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  1. 1. Definitions Sex The biological distinction between males and females
  2. 2. GenderCulturally learned differences between men and women
  3. 3. Gender Identification An individual’s internal sense or perception of being male or female Gender Role The behavior patterns, obligations and privileges that are considered appropriate for each sex
  4. 4. Cognitive Influences Cognition: The act or process of knowing including both awareness and judgment
  5. 5. Cognitive assignment of gender occurs as the child grows up……. 1) Child categorizes self as boy or girl 2) Begins to value maleness or femaleness 1) Begins to act according to gender expectations 2) Views his behavior against these expectations
  6. 6. Gender role is learned from Observation of parents and other significant persons (e.g., tv)
  7. 7. Reinforcement and punishment by parents, older sibling peers, teachers
  8. 8. Cultural Influences Society prescribes  How a male or female ought to look and behave  What type of personality s/he ought to have  What roles s/he should perform
  9. 9. B. Class exercise Read the following personality traits and identify whether these are typically male or female in your culture.
  10. 10. Male or Female Trait? Active Aggressive Courageous Dominant Enterprising Independent Rude Severe Strong Superstitious Adventurous Attractive Daring Dreamy Fearful Progressive Sensitive Soft-hearted Submissive Weak Affectionate Autocratic Dependent Emotional Forceful Robust Sentimental Stern Unemotional Wise
  11. 11. Striking agreement on gender stereotypes by college students from 25 different countries 2/3 agreed to the following gender roles:
  12. 12. Active Adventurous Aggressive Autocratic Courageous Daring Dominant Enterprising Forceful Independent Progressive Robust Rude Stern Severe Strong Unemotional Wise
  13. 13. Affectionate Attractive Dependant Dreamy Emotional Fearful Sensitive Sentimental Soft Hearted Submissive Superstitious Weak
  14. 14. In general, Male stereotype is centered on a set of traits called “instrumental” Female stereotype is centered on “communal” traits
  15. 15. Wage Inequities Update from 2001 Bureau of Labor Statistics of the chart on page 328 of Robertson’s chapter on Social Inequalities in Reader II:
  16. 16. National median annual wage for full time male employees was $37,544 National median annual wage for full time female employees was $28,184
  17. 17.   The average woman earns 75% of the average man Steady increase from 60% in 1975 to 78% in 1993 (see Reader II) Has remained relatively steady since then 
  18. 18.  Average woman has less education than average man  Average woman has less job experience than average man (due to child rearing leave, which women take more than men)
  19. 19. Reasons for inequities (or non-comparable worth) Employers perceive women as less able and less committed than men Old boy network; women prevent other women from rising (competing)
  20. 20. Education Inequalities Statistics from US Census, people aged 25 and older in 2000
  21. 21. All Races Blacks Percentage Male Female Male Female High School Diploma or Equivalent or higher 84.2 84.0 78.7 78.3 Bachelor’s Degree or higher 28.5 25.1 16.5 17.7
  22. 22. In the Virgin Islands in 2000, according to the US Census  60.6% of people 25 and older graduated from high school or have a GED (compared to 84.1% in USA)  16.8% of people 25 and older graduated from college (compared to 26.2% in USA)
  23. 23. Research in Jamaica, Barbados and St. Vincent in 1994-5, revealed that girls achieve higher scores in school (Parry, 1996 in Reader II) Possible reasons include
  24. 24. Cultural expectations Male = macho Academics = “effeminate,” “sissyish” & “nerdy” So, male students conform to gender identity and few males enter education as a profession
  25. 25. Teachers differentiate subject areas along gender lines Woodworking, technical drawing = male Home nutrition, English = female
  26. 26. Teachers have clear expectations of gender-appropriate behavior in classroom “Rough” and “boisterous” = male Males who do not follow expectations receive peer and teacher pressure to conform
  27. 27. Teachers have different expectations of gender-specific response to verbal discipline Conceal response to verbal chastisement (esp. sarcasm) = male
  28. 28. Reading assignments for Gender:  “Inequalities of Gender and Age” by Ian Robertson in Reader II. Please note that the research and conclusions by John Money on page 316 have been refuted. Disregard that paragraph.  “Class, Race, and Gender Issues in Child Rearing in the Caribbean” by Elsa A. Leo-Rhynie in Reader II.  “Caribbean Masculinities and Educational Failure” by Odette Parry in Reader II.