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Shea chapter 12

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Shea chapter 12

  1. 1. 12 Interest Groups and Civic and Political Engagement
  2. 2. Video: The Big Picture 12 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch12_Interest_Groups_and _Civic_and_Political_Engagement_Seg1_v2.html
  3. 3. Video: The Basics 12 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_InterestGroups_v2.html
  4. 4. Activism and Protest in the United States  Belief in Collective Action  Belief in Self-Government 12.1
  5. 5. Belief in Collective Action  Alexis de Tocqueville  Traveled and observed American culture  Wrote Democracy in America 12.1
  6. 6. Alexis de Tocqueville 12.1
  7. 7. Video: In Context http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_PoliticalParticipation_v2.htm l 12.1
  8. 8. Belief in Collective Action  Group Action  Right to associate and be active in public affairs  Activism at the root of our “do something” political culture  Groups emerge to challenge the status quo 12.1
  9. 9. Belief in Self-Government  John Locke  Natural rights  Social contract  Declaration of Independence  Egalitarianism 12.1
  10. 10. 12.1 This philosopher advanced the idea of natural, or inalienable, rights: 12.1 a. Thomas Jefferson b. John Locke c. Alexis de Tocqueville d. None of the above
  11. 11. 12.1 This philosopher advanced the idea of natural, or inalienable, rights: 12.1 a. Thomas Jefferson b. John Locke c. Alexis de Tocqueville d. None of the above
  12. 12. Influencing Government Through Mobilization and Participation  Constitutional Guarantees  Organized Interests 12.2
  13. 13. Constitutional Guarantees  Bill of Rights  First Amendment  Totalitarian regimes  Tiananmen Square 12.2
  14. 14. 12.2 Tiananmen Square protest
  15. 15. Organized Interests  Race riots  Frustrated African Americans protesting economic and political inequalities  Accountability  Pressure from groups forces government officials to pay attention to important issues  Helps ensure healthy democratic communities 12.2
  16. 16. 12.2 Which is an important effect of group mobilization? 12.2 a. Greater accountability for government leaders b. A greater likelihood of healthy, democratic communities c. A structured outlet to declare and vent frustrations d. All of the above
  17. 17. 12.2 Which is an important effect of group mobilization? 12.2 a. Greater accountability for government leaders b. A greater likelihood of healthy, democratic communities c. A structured outlet to declare and vent frustrations d. All of the above
  18. 18. Functions and Types of Interest Groups  Characteristics of Interest Groups  Functions of Interest Groups  Types of Interest Groups  The Interest Group Explosion 12.3
  19. 19. Characteristics of Interest Groups  Single-issue interest groups  Focus primarily or exclusively on one issue, such as the environment, peace, or abortion  Multi-issue interest groups  Pursue a broader range of issues grouped around a central theme 12.3
  20. 20. Video: Thinking Like a Political Scientist 12.3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_InterestGroups_v2.html
  21. 21. Functions of Interest Groups  Represent constituents  Join individual voices  Provide a means of political participation  Volunteering, contributing money  Educate the public  Sponsoring research, testifying  Build agendas  Serve as government watchdogs 12.3
  22. 22. FIGURE 12.1: Five functions of interest groups 12.3
  23. 23. Types of Interest Groups  Economic groups  Trade associations, professional associations  Public interest groups  Common Cause, NAACP  Think tanks  Heritage Foundation, American Enterprise Institute  Governmental units  National Governors Association 12.3
  24. 24. TABLE 12.1: Types of interest groups 12.3
  25. 25. NRA 12.3
  26. 26. The Interest Group Explosion  Numbers increased  From 5,843 in 1959 to 22,200 currently  Americans have more opportunities to influence government  Cleavages  Deep social divisions  Disturbance theory  Groups form when they perceive their interests are threatened 12.3
  27. 27. Flash mob 12.3
  28. 28. 12.3 Which interest groups include trade associations and labor unions? 12.3 a. Economic groups b. Public interest groups c. Think tanks d. Governmental units
  29. 29. 12.3 Which interest groups include trade associations and labor unions? 12.3 a. Economic groups b. Public interest groups c. Think tanks d. Governmental units
  30. 30. Video: In the Real World 12.3 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_InterestGroups_v2.html
  31. 31. Interest Group Mobilization  Organizational Barriers  Overcoming Organizational Barriers  The Role of Interest Group Leaders 12.4
  32. 32. Organizational Barriers  Tendency to allow others to do the work  Free-rider problem  Public goods or collective goods  Cost  Absence of sense of political efficacy 12.4
  33. 33. Overcoming Organizational Barriers  Selective benefits  Material benefits  Solidary benefits  Purposive benefits  Required membership 12.4
  34. 34. The Role of Interest Group Leaders  César Chávez and the UFW  Grew up as a poor farm worker  Founded the National Farm Workers Association  Later merged with other organizations to form the United Farm Workers of America 12.4
  35. 35. César Chávez 12.4
  36. 36. 12.4 Interest groups may use these benefits, which allow people to feel like they are part of a worthwhile cause, in order to attract members: 12.4 a. Selective benefits b. Material benefits c. Solidary benefits d. Purposive benefits
  37. 37. 12.4 Interest groups may use these benefits, which allow people to feel like they are part of a worthwhile cause, in order to attract members: 12.4 a. Selective benefits b. Material benefits c. Solidary benefits d. Purposive benefits
  38. 38. Inside and Outside Lobbying  Inside Lobbying  Outside Lobbying 12.5
  39. 39. Inside Lobbying  Gaining access  Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995  Testifying at congressional committee hearings 12.5
  40. 40. TABLE 12.2: Spending on inside lobbying 12.5
  41. 41. 12.5
  42. 42. Explore the Simulation: You Are a Lobbyist 12.5 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media _1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=16
  43. 43. Outside Lobbying  Grassroots mobilization  Grassroots lobbying tactics  Direct mail  Advertorials  Newer tools of indirect lobbying  Media manipulation  Social networking 12.5
  44. 44. FIGURE 12.2: Americans’ opinions about interest groups 12.5
  45. 45. Million Mom March 12.5
  46. 46. Outside Lobbying  Campaign activities  Fundraising and candidate endorsements 12.5
  47. 47. FIGURE 12.3: Money spent by PACs in the 2010 midterm cycle 12.5
  48. 48. 12.5 Attempting to manipulate the media and using social networking to influence the public are examples of: 12.5 a. Outside lobbying b. Inside lobbying c. Indirect lobbying d. A and C e. B and C
  49. 49. 12.5 Attempting to manipulate the media and using social networking to influence the public are examples of: 12.5 a. Outside lobbying b. Inside lobbying c. Indirect lobbying d. A and C e. B and C
  50. 50. Explore Political Engagement: Can Interest Groups Buy Public Policy? 12.5 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_shea_mpslld_4/p ex/pex8.html
  51. 51. The Influence of Interest Groups  Interest Group Money  Bias in Representation: Who Participates?  Final Verdict? 12.6
  52. 52. Interest Group Money  Needed to recruit members, hire staff, pay overhead, and raise more funds  Groups with large resources have advantage 12.6
  53. 53. Bias in Representation: Who Participates?  Activists tend to be more politically sophisticated, knowledgeable, and more involved in their communities  Educational attainment, family income, and social class largest predictors of interest group participation 12.6
  54. 54. Final Verdict  Do interest groups decrease or increase the influence of individuals?  Rise in interest group activities correlates with increase in distrust in government 12.6
  55. 55. 12.6 What has accompanied the explosion in interest group formation and activity in recent years? 12.6 a. Distrust in government and voter cynicism b. Increase in money spent on lobbying c. The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 d. All of the above
  56. 56. 12.6 What has accompanied the explosion in interest group formation and activity in recent years? 12.6 a. Distrust in government and voter cynicism b. Increase in money spent on lobbying c. The Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 d. All of the above
  57. 57. Video: So What? 12 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch12_Interest_Groups_and _Civic_and_Political_Engagement_Seg6_v2.html

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