911The Politics of the Media
Video:The Big Picture 11
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED
IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch11_The_Politics_...
Video:The Basics 11
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED
IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_Media_v2.html
Mass Media
 Television, radio, newspapers, magazines
 Marketplace of ideas
 Neutrality and unbiased coverage
11.1
Walter Cronkite
11.1
11.1
11.1 Which of the following is
considered part of mass media?
a. Television
b. Radio
c. Newspapers and magazines
d. A...
11.1
11.1 Which of the following is
considered part of mass media?
a. Television
b. Radio
c. Newspapers and magazines
d. A...
11.2
Growth of the Mass Media
 Print Media
 Electronic Media
Video: In Context
11.2
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED
IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_Media_v2.html
Print Media
 Newspapers for the elite
 Federalist Papers
 Party presses
 Newspapers for the ordinary citizen
 Penny p...
Electronic Media
 Radio
 Broadcast results of 1920 presidential election
 Radio Act of 1927
 Television
11.2
11.2
Electronic Media
 The Internet
 Revolutionized communication
 Social media
11.2
TABLE 11.1: Internet access by selected
characteristics
11.2
TABLE 11.2: Where Americans learn about
candidates and campaigns
11.2
TABLE 11.3: Age gap for campaign news
sources
11.2
Explore the Media:Where Do
You GetYour Political News?
11.0
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_shea_mpslld_4/p
ex/pex8....
11.2 Which communication forms in
campaigns have increased
dramatically in the last few years?
a. Television ads
b. Newspa...
11.2 Which communication forms in
campaigns have increased
dramatically in the last few years?
a. Television ads
b. Newspa...
Functions of the Media
 Entertainment
 Surveillance, Interpretation, and
Socialization
11.3
Entertainment
 Late-night television
 Spoofs political leaders and candidates
 Blurring between entertainment and news
...
Saturday Night Live 11.3
Surveillance,
Interpretation, and
Socialization Investigative reporting
 Muckraking
 Reporting on issues to generate re...
Hurricane Katrina victims
11.3
11.3 Providing context and
explaining complex issues falls
under what role of the mass media?
a. Interpretation
b. Sociali...
11.3 Providing context and
explaining complex issues falls
under what role of the mass media?
a. Interpretation
b. Sociali...
Political Use of the Media
 How Politicians Make the News
 How Journalists Report the News
 How Groups Use the Media
11...
11.4
How Politicians Make the
News
 Earned media coverage
 Getting coverage for free
 Pseudo-events
 Staged events tha...
How Journalists Report the
News
 Setting agenda
 Serving as gatekeepers
 Covering the president
 News releases, briefi...
FIGURE 11.1: Presidential press conferences 11.4
How Journalists Report the
News
 Covering Congress
 Too large to cover
 Staged events
 Covering the Courts
 Confirmat...
Members of Congress 11.4
How Groups Use the Media
 Similar pseudo-events
 Press releases
 Issue advocacy advertisements
11.4
Video:Thinking Like a
Political Scientist
11.4
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED
IA_1/polisci/presidency/S...
11.4 When the White House wants to
publicize a program, its press office
likely will issue:
a. Issue advocacy advertisemen...
11.4 When the White House wants to
publicize a program, its press office
likely will issue:
a. Issue advocacy advertisemen...
Explore the Simulation:You
Are the Newspaper Editor
11.4
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media
_1/2013_mpsl_...
The Media and the Public in
the Political Arena
 Media in Campaigns
 Global Issues, Narrowcasting, and
Citizen Journalis...
Media in Campaigns
 Determining a front-runner
 Negative coverage prevalent
 Paid advertising
 Costly but counters shr...
Barack Obama debates Mitt Romney 11.5
Global Issues, Narrowcasting
and Citizen Journalism
 “McGlobalization”
 Specialized programming
 Appealing to one audie...
Concentration and
Centralization of Media
Ownership
 Competitive news markets
 Allows more points of view
 Becoming lim...
Newspapers in different languages 11.5
11.5 When cable channels and
Internet programs focus on a small
audience, it is called:
a. News monopolies
b. Competitive ...
11.5 When cable channels and
Internet programs focus on a small
audience, it is called:
a. News monopolies
b. Competitive ...
Governmental Regulations
 Media and Government: A Tense
Relationship
 The Right to Privacy and Rules
Regarding Content a...
TABLE 11.4: Public opinion on impact of
media on democracy
11.6
Media and Government: A
Tense Relationship
 Wartime – need to balance information
with safety
 Newsfeeds – a way to cont...
The Right to Privacy and
Rules Regarding Content and
Ownership
 Privacy for public versus private citizens
 Right to a f...
TABLE 11.5: Public opinion on freedom
of the press
11.6
Video: In the RealWorld
11.6
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED
IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_Media_v2.html
The Role of Profits
 Libertarian view
 Show what the public wants
 Social responsibility theory
 Advance citizenship
...
11.6 According to privacy rules in the
media, which of the following could
expect to have the highest threshold of
privacy...
11.6 According to privacy rules in the
media, which of the following could
expect to have the highest threshold of
privacy...
Discussion Question
In what ways is the media our eyes and
ears? How well do media perform this
function? What impact does...
Video: SoWhat? 11
http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED
IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch11_The_Politics_of_the_...
Shea chapter 11
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  • Osama bin Laden, the founder of al-Qaeda, the jihadist organization responsible for numerous terrorist attacks world-wide, most notably the September 11th attacks, is pictured here weeks after his death. News of his death spread quickly, to the relief of millions.
  • Can you trust everything you hear on the news? Author Joanne Connor Green discusses how the media can influence your idea of what is happening in the world, and she urges you to seek out seek out other news sources to get the information you need.
  • How do the media help support our democratic institutions? In this video, you will find out how a free press functions not just as a source of knowledge, but also as a public forum and a government watchdog. You’ll also analyze how private ownership and partisanship impact the ability of the media to do its job.
  • Media has brought dramatic events to Americans and the world: Planes crashing into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the election of this country’s first African American president, and the capture and killing of Osama bin Laden. These impressions attest to the power of the media in shaping the way people think about themselves, their government, and their world.
    Mass media refers to television, radio, newspapers, and magazines that transmit information to a large audience across a large region. And its importance to a democratic society cannot be exaggerated. All democratic governments must allow for a marketplace of ideas, in which differing opinions and values compete for acceptance among the public. The media also act as a communications bridge between the governed and the governing power. We expect the media to be neutral and unbiased.
  • From 1962 to 1981, Walter Cronkite served as anchor of the CBS Evening News and became one of the most trusted people in the country. Cronkite had at first expressed support for the war in Vietnam. After visiting Southeast Asia in 1968, Cronkite declared a shift in his feelings during a broadcast. A month after President Lyndon B. Johnson learned he’d lost Cronkite’s support, Johnson announced his decision not to run for reelection.
  • Before we continue, let’s make sure we know what mass media refers to.
  • All of these outlets belong to mass media. Mass media refers to any media that is designed to transmit information to a large audience. By this definition, we can also include the Internet.
  • Print media were the first form of mass communication. As technology has developed and changed, so have the mass media. Today, electronic media are rapidly evolving, with more and more people looking to different sources for information and entertainment.
  • Before we continue, let’s watch this video to trace the evolution of media outlets from newspapers to the new media that exists today. In this video, Texas A&M University political scientist Tyler Johnson examines the history of media outlets and the effect of both traditional and new media on the political information and messages that reach the public.
  • Early American newspapers relied on revenue for government printing jobs, and thus tended to avoid controversial issues. But during the Revolutionary War, newspapers became important tools for building resistance to British policies and for support for independence. After the war was won, newspapers printed The Federalist Papers that promoted support for ratifying the Constitution.
    Later on in the big cities, partisan newspapers called party presses became arms of competing political factions, targeted at elite readers.
    In 1833, newspapers for the ordinary citizen hit the streets in the form of the penny press, so called because they only cost a penny. They appealed the masses with human interest stories and sports. Coverage of politics was less partisan. This helped newspapers become more objective and fact based.
    Yellow journalism debuted at the end of the 19th century. It was marked by sensationalism and scandal. By the early 1920s, ownership of the many newspapers across the country had become more centralized.
  • Following World War I, there was a rush to set up private radio stations. Presidential election returns were broadcast for the first time in 1920, and by 1924 some 2.5 million Americans owned radios. Responding to the growth in radio ownership, Congress passed the Radio Act of 1927. It declared that radio stations would be privately owned, but the government would issue the licenses to broadcast on specific frequencies.
    Following the radio came television. Like radio, television grew at an astounding rate. Television allowed for contact that seemed more intimate, even in a large and diverse society.
  • Years ago, television watching was a family affair, with most families owning only one television set. In 1975, for example, 57 percent of homes had only one television. Today 97 percent of households own at least one television and 55 percent own at least three.
    Should we be concerned over the fact that television watching has become less communal and more isolated? Should families make more of an effort to watch television together?
  • The Internet revolutionized communication. Originally developed to network Department of Defense computers, it has fuelled the growth of the computer industry. Companies developed Web sites. People began using it as a source for news information, and that resulted in growth in the use of blogs and social networking sites (such as Facebook and Twitter) as a source of information and in political campaigns. However, such information is not always reliable.
  • Table 11.1 breaks down Internet use by age, race, income and educational level. Those who are under 30 are more likely to get their news online instead of from the newspapers or television.
  • Table 11.2 breaks down where Americans get their information about candidates and campaigns. Most people rely on the Internet for such information. The speed at which information is posted on the Internet has also had a huge impact on news reporting today.
  • Table 11.3 shows differences in age among Americans who get their campaign news from sources such as the local news and social media.
    Does it matter where people get their news from?
  • Where are people getting their political news? How is politics related to media choices? Let’s explore these questions by completing this activity.
  • The source of news information has changed. You should be able to answer this question based on your own experience.
  • Campaigns have turned to Facebook and Twitter in force in the last few years.
  • The media perform a multitude of functions in the U.S. which can be summed up as entertaining, informing and persuading the public. They provide people with a shared political experience. They model, or challenge, social norms, and in doing so help frame important political, social, and cultural debates.
  • Even as entertainment, the media can affect the image of officials and institutions. Late-night television in particular has turned the spoofing and satire of political leaders and candidates into a near art form. Observers point to Saturday Night Live’s skits in which actress Tina Fey portrayed 2008 vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin. The popularity and impact of these shows has helped blur the line between entertainment and news.
  • From its beginnings in 1975, Saturday Night Live has made a name for itself by spoofing famous people and politicians. Shown here are two such skits. Chevy Chase is portraying Gerald Ford (with his contingent of secret service agents) and Tina Fey and Amy Poehler are portraying Sarah Palin and Hillary Clinton.
    How relevant do you think comedy programs are in influencing public opinion of celebrities and politicians?
  • A political scientist said the media have a watchdog role as the “eyes and ears to the world.” One aspect of surveillance is investigative reporting, in which reporters seek out stories and probe into an issue in search of serious problems. Some of the earliest forms of investigative journalism, popular around 1900, was called muckraking. Journalists investigated issues and abuses that needed reforms by government and business.
    When interpreting events, the media often provide context and help people understand the complexities of a news event. Ideally, this is done without bias, although that is an often-heard accusation. Setting context and interpreting facts gives media enormous power.
    Finally, the media are agents of socialization, teaching viewers political facts and reinforcing economic and social values.
  • These photos show people fleeing the rising floodwaters of Hurricane Katrina. The original news caption of the photo with the African American man said he “looted” bread, while the original news caption of the photo with the white man and woman said they “found” bread. Do you think these captions indicate that racism is still prevalent in the United States? Why or why not?
  • Before we go on to media and politics, let’s see if you can answer this question.
  • A key part of the media’s job is to explain and interpret complex stories and provide context. Interpretation can lead to bias.
  • Political parties, politicians, interest groups, and individuals use the media to manipulate the public and politics. Once, they had to go to reporters and leak stories. Now, political leaders often directly appeal to the public with a televised speech or advertisements. Either way, the media are an important political institution.
  • Earned media coverage means free positive press coverage that political leaders try to get. Instead of paying for advertising, they stage events that they hope the media will cover. These so-called pseudo-events are intended to generate public interest and news coverage. However, staged events often backfire when politicians make gaffes.
    While journalists often don’t like those kinds of events, they often cover them for fear of being scooped by the competition if they don’t go. And that highlights what can be an adversarial relationship between the media and the politicians. Officials want to control information about themselves, but the media reject such spoon-feeding.
  • The media’s ability to select how and what they report is called agenda setting, and it may be the media’s greatest source of influence. In allowing certain stories to make it to the public agenda and ignoring others, the media act as a type of gatekeeper. Plus, the amount of time or prominence a story receives can dramatically affect the amount of attention the issue is given.
    The way presidents interact with the media differs from president to president. Generally, journalists get their information about the president through press releases, news briefings, and news conferences. Media and the president need each other. Media inform the president about what is happening in the world and how the public feels about them. The president uses media to get his positions across to the public.
  • Figure 11.1 shows how frequently presidents have given press conferences. The number has decreased dramatically. Why do you think this is the case?
  • Compared to the president, Congress gets less media attention. In part, Congress has too many members and is a large institution that does not have one spokesperson. Deliberations are not exciting to watch. In order for members of congress to get coverage, they must stage events in their districts.
    The court systems receive even less attention, with one exception. The media often cover controversial federal court appointments that must be confirmed by the Senate as well as significant Supreme Court decisions.
  • As we see in this photo, female members of Congress headed up the steps of the Senate building to ensure that charges of sexual harassment against then Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas were taken seriously.
  • Interest groups need the mass media to promote their agendas. Sometimes, like politicians, they will stage pseudo-events to gain attention. Other organizations, like the National Organization for Women (NOW) will issue press releases. Other groups, which have sufficient funds, may pay for issue advocacy advertisements, such as the well-known “Pork–the Other White Meat” commercials.
  • How does the media shape public opinion? In this video, Texas A&M University political scientist Tyler Johnson discusses how media framing works and what market factors are influencing this process.
  • Let’s review what we’ve just discussed. Can you answer this question?
  • This is how the White House often alerts journalists of an event or development. It may be followed up with a briefing or press conference. Press released are written to be used without revision by the media.
  • The media serves many functions in our democratic system. An editor's focus on sales can impact how a media outlet fills these functions. In this simulation, you will learn more about the media’s role as you serve as the news editor of The San Francisco Call.
  • The print media tend to cater to an upper-class, better-educated segment of society. Print media are effective in translating facts, while TV is better at conveying emotion and feelings. Because they don’t tend to subscribe to newspapers in large numbers, poorer people may be less informed even about local government issues, which tend to get more coverage in the newspapers.
  • Media are very powerful actors in elections in the United States. While they may not determine the outcome of elections, as some critics might suggest, they certainly play a role in anointing a front-runner in elections. This becomes a cycle: once one media outlet declares a candidate the front runner, other media pay more attention to that candidate.
    Negative coverage of candidates during elections is prevalent. This is disturbing because people who read print media and watch TV tend to support themes these media emphasize.
    To combat negative coverage, candidates turn to paid advertising, which is enormously expensive. However, it gives candidates and their message attention, and also combats shrinking news coverage.
    The media also cover or may even help arrange debates between or among political candidates. Debates favor people who are telegenic.
  • This photo is of the first of three debates between President Obama and Governor Romney. The media are often criticized for their coverage of elections. Do you think they focus too much on the “horse race” and too little on the substance of the campaign? If they focused more attention on issues, do you think people would pay more attention or less?
  • CNN reaches nearly every country in the world and can be viewed by 200 million households worldwide. Other American outlets have similar reach. Some critics, particularly in certain Muslim countries, worry that such a “McGlobalization” of American culture will corrupt their citizens.
    Another concern for many is the growing trend of cable television and the Internet to appeal to narrower audiences, a practice known as narrowcasting. People who get their news mainly through these narrower channels may be missing the larger picture. Some fear that narrowcasting will fragment groups in society. Issues of concern to different groups will not be broadcast to all.
    Another area of either celebration or concern is citizen journalism, in which non-professionals are involved in collecting, reporting, commenting on, and disseminating news stories. People post consumer reviews, opinions on blogs and bulletin boards, and videos. Some see this as a positive change. Others worry journalistic quality will suffer.
  • There used to be many more newspapers and other independent news organizations than we have today. The trend over the last half century or so of concentration of media ownership has led some to fear a “nationalization” of news, which tends to promote a sameness of opinion and experience.
    It is widely believed that competition results in the best product, and observers of the media support competitive news markets as healthy. Competition allows for greater variety of opinions and viewpoints. News monopolies, on the other hand, are seen as potentially dangerous.
    Newspaper ownership and broadcast media have been trending toward concentration of ownership. In 2001, ten corporations dominated the mass media.
  • Despite the decline in newspapers, many areas of the country have newspapers printed in several languages to keep people informed.
    Do you think that people should be pressured to learn to speak and read English? Or does providing information in a variety of languages show respect for immigrant populations and add to the diversity of the United States?
  • Let’s review the key terms in this section with this question.
  • Narrowcasting is the term for appealing to a narrow audience. For example, programs that are targeted at Hispanic viewers are not received by English-speaking groups.
  • All societies have laws regulating the media, generally due to national security concerns. The question is: How much regulation is needed before it infringes on personal freedom and First Amendment rights?
  • Table 11.4 shows public opinion on the impact of media on democracy. An increasing number of Americans believe that media harm democracy.
  • The media want to be allowed to report what they think is newsworthy, while the government wants to limit disclosure in order to promote protection. This is especially true during wartime, when the tension between the media and government can be palpable.
    Sometimes, information is passed through a tightly controlled feed, which may then release more information or video to news organizations. With limited information, however, it is hard to ensure that the public knows how a war is being fought. Some fear that wartime abuses may increase in the absence of a media presence.
  • There are laws to protect people’s privacy. Generally, courts have given the media latitude in reporting on the lives of those in the public eye, such as politicians and celebrities. Ordinary people who are victims of a crime, for example, and thus are suddenly thrust in the public eye are a different matter. Too much coverage can mean that people are denied the right to a fair trial.
    The media may not publish information they know to be incorrect, and libel laws are designed to protect people from false reporting. However, public figures must prove actual malice.
    Americans’ belief in a free press means that the courts vary rarely allow the government to use prior censorship and attempt to prohibit the publication or broadcast of a story.
    Political coverage is regulated as well, but only for fairness. The equal time rule requires television stations to give (or sell) equal amounts of airtime at the same price to both candidates in a political race.
  • Table 11.5 details public opinion on freedom of the press. What do you think? Is there too much or too little governmental regulation of the media? What factors do you think might change public opinion either way?
  • What is the ideal relationship between the government and the media? Real people consider whether leaks of confidential government information to the press is good for democracy or whether leaks give the government too much control over the stories being told in the newspapers.
  • Critics have accused the media of relying on exploitive and sensational stories in order to make a profit. These critics raise the question: Who should control the media? Some say they should police themselves by establishing their own standards for decency and ethics.
    The libertarian view says that the media should show what they think the public wants. In contrast, the social responsibility theory (also called the public advocacy model) suggests that the media need to balance what viewers want with what is in their best interests. As the role of the traditional media continues to evolve, we’ll have to see which, if any, of these two theories becomes a reality.
  • Let’s review restraints on the media with this question.
  • Private citizens are afforded more privacy that pubic figures such as politicians or celebrities.
  • Can anyone be a journalist? Or are there certain ethical standards that all media must adhere to? Author Joanne Connor Green discusses the recent trend of citizen journalism, and she provides some tips on how you can gauge the quality of the information you are consuming.
  • Shea chapter 11

    1. 1. 911The Politics of the Media
    2. 2. Video:The Big Picture 11 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch11_The_Politics_of_the_ Media_Seg1_v2.html
    3. 3. Video:The Basics 11 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg2_Media_v2.html
    4. 4. Mass Media  Television, radio, newspapers, magazines  Marketplace of ideas  Neutrality and unbiased coverage 11.1
    5. 5. Walter Cronkite 11.1
    6. 6. 11.1 11.1 Which of the following is considered part of mass media? a. Television b. Radio c. Newspapers and magazines d. All of the above
    7. 7. 11.1 11.1 Which of the following is considered part of mass media? a. Television b. Radio c. Newspapers and magazines d. All of the above
    8. 8. 11.2 Growth of the Mass Media  Print Media  Electronic Media
    9. 9. Video: In Context 11.2 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg3_Media_v2.html
    10. 10. Print Media  Newspapers for the elite  Federalist Papers  Party presses  Newspapers for the ordinary citizen  Penny press  Yellow journalism  Centralized ownership 11.2
    11. 11. Electronic Media  Radio  Broadcast results of 1920 presidential election  Radio Act of 1927  Television 11.2
    12. 12. 11.2
    13. 13. Electronic Media  The Internet  Revolutionized communication  Social media 11.2
    14. 14. TABLE 11.1: Internet access by selected characteristics 11.2
    15. 15. TABLE 11.2: Where Americans learn about candidates and campaigns 11.2
    16. 16. TABLE 11.3: Age gap for campaign news sources 11.2
    17. 17. Explore the Media:Where Do You GetYour Political News? 11.0 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_shea_mpslld_4/p ex/pex8.html
    18. 18. 11.2 Which communication forms in campaigns have increased dramatically in the last few years? a. Television ads b. Newspaper editorials c. Social media d. Public debates 11.2
    19. 19. 11.2 Which communication forms in campaigns have increased dramatically in the last few years? a. Television ads b. Newspaper editorials c. Social media d. Public debates 11.2
    20. 20. Functions of the Media  Entertainment  Surveillance, Interpretation, and Socialization 11.3
    21. 21. Entertainment  Late-night television  Spoofs political leaders and candidates  Blurring between entertainment and news 11.3
    22. 22. Saturday Night Live 11.3
    23. 23. Surveillance, Interpretation, and Socialization Investigative reporting  Muckraking  Reporting on issues to generate reform  Context and bias 11.3
    24. 24. Hurricane Katrina victims 11.3
    25. 25. 11.3 Providing context and explaining complex issues falls under what role of the mass media? a. Interpretation b. Socialization c. Surveillance d. Muckraking 11.3
    26. 26. 11.3 Providing context and explaining complex issues falls under what role of the mass media? a. Interpretation b. Socialization c. Surveillance d. Muckraking 11.3
    27. 27. Political Use of the Media  How Politicians Make the News  How Journalists Report the News  How Groups Use the Media 11.4
    28. 28. 11.4 How Politicians Make the News  Earned media coverage  Getting coverage for free  Pseudo-events  Staged events that try to show leader in good light  Sometimes backfire  Adversarial relationship
    29. 29. How Journalists Report the News  Setting agenda  Serving as gatekeepers  Covering the president  News releases, briefings, conferences 11.4
    30. 30. FIGURE 11.1: Presidential press conferences 11.4
    31. 31. How Journalists Report the News  Covering Congress  Too large to cover  Staged events  Covering the Courts  Confirmation hearings 11.4
    32. 32. Members of Congress 11.4
    33. 33. How Groups Use the Media  Similar pseudo-events  Press releases  Issue advocacy advertisements 11.4
    34. 34. Video:Thinking Like a Political Scientist 11.4 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg4_Media_v2.html
    35. 35. 11.4 When the White House wants to publicize a program, its press office likely will issue: a. Issue advocacy advertisements b. Pseudo-events c. Press releases d. Opinion pieces in the newspaper 11.4
    36. 36. 11.4 When the White House wants to publicize a program, its press office likely will issue: a. Issue advocacy advertisements b. Pseudo-events c. Press releases d. Opinion pieces in the newspaper 11.4
    37. 37. Explore the Simulation:You Are the Newspaper Editor 11.4 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_media _1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL=15
    38. 38. The Media and the Public in the Political Arena  Media in Campaigns  Global Issues, Narrowcasting, and Citizen Journalism  Concentration and Centralization of Ownership 11.5
    39. 39. Media in Campaigns  Determining a front-runner  Negative coverage prevalent  Paid advertising  Costly but counters shrinking coverage  Debates 11.5
    40. 40. Barack Obama debates Mitt Romney 11.5
    41. 41. Global Issues, Narrowcasting and Citizen Journalism  “McGlobalization”  Specialized programming  Appealing to one audience can fragment society  Bulletin boards, blogs  Is citizen journalism trustworthy? 11.5
    42. 42. Concentration and Centralization of Media Ownership  Competitive news markets  Allows more points of view  Becoming limited  News monopolies  Is concentration of ownership dangerous? 11.5
    43. 43. Newspapers in different languages 11.5
    44. 44. 11.5 When cable channels and Internet programs focus on a small audience, it is called: a. News monopolies b. Competitive news markets c. McGlobalization d. Narrowcasting 11.5
    45. 45. 11.5 When cable channels and Internet programs focus on a small audience, it is called: a. News monopolies b. Competitive news markets c. McGlobalization d. Narrowcasting 11.5
    46. 46. Governmental Regulations  Media and Government: A Tense Relationship  The Right to Privacy and Rules Regarding Content and Ownership  The Role of Profits 11.6
    47. 47. TABLE 11.4: Public opinion on impact of media on democracy 11.6
    48. 48. Media and Government: A Tense Relationship  Wartime – need to balance information with safety  Newsfeeds – a way to control information 11.6
    49. 49. The Right to Privacy and Rules Regarding Content and Ownership  Privacy for public versus private citizens  Right to a fair trial  Libel laws  Public officials must prove malice  Prior censorship  Equal time rule 11.6
    50. 50. TABLE 11.5: Public opinion on freedom of the press 11.6
    51. 51. Video: In the RealWorld 11.6 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_Media_v2.html
    52. 52. The Role of Profits  Libertarian view  Show what the public wants  Social responsibility theory  Advance citizenship  Balance what public wants with what is in their best interests 11.6
    53. 53. 11.6 According to privacy rules in the media, which of the following could expect to have the highest threshold of privacy? a. A well-known actor b. The president of the U.S. c. A justice of the Supreme Court d. A victim of a crime 11.6
    54. 54. 11.6 According to privacy rules in the media, which of the following could expect to have the highest threshold of privacy? a. A well-known actor b. The president of the U.S. c. A justice of the Supreme Court d. A victim of a crime 11.6
    55. 55. Discussion Question In what ways is the media our eyes and ears? How well do media perform this function? What impact does media have on shaping our views of politics and culture? 11
    56. 56. Video: SoWhat? 11 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MED IA_1/polisci/presidency/Shea_Ch11_The_Politics_of_the_ Media_Seg6_v2.html

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