.3
  30. 30. U2 Lead Singer Bono 15.3
  31. 31. 15.3 Why doesn’t foreign policy tend to be influenced by elections? 15.3 a. The candidates tend to agree on major issues. b. The American electorate is not well informed on foreign policy. c. The debate is less about the policy and more about the person executing it. d. All of the above
  32. 32. 15.3 Why doesn’t foreign policy tend to be influenced by elections? 15.3 a. The candidates tend to agree on major issues. b. The American electorate is not well informed on foreign policy. c. The debate is less about the policy and more about the person executing it. d. All of the above
  33. 33. Video: In the Real World 15.3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_ForeignDefense_v2.html
  34. 34. Policy Institutions and Foreign Policymaking  The Executive Branch  Congress  The Supreme Court 15.4
  35. 35. Watching the bin Laden raid 15.4
  36. 36. The Executive Branch  Major Actors  Chief of Staff  The Vice President  National Security Council  National Security Advisor  State Department  Department of Defense  Central Intelligence Agency  Department of Homeland Security 15.4
  37. 37. The Executive Branch  Major Actors  Chief of Staff  The Vice President  National Security Council  National Security Advisor  State Department  Department of Defense  Central Intelligence Agency  Department of Homeland Security 15.4
  38. 38. The Executive Branch  Major Actors  Chief of Staff  The Vice President  National Security Council  National Security Advisor  State Department  Department of Defense  Central Intelligence Agency  Department of Homeland Security 15.4
  39. 39. Congress  Major Actors  Supportive Congress  Strategic Congress  Competitive Congress  War Powers Resolution  Re-emergence of the Strategic Congress  Disengaged Congress  Legislation, Funding and Oversight 15.4
  40. 40. Congress  Major Actors  Supportive Congress  Strategic Congress  Competitive Congress  War Powers Resolution  Re-emergence of the Strategic Congress  Disengaged Congress  Legislation, Funding and Oversight 15.4
  41. 41. The Supreme Court  Three kinds of rulings:  Conflict between state laws and treaties on foreign policy matters  Consistently supported the president in conflicts with Congress  Reluctant to grant government broad powers that may restrict American civil liberties 15.4
  42. 42. 15.4 Which type of Congress cedes most foreign policy authority to the president, but chooses issues to press? 15.4 a. Supportive Congress b. Strategic Congress c. Competitive Congress d. Disengaged Congress
  43. 43. 15.4 This type of Congress cedes most foreign policy authority to the president, but chooses issues to press: 15.4 a. Supportive Congress b. Strategic Congress c. Competitive Congress d. Disengaged Congress
  44. 44. Explore Foreign and Defense Policy: How Much Does America Spend on Defense? 15.4 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_shea_mpslld_4/p ex/pex8.html
  45. 45. Foreign Policy and National Security Issues  Military Security Issues  Economic and Foreign Trade Issues  Human Welfare Issues 15.5
  46. 46. Military Security Issues  Terrorism  Has evolved from more central groups to independent Jihadists  Weapons of Mass Destruction  Greatest fear is theft of weapons and use by a terrorist group  Pre-emption and Deterrence  Pre-emption: striking first in self-defense (Iraq War)  Deterrence: threatens a state-based enemy with swift and overwhelming retaliation 15.5
  47. 47. Iranian President 15.5
  48. 48. Economic and Foreign Trade Issues  Global economic powers  U.S. response to growing economic power of other nations  China  World’s largest recipient of foreign direct investment  Holds world’s second largest currency reserves  As it grows in economic might, it is expected to grow in military might 15.5
  49. 49. Wal-Mart 15.5
  50. 50. Human Welfare Issues  Genocide  Nazi Holocaust  Armenians in the Ottoman Empire  Cambodian “killing fields”  Sudan  Land mines  120 million landmines concealed in 80 countries  Human trafficking  Women and children used as sex workers  Climate change  Threat to long-term international security 15.5
  51. 51. TABLE 15.2: Foreign Aid Spending, 2009 15.5
  52. 52. Retreating Glaciers 15.5
  53. 53. 15.5 Political scientists have observed that HIV/AIDS falls into which foreign policy category? 15.5 a. Military security b. Economic and foreign trade c. Human welfare d. All of the above
  54. 54. 15.5 Political scientists have observed that HIV/AIDS falls into which foreign policy category? 15.5 a. Military security b. Economic and foreign trade c. Human welfare d. All of the above
  55. 55. Video: So What? 15.0 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch15_Foreign_and_National _Security_Policy_Seg6_v2.html
  56. 56. Further Review: On MyPoliSciLab 15  Listen to the Chapter  Study and Review the Flashcards  Study and Review the Practice Tests

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