MSc LL Katja Leszczynska 2010

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A dissertation submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Light and Lighting 2010.

The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies
University College London

New technologies in aircraft cabin lighting:
What is the impact of mood lighting passengers’ satisfaction on board an aircraft?

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MSc LL Katja Leszczynska 2010

  1. 1. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING:WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF MOOD LIGHTING PASSENGERS’ SATISFACTION ONBOARD AN AIRCRAFT ?A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree ofMaster of Science in Light and LightingThe Bartlett School of Graduate Studies Author: Katarzyna LeszczynskaUniversity College London Supervisor: Peter RaynhamSeptember 2010 Course Director: Dr. Kevin MansfieldMSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■THE BARTLETT FACULTY OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT ■ LONDON ■ SEPTEMBER 2010 ■
  2. 2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING:WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF MOOD LIGHTING PASSENGERS’ SATISFACTION ONBOARD AN AIRCRAFT ?LIST OF FIGURES vLIST OF TABLES viiLIST OF IMAGES viiiLIST OF FILES ON ATTACHED CD: viiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ixABSTRACT 101 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND RESEARCH 11 1.1 AIRCRAFT LIGHTING 11 1.2 CURRENT RESEARCH 12 1.3 CABIN LIGHTING DESIGN 13 1.3.1 MOOD LIGHTING 15 1.3.2 AIRLINES CORPORATE IDENTITY 19 1.3.3 COLOUR PSYCHOLOGY 212 THE PILOT STUDY 24 2.1 SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNERS 24 2.2 INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS 25 2.2.1 PARTICIPANTS 25 2.2.2 RESPONDENTS GENERAL OPINIONS ABOUT MOOD LIGHTING IN AIRPLANES 27 2.2.3 MAIN ACTIVITIES 31 2.3 GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONS 383 RESEARCH PROBLEM 404 METHODOLOGY - THE EXPERIMENT 41■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ii
  3. 3. 4.1 ROOM AND EQUIPMENT 41 4.2 TEST SUBJECTS 44 4.3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UP 44 4.4 THE QUESTIONNAIRE 49 4.5 EXPERIMENTAL TASKS 51 4.6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCESS 54 4.7 EXPERIMENTAL LIMITATIONS 565 PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS 58 5.1 TEST SUBJECTS 58 5.2 TESTED LIGHTING SCENES 59 5.2.1 WHITE SCENES 61 5.2.3 DYNAMIC SCENES 64 5.3 LIGHTING SCENES EVALUATION 67 5.3.1 GENERAL SCENE EVALUATION 67 5.3.2 MAIN ACTIVITIES 71 5.3.3 DYNAMIC SCENES EVALUATION 75 5.3.4 SUMMARY 75 5.4 COMMENTS ABOUT THE EXPERIMENT 786 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS 80 6.1 GROUPS A AND B 80 6.2 GENDER 83 6.3 AGE GROUPS 84 6.4 AISLE / WINDOW 85 6.5 WHITE SCENES 87 6.6 MAIN ACTIVITIES 89 6.7 DYNAMIC SCENES 92■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA iii
  4. 4. 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION FOR THE FUTURE RESEARCH 949 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9610 APPENDIX 99 APPENDIX 1 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNER a APPENDIX 2 – PILOT STUDY: SURVEY RESULTS d APPENDIX 3 – EXPERIMENTAL AGENDA (DIEHL AEROSPACE) j APPENDIX 4 – DESCRIPTION OF TESTED LIGHTING SCENES k APPENDIX 5 – SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF TESTED LIGHTING CONDITIONS x APPENDIX 6 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN z APPENDIX 7 – EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONNAIRE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH – SUMMARY nn APPENDIX 8 – READING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – GERMAN uu APPENDIX 9 – DRAWING TASK DURING THE EXPERIMENT – DRAWING BY NUMBERS ww APPENDIX 10 – DUTY FREE BROCHURE IN ORIGINAL LANGUAGE – ENGLISH yy APPENDIX 11 – SUMMARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS aaa■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA iv
  5. 5. LIST OF FIGURESFigure 1: Aircraft Lighting ......................................................................................................... 12Figure 2: Influential factors of the design the cabin lighting system ...................................... 14Figure 3: Advantages of new cabin lighting systems ............................................................... 16Figure 4: Pilot Study: participants split into gender................................................................. 25Figure 5: Pilot Study: Split into the years of experience within lighting design ...................... 26Figure 6: Pilot Study: Split into different sectors of lighting design......................................... 26Figure 7: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes ............................................. 28Figure 8: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes ....................... 28Figure 9: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting onplanes ....................................................................................................................................... 29Figure 10: Mood lighting in airplane cabin .............................................................................. 29Figure 11: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during a flight ............. 32Figure 12: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during aflight ......................................................................................................................................... 32Figure 13: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during the DUTY FREE SHOP during a flight.................................................................................................................................................. 33Figure 14: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about specific lightingduring the DUTY FREE SHOP .................................................................................................... 34Figure 15: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about colour changinglighting during the DUTY FREE SHOP ....................................................................................... 34Figure 16: Respondents’ opinions about different lighting scenes for ENTRY and EXIT ......... 35Figure 17: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY and EXIT.......... 36Figure 18: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY andEXIT ........................................................................................................................................... 36Figure 19: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for all activities ................ 37Figure 20: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for allactivities ................................................................................................................................... 37Figure 21: Colour transition in LS07 ......................................................................................... 47Figure 22: Example of the semantic differential scale used in the questionnaire................... 50Figure 23: Experimental procedure illustrating lighting scenes with related activities .......... 52■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA v
  6. 6. Figure 24: Duration of each lighting scene LS01 - LS11 ........................................................... 52Figure 25: Duration of the breaks B01 and B02 ....................................................................... 52Figure 26: Images of tested lighting scenes in the chronological order .................................. 53Figure 27: Experiment participants divided by gender ............................................................ 58Figure 28: Experiment participants divided by age.................................................................. 58Figure 29: The presentation of calculated CRI and CCT for tested lighting conditions ........... 60Figure 30: Spectral distribution of LS 03, LS 06 and LS 09 ....................................................... 61Figure 31: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 02, LS 03 and LS 04. ........................ 63Figure 32: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 05, LS 06 and LS 07. ........................ 63Figure 33: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 08, LS 09 and LS 10. ........................ 64Figure 34: Spectral distribution and chromacity coordinates plotted on the CIE 1931 x,yspace for LS07........................................................................................................................... 65Figure 35: Comparison of the spectral distribution of LS 11a, b and c. ................................... 66Figure 36: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 1 for each lighting scene . 68Figure 37: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 3 for each lighting scene . 68Figure 38: Comparison of the average responses to the Question 2 (a,b,c,d,e,f) for eachlighting scene............................................................................................................................ 71Figure 39: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during MEAL scenes ................................... 72Figure 40: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during RELAX/WORK scenes ...................... 73Figure 41: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during DUTY FREE scenes........................... 74Figure 42: Question 8 (LS 07) and 6 ( LS 11)............................................................................. 75Figure 43: The most preferable lighting scenes ....................................................................... 76Figure 44: The less preferable lighting scenes ......................................................................... 77Figure 45: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How do youfeel?” ........................................................................................................................................ 80Figure 46: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How do you feelunder this lighting condition?” very good (2) – very bad (-2) .................................................. 81Figure 47: Comparison of the results from Group A and B about difficulties in performingtasks (Question 3) very easy (2) – very difficult (-2) ................................................................ 82Figure 48: Comparison of the results from Group A and B to the Question: “How natural waslooking the skin under this lighting condition?” very natural (2) – not at all (-2).................... 83Figure 49: Age split: Respondents’ general opinions about lighting scenes LS04, LS08 .......... 84■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA vi
  7. 7. Figure 50: Age split: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during reading task and readingthe duty free brochure. too dark (2) – too much light (-2) ...................................................... 85Figure 51: General results to the Question about Colour Rendering and the calculated CRI . 86Figure 52: Comparison of the results from Window and Aisle seats to the Question: “Hownatural was looking the skin under this lighting condition?” very natural (2) – not at all (-2) 86Figure 53: Comparison of the results from Window and Aisle seats - general appraisal of theLS02 .......................................................................................................................................... 87Figure 54: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes ....................................................................................................................................... 88Figure 55: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes: Pleasant (2) – Unpleasant (-2) .................................................................................... 88Figure 56: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes: Dramatic (2) – Unobtrusive (-2).................................................................................. 89Figure 57: Comparison of respondents’ general opinions about lighting during the whitescenes: Stimulating (2) – Irritating (-2).................................................................................... 89Figure 58: Respondents’ opinions about lighting scene LS07: Questions 8 and 9 .................. 92Figure 59: Respondents’ opinions about lighting scene LS07: Questions 6 and 7 .................. 92LIST OF TABLESTable 1: The initial summary of the lighting scenes ................................................................. 46Table 2: The summary of the illumiance and luminance levels for each lighting scenes ........ 49Table 3: Summary of activities and performed tasks ............................................................... 51Table 4: Summary of two runs of the experiment ................................................................... 54Table 5: The summary of the colour properties for each lighting scenes ............................... 60Table 6: The summary of the main criteria for choosing the lighting scenes .......................... 62■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA vii
  8. 8. LIST OF IMAGESImage 1: Innovative mood lighting applied throughout the cabin of the new Airbus 380 ..... 15Image 2: Control panel for Virgin Atlantic ............................................................................... 17Image 3: Training Mock up for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Suite ............................................ 18Image 4: Example of corporate colours (Air France) projected onto cabin lighting ................ 20Image 5: Lighting design for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Suite launched in 2004 ................... 21Image 6: Mood lighting in Business Class on board of Emirates Airlines ............................... 23Image 7: Experimental room with allocation of the chairs ...................................................... 42Image 8: Sketch of the Experimental Mock up with the indicated position of the light ......... 43Image 9: Initial sketches of proposed lighting scenes.............................................................. 45Image 10: Experimental room with indicated illuminance and luminance measuring points 48Image 11: Snacks used in tested scenes LS02, LS03 and LS04 ................................................. 55Image 12: Brochure and packs of sweets used during Duty Free Shopping scenes ................ 56Image 13: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for MEAL: LS02, LS03, LS04 ........... 90Image 14: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for RELAX/WORK: LS05, LS06, LS07.................................................................................................................................................. 91Image 15: Photographs of tested lighting scenes chosen for DUTY FREE SHOP: LS08, LS09,LS10 .......................................................................................................................................... 91Image 16: Photos of different conditions during the dynamic lighting scene LS11 ................ 93LIST OF FILES ON ATTACHED CD:File 01: Excel File – Pilot Study ResultsFile 02: Excel File – Calculation of CCT and CRI for tested lighting scenesFile 03: Excel File – Experimental ResultsFolder: Photographs – Main Experiment■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA viii
  9. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMany thanks to:Peter Raynham for great support and guidance throughout the whole dissertation, forreminding me about the essential elements of the report, for being always available forproductive meetings.Kevin Mansfield for encouraging me to choose not the easiest but the most interestingsubject to research.Melih Demir (Airbus) for the passion to fly, for first sparking my interest in the researchproblem and inspiring the course of the dissertation’s work.Dirk– Achim Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) and Peter Younes (Diehl Aerospace) for theirengagement and great support throughout the theoretical and practical part of the thesisDiehl Aerospace for the unique opportunity of conducting the experiment in their researchfacilities.Prof. Poisel (OHM University) for motivating 18 enthusiastic students to participate in theexperiment.Students of OHM University and Prof. Poisel for being the test subjects and for theirsignificant input into the research results.Lighting Designers for taking part in the pilot study and providing me with their thoughts andcriticisms about the research topic.Katja Winkelman (Licht 01), Daniel Heydron (Airbus), Des O’Donnavan (dha design), DavidGadd (Virgin Atlantic) for their time and suggestions that helped me to gain a practicalunderstanding of the research problem.My employer (tpbennett) for their understanding and for giving me flexible time off duringthe research.My family and friends for their patience and support throughout the intense time.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA ix
  10. 10. ABSTRACTThis research investigates the impact of mood lighting in the aircraft on the passengers’satisfaction on board.Due to insufficient publications related to the subject, the background research for this studywas mostly based on the statements of aircraft lighting manufactures. Additional interviewswith experienced lighting designers were conducted and have led to designing the pilotstudy questionnaire. 50 lighting designers took part in the survey and shared their ideas andpreferences about cabin lighting design. The summary of the results is presented in thisstudy and the analysis of the results influenced the design of the main experiment.The experiment was undertaken in an aircraft cabin mock up and was conducted on 19participants who were exposed to 11 lighting scenes. The variation between the scenes wasachieved by means of separately addressable LED ceiling and side wall lights. Differentcolour and intensity light conditions were tested and the participants were asked to performpredefined tasks. The participants evaluated each of the tested lighting scenes by means ofa semantic differential scale. All of the results were collected and a summary is presented inthe report. The analysis of the results showed that the white scenes were the most preferredlighting conditions for performing tasks. In terms of creating visual interest and a relaxingatmosphere light saturated colours were preferred. The lowest rated scenes consisted ofhigh saturated light colours as well as quick colour changes.Word count: 14 120 (Main Text) 2 700 (Additional Text)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 10
  11. 11. 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND RESEARCHNowadays lighting is becoming very dominant in people’s daily lives. People are paying moreattention to how their homes, work places and leisure facilities are lit. Besides the lightingfor the visual comfort and visual performance, current research is focused on the influenceof light on the human body. The illumination of the interior places where people spend mostof the time is very important to their health, mood and wellbeing.The rising necessity and desire to travel obligates researchers to investigate how lighting inthe transport sector can be improved. With the increasing tempo of life for many peopletraveling is becoming an integral part of their lives. Travellers trying to use time effectivelyare working, reading or relaxing while being on a train or an airplane.In the last 15 years the number of passengers on domestic and international flights hasdoubled1 and the forecast for the next 20 years predicts that airline traffic worldwide willmore than double and some 25,000 new aircraft will be needed by 2028.2This report explores different lighting scenarios for general cabin lighting in passengeraircrafts and their impact on passengers’ satisfaction onboard a plane.1.1 AIRCRAFT LIGHTINGAircraft lighting generally can be divided into exterior and interior lighting.The external lights on aircraft (navigation lights, beacons, take off and landing lights) arelocated along the exterior of the aircraft. Planes are equipped with a variety of lights that areused for navigation, safety, and to improve visibility during flights or when taxiing on therunway.31 International Civil Aviation Organization: 1,304 mln in 1995 – 2,271 mln in 2008 (ICAO 2008)2 http://www.airbus.com/en/corporate/gmf2009 “Airbus Global Market Forecast 2009-2028” (AIRBUS S.A.S. 2009)3 http://www.aerospaceweb.org (Yoon 2006)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 11
  12. 12. Interior lighting is to differentiate between cockpit lighting and cabin lighting. Cockpitlighting is divided into smaller categories, like cockpit ambient lighting, instrument panellights, pilot reading lights, console lighting and maintenance lights.4Cabin lighting can be distinguished between general lighting, task lighting and emergencylighting. General lighting consists of side wall and ceiling lighting, task lighting - spots andreading lights; and emergency lighting includes signage, exit, and emergency lighting.5The research stated in this report takes only general lighting in the cabin underconsideration (Figure 1). Aircraft Lighting Exterior Interior navigation lights take off and cockpit lighting cabin lighting or beacons landing lights general task emergency lighting lighting lightingFigure 1: Aircraft Lighting1.2 CURRENT RESEARCHDue to the constant competition between aircraft manufacturers, very few studies aboutpassengers’ perception of cabin lighting have been published and many findings remainconfidential. Therefore, the first part of the background research is mostly based on thecurrent information available from aircraft manufacturers and cabin lighting suppliers.The Lighting Research Center (LRC)6 in cooperation with Boeing (since 2005) is working ondeveloping innovative and efficient lighting solutions for use on commercial flights. The LRCis evaluating present cabin lighting designs and comparing them with new products which4 http://www.pageaerospace.co.uk (Page Aerospace Limited 2010)5 http://www.diehl-aerospace.com/index.php?id=3597 (Diehl Aerospace GmbH 2010)6 Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 12
  13. 13. are available on the market7. Current SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers)8 guidelines arebased on the “old” technology and do not have the level of specification needed for LEDimplementation. The research undertaken by LRC (Narendran 2005) comparing halogen andLED reading lights has led to the incorporation of some of the LRC recommendations into theSAE specifications.9 Modifying the SAE standards to include colour, glare, long timeperformance and energy consumption would reform cabin lighting design and improve thequality of passengers experience and satisfaction on board a plane.Currently studies undertaken by the Lighting Research Center as well as the FraunhoferInstitute10 concentrate on passengers’ perception of coloured lighting as well as thepossibility of reducing the jet lag effect through applying mood lighting on board. Bothinstitutes are working very closely with airplane or lighting manufacturers and none of theirfindings have been published to date.1.3 CABIN LIGHTING DESIGNCabin lighting is a basic cabin function as well as an integral part of cabin design. In order toachieve the desired lighting effect lighting designers work very closely with interiordesigners. The created atmosphere depends very much on the seats and floor finishes, wallsand ceiling colours and reflection values. Therefore, aircraft designers should be thinkingabout lighting during the design stage rather than as a single fitting product.“The cabin is an integrated system, and while everyone interprets colour differently (...) alighting system is as much of a design as any other product. A lot of lighting is done at theend of the design and then it is too late to take an overall cabin approach." 117 http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pr_story.asp?id=52 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 2005)8 http://www.sae.org/technical/standards9 Document Number: ARP5873 “LED Passenger Reading Light Assembly” A-20AC Crew Station and Interior Lighting Committee (2007)10 Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik (IBP), Holzkirchen, Germany. European research project: ICE – Ideal Cabin Environment was undertaken in the Flight Test Facility at the Frauenhofer Aviation Research Centre11 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 13
  14. 14. The specific requirements of the aircraft industry make cabin illumination a specialchallenge. The primary goal is the security and comfort of the passenger, but also technicalparameters, like performance, energy consumption, and weight, have to also be considered(Figure 2). Cabin Lighting System Interfaces with Cabin Maintainability Quality of Programming Performance Lining and and Cost of Customisation Light and Control Cabin Ownership Furnishing 12Figure 2: Influential factors of the design the cabin lighting systemLED lighting has been introduced into aircraft design gradually over last few years. Newgeneration super size planes, both the Airbus 380 and Boeing 787, are featuring “bulb less”illumination systems. LEDs are applied in the cabin, cockpit, cargo and other areas. Standardcabin lighting is equipped in LED in three colours instead of fluorescent tubes allowing theaircraft to create a wide range of colour combinations.13Kato14 from Korry Electronics15 says: "LED technology now has made sufficient progress toutilize RGB colours and a true white LED with sufficient brightness."16 According to O ‘Neil(2002), solid-sate technology promises a significant change and remarkable improvements incabin lighting systems. It provides more reliable and robust lighting, higher flexibility ininstallation and a wider range of lighting effects and combinations of lighting scenes. Allthose factors positively influence the safety, cabin ambience as well as wellbeing of thepassengers and the crew. From an economical point of view, very important aspects of LED12 Diehl Aerospace presentation: “Take off towards new horizons” Release: March 200913 http://www.diehl-aerospace.de/index.php?id=3638 (Diehl Aerospace GmbH 2007)14 Dean Kato, product manager in the Optical Products and Services division of Korry Electronics.15 Korry Electronics Co. manufactures electro-optical cockpit control and display solutions for the aerospace and defence industry in the United States16 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/21571.html (Rosenberg 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 14
  15. 15. lighting systems are the ease of installation, maintenance, and operating cost (O’Neil 2002).The economical advantages of using the latest technologies in cabin lighting is confirmed byKato (Korry Electronics): “Lifecycle cost is key so if you can buy something that is equivalentto the cost of today’s technology but with increased reliability then you will decrease lifecyclecosts."17Another important improvement in cabin design is the increased size of the windows appliedin the Boeing 787 and planned in the Airbus 350 (Wallace 2007). Instead of mechanicalwindow shades, an electrochromic dimmable window system has been designed to controlthe level of exterior light in the cabin.18 The Incorporation of daylight within the intelligentinterior lighting system has great potential in changing passenger experience aboardtogether with the perception of the space.1.3.1 MOOD LIGHTINGThe mood lighting effect is created by means of LED elements. The advanced technologycalled MELODY (Modular Enhanced Low Dimming) allows the cabin light to be dimmed downto 0.1 per cent and gradually increased again, creating very subtle transitions.19 The LEDlights are available in single colour or a range of multi-coloured configurations. Byintroducing an advanced light control system the colour, tone and brightness can bemanipulated and an unlimited variety of lighting scenes can be generated (O’Neil 2002). 20Image 1: Innovative mood lighting applied throughout the cabin of the new Airbus 38017 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/21571.html (Rosenberg 2009)18 Boeing 787 Dreamliner Series. “Online Insights” (Boeing 2008)19 http://www.thalesgroup.com/Case_Studies/Countries/Spain/091123La_tecnología_de_Thales_a_bordo_del_A380 (Thales Groupe 2009)20 http://www.diehl-aerospace.de/index.php?id=3638 (Diehl Aerospace GmbH 2007)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 15
  16. 16. Advantages of New Cabin Lighting Systems flexible zone individual zone incorporated free scenario easy crew configuration control special features definition operation 21Figure 3: Advantages of new cabin lighting systemsIn O’ Neil (2002) opinion by using LED elements it is easier to apply colour wash to surfacesin order to create an interesting ambient atmosphere and indirect lighting effects. A numberof the biggest airlines have already installed such LED-driven mood lighting in their cabins.22Most airlines apply mood lighting only in the Business or Upper class areas but for example,Emirates and Thai Airways welcome their passengers with coloured lighting even in economyclass.23Scover24 from B/E Aerospace25 confirmed that the first colour concepts for mood lightingwere designed to augment the cabin colours (Malaysia Airlines). The recent trend changedto where not everyone wanted colour in the cabin, but instead wanted to have a tone whitelight and a bright, cooler light for welcoming and departure and a more amber light duringmealtimes. 26Katja Winkelmann,27 an experienced lighting designer agreed with this observation. Forcabin lighting Winkelman suggested mostly the use of white lighting with higher lightinglevels and colder light for activating phases like at the beginning and end of a flight, and awarm white lighting for relaxation thus creating an evening atmosphere, simulating candlelight.21 Diehl Aerospace presentation: “Take off towards new horizons” Release: March 200922 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)23 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany24 Stephen Scover, vice president and general manager of the lighting division of B/E Aerospace25 B/E Aerospace is US based provider of interior products for the commercial, business jet and military markets26 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)27 founder of Licht 01– Lighting Design Studio in Hamburg, Germany http://www.licht01.de■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 16
  17. 17. Scover (B/E Aerospace) explained that the mood lighting themes are pre-programmed andcan be controlled by the cabin crew during the flight through a variety of touch paneldisplays.28 Desmond O’Donovan,29 project designer responsible for the lighting concept forVirgin Atlantic, sees a weak point in this procedure. The carefully designed and chosenlighting scenarios are subject to the crews. In O’Donovan’s opinion the user-unfriendlydesigned control interface results in applying simpler solutions and not fully utilising pre –setlighting scenes (Image 2). 30Image 2: Control panel for Virgin AtlanticDavid Gadd31 from Virgin Atlantic explains that continuous crew training is essential in orderto achieve a constantly adequately lit space throughout the flight. In the crew training cabinmock-up (Image 3) Virgin Atlantic instructs the crew on how to create a pleasantatmosphere with pre defined lighting scenario.28 http://www.aviationtoday.com/av/categories/commercial/29921.html (Rosenberg 2009)29 Lighting designer for dha design, London30 Source: Virgin Atlantic31 Customer Experience Designer for Virgin Atlantic, London■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 17
  18. 18. 32Image 3: Training Mock up for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class SuiteCabin lighting manufacturers are convinced about the superiority of mood lighting. Theyshare the opinion that mood lighting could contribute to minimising the jet lag effect. ABoeing engineer Price explains: "Because LED lights can do a very slow fade down into thenight time environment and a very slow fade back to the daytime environment, passengerscan fall asleep much more naturally and wake up much more naturally, which helps set theirsleep cycles".33 Dirk-Achim Schevardo34 from Diehl Aerospace35 confirmed that by adaptingthe complete course of a day to the new time zone at the flight destination, the passengercan be pre-set to the new time zone artificially, which might contribute to reducing thenegative effects of jet-lag.36Winkelmann argues: “People do not want to be influenced by light too strongly. The light inthe cabin should have a positive impact on visual performance and mood, but not on the32 Source: Virgin Atlantic33 http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2007/0204-fly_jet_lag_free.htm (Science Daily 2007)34 Manager New Programs and Productline Strategy, Business Line Cabin Customisation Interior for Diehl Aerospace35 Diehl Aerospace is a Joint venture between Diehl BGT Defence and Thales Group operating in the field of Avionics Diehl Aerospace is a Germany based manufacturer of components for aerospace ranging from cockpit to cabin systems.36 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 18
  19. 19. biological rhythm. The Biological effect of the mood light imposed by the airline could be toostrong for some of the passengers.”37The current state of research indicates a need of further investigation. Many studies wereundertaken in the field of jet lag reduction and different paths were investigated. Nicholson(2006) comparing jet lag research to date, states that there is no universal solution to theproblem. The exposure to artificial light and avoidance of ambient light at certain times ofthe day could prove to be of help. In contrast to the strategies that focus on shiftingcircadian rhythms post flight, Burgess et al (2003) and Boivin et al (2002) are proposingschemes that shift circadian rhythms prefight. According to Burgess et al (2003) three ormore days of pre-flight adjustment to eastward travel could be potentially used to eliminatethe jet lag effect. The latest study undertaken by Evans et al (2009) showed that thepresence of low-level light at night accelerates the recovery rate in both east- and west-travelling hamsters of all ages by 50%. The crucial advantage of the dim night-timeillumination is that it accelerated recovery in both eastward and westward directions. Apartfrom pre- and post-flight adjustment to the new time zone, more research is needed inreducing the jet lag effect during the flight itself.1.3.2 AIRLINES CORPORATE IDENTITYAdvanced lighting systems allow an airline to project its brand look and feel throughout thecabin. Coloured lighting can be a powerful reinforcer of the airlines brand in the minds oftheir customers.Diehl Aerospace which is developing lighting scenarios for various airlines explains thedesign process. At the beginning the airline decides what the key point for their lightinginstallation is and which aspect is the most important for them. Some airliners decide onemphasizing their corporate identity colours, others aim at achieving an unforgettable “woweffect” and some prefer to concentrate on good lighting without putting it into theforeground.3837 The telephone conversation took place on 27.05.2010.38 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 19
  20. 20. 39Image 4: Example of corporate colours (Air France) projected onto cabin lightingAccording to Ziwckel40 from Schott Aviation41 the power of lighting should be exercised withcare. Zwickel says “Much depends on what the brand itself represents – lifestyle and fun, likeVirgin, or something much more conservative. If it’s the latter, splashing the brand in firstclass could be counter – productive.”42Gadd (Virgin Atlantic) confirms that the launch of the Upper Class Suite with incorporatedmood lighting positively influenced the sales of business class seats.4339 The photo was taken in the Diehl’s Aerospace Facilities in Nuremberg, Germany40 Sales Manager at Schott Aviation41 Schott Aviation – Germany based manufacturer of glass and fibre optic and their application in cabin design42 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)43 Virgin Atlantic press release: “Virgin Atlantic sees 26% rise in business class travel” 28.05.2005■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 20
  21. 21. 44Image 5: Lighting design for Virgin Atlantic Upper Class Suite launched in 20041.3.3 COLOUR PSYCHOLOGY“Colour affects brain activity and biorhythms, influencing our mood and feelings. Although itis unclear at the moment as to exactly how it occurs, we know that the pituitary and pinealglands interact with the electromagnetic energy of colour, and it appears certain thatnonvisual cells near the retina may activate photobiological sensations that supplementhormone activity in the body.” 45 (Michelin 1995)Many lighting professionals emphasise the cultural differences in the perception of colour. Ithas been suggested that people from a temperate climate prefer warm lighting while theresidents of countries with a warmer climate, favour cold white lighting.46 Scover (B/EAerospace) believes that the lighting preferences depend more on the cultural thangeographical differences. Both Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) and Scover observed thatEuropeans and North Americans tend to prefer the warm approach, stimulating candle andfirelight; but in regions like Asia-Pacific the preference lays in sharp illumination andclarity.47 Zwickel (Schott) agrees that lighting designers and airliners should be aware of thedifferent perception of colour depending on the passengers’ demography. He perceives it as44 Source: Virgin Atlantic45 L. Michelin: Light: The Shape of Space: Designing with Space and Light, Canada 1995, p. 8946 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)47 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 21
  22. 22. a challenge in designing cabin lighting for aircraft that will carry passengers with verydifferent cultural backgrounds.One of the most popular lighting effects currently applied across airplanes is the simulationof “blue sky”. The effect is achieved by means of a gradual fade of blue LEDs sometimes evenwith a combination of fibre optic, which is ideal for the creation of the “starry nights” effecton the cabin ceiling. The main advantage of applying blue ceiling lighting is the createdfeeling of spaciousness.48 Schevardo agrees that the blue colour generates depth anddistance thereby the cabin appears to be bigger.49It is well known that colours created by light induces mood sensations, stimulates feelingsand influences behaviour. Highly saturated colours mixed without white, black or greycreate powerful aggressive impressions and give strong moods, where a variation of colourand intensity can lead to distress.50 Schevardo emphasised that the lighting designer andmanufacturer should ensure that a particular lighting effect would not evoke undesirableoutcomes.51Mattiello (2004) in a paper about light and colour in architecture expressed the desire formore research investigating colour and light together. She argues that in the field of lighting,research mostly aimed to solve aspects of visibility and comfort, while in the field of colourattempts were made to solve the needs of design, style and fashion (Mattiello 2004). Thecombination of those two factors in one research could lead to a better understanding of theimpact of different coloured lighting conditions on people.48 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)49 The conversation with Schevardo (Diehl Aerospace) took place on 14.04.2010 in Nuremberg, Germany50 http://www.lighting.philips.com51 http://www.aircraftinteriorsinternational.com/magazine_archive.php (Aircraft Interiors International Magazine 2009)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 22
  23. 23. 52Image 6: Mood lighting in Business Class on board of Emirates Airlines52 Images taken by Matt Handy, May 2010: http://www.flyertalk.com/forum/trip-reports/1083593-singapore-seoul-emirates-a380-777-300er-asiana-a330-business.html (Handy 2010)■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 23
  24. 24. 2 THE PILOT STUDYIn order to gain more information about people’s preferences in coloured lighting a twostage pilot study was undertaken. In the first part experienced designers were consultedabout preferences in lighting design, concerning lighting levels, visual performance andapplied coloured light. Their thoughts and comments were very valuable and wereimbedded into the introduction chapter together with manufacturers’ statements.The introduction chapter as well as the survey benefited from conversations with: - Katja Winkelmann53 founder and owner of Licht 0154 – Lighting Design Studio in Hamburg, Germany - Desmond O’Donovan55 lighting designer for dha design56 - Lighting Design Studio in London - David Gadd57 – designer, Customer Experience, Virgin Atlantic,58 LondonThe second part of the pilot study was designed as a survey. The ideas and thoughtsconcerning mood lighting in airplane cabins collected during those conversations hadinfluenced the design of the pilot study questionnaire. The goal of the survey was todetermine the feelings, emotions and atmosphere created through using colour in lightingdesign.2.1 SURVEY AMONG LIGHTING DESIGNERSThe survey was carried out among 50 Lighting Designers. Chosen Lighting Designers wereapproached directly via e-mail or through Linked In59 discussion groups panels (Linked Ingroups like: Light Passion, Lighting Design, PLDA, SLL). The test subjects were asked toaccomplish the online survey.6053 The telephone conversation took place on 27.05.2010.54 http://www.licht01.de55 The conversation took place on 11.06.2010 in London.56 http://www.dhadesigns.com57 The conversation took place on 08.07.2010 in Gatwick.58 http://www.virgin-atlantic.com59 http://www.linkedin.com60 http://www.surveymonkey.com embedded into http://playlight.pl/mood-lighting-pilot-study■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 24
  25. 25. The online questionnaire (Appendix 1) could be divided into two sections. The first sectioncovered general information about the person like gender, educational background, years ofexperience and sector of specialization in lighting design.The second part of the survey contained 15 questions of 3 types: descriptive, multiple-choicewith four predetermined answers and a numeric rating scale with 5pts (ex. Strongly Agree –Strongly Disagree).At the end of the survey tested subjects had an opportunity to write their comments oradditional information as well as provide their contact details.THE Collected data was downloaded from the online survey host and analysed by means ofExcel application. The numerical results of the survey are presented by means of charts andtables in Appendix 2 and all descriptive answers are summarized in File 01 on the attached CD.2.2 INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS2.2.1 PARTICIPANTSThe survey was conducted over period of one month.61 During that time 50 lightingdesigners completed the questionnaire and shared their general thoughts about theresearch subject. Gender Male 68.0% Female 32.0%Figure 4: Pilot Study: participants split into gender61 The survey was available online between 01.06.10 - 30.06.10■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 25
  26. 26. Almost one – third of the respondents were female (32%) and two- thirds (68%) were male(Figure 4). The split in professional experience in lighting design was very balanced. Thebiggest groups were 1-5 years and over 20 years (both achieving 26%), 5-10 and 10-15 - bothcounting 18% and 15-20 with 12% (Figure 5). A total of 41 participants replied to thequestion related to their sector of specialisation: Domestic Lighting -26,8%, Leisure -22%,Event Lighting - 19,5%, Retail - 17,1%, Exterior Lighting - 14,6% (Figure 6). Years of Experience within Lighting Design 20-XX 26.0% 15-20 12.0% 10-15 18.0% 5-10 18.0% 1-5 26.0%Figure 5: Pilot Study: Split into the years of experience within lighting design Which sector of lighting design are you specialised in? Exterior Lighting 14.6% Event Lighting 19.5% Leisure 22.0% Retail 17.1% Domestic Lighting 26.8%Figure 6: Pilot Study: Split into different sectors of lighting designThe educational background of the respondents ranged from Master of ArchitecturalLighting Design through Mechatronics to Master of Business Administration. The biggestgroup with the same academic background was the Master of Science in Light and Lighting■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 26
  27. 27. with 22%, followed by an Architectural Degree (8%) and Master of Arts in ArchitecturalLighting Design (8%) to Bachelor of Arts in Theatre Lighting Design (6%) and Bachelor of Artsin Lighting Design (6%).2.2.2 RESPONDENTS GENERAL OPINIONS ABOUT MOOD LIGHTING IN AIRPLANESOpinions about the different perceptions of lighting in planes and on the ground wereequally divided. 34% of the respondents agreed with this statement, but equally a further20% strongly agreed, were neutral or disagreed. 38% of the most experienced lightingdesigners strongly agreed with the statement. Only 6% of all respondents strongly disagreedthat lighting in a plane is perceived differently to lighting on the ground (Figure 7, Figure 8,Figure 9).Almost half of the respondents (49%) were of the opinion that lighting plays a veryimportant role in the passengers’ satisfaction; although the most experienced lightingdesigners (62%) perceived it as important. When divided into gender 75% of femalerespondents described it as very important and 45% of male respondent as important. Noneof the participants shared the opinion that cabin lighting did not influence passengers’satisfaction on board (Figure 7, Figure 8,Figure 9).■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 27
  28. 28. Passengers perceive lighting in a plane How important role does lighting play in differently to lighting on the ground. passengers’ satisfaction on board? 34.0% 49.0% 36.7% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 6.0% 10.2% 4.1% 0.0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 strongly agree (5) – strongly disagree (1) very important (5)– not at all (1)Figure 7: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes Passengers perceive lighting in a plane How important role does lighting play in differently to lighting on the ground. passengers’ satisfaction on board? Male Female Male Female 75% 38% 48% 25% 25% 25% 21% 36% 18% 19% 18% 6% 6% 13% 12% 6% 6% 3% 0% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 8: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 28
  29. 29. Passengers perceive lighting in the plane differently to the lighting on the ground? 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 38% 23% 8% 23% 8% 15-20 17% 50% 17% 17% 0% 10-15 0% 44% 33% 22% 0% 5-10 22% 33% 22% 11% 11% 1-5 15% 31% 23% 23% 8% How important role plays lighting in passengers’ satisfaction on board? 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 15% 62% 23% 0% 0% 15-20 67% 33% 0% 0% 0% 10-15 63% 25% 13% 0% 0% 5-10 78% 22% 0% 0% 0% 1-5 46% 31% 8% 15% 0%Figure 9: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting on planes Would you welcome introducing mood lighting in the airplane cabin? 4% 0% 26% YES ONLY ON LONG FLIGHTS ONLY ON SHORT FLIGHTS NOT AT ALL 70%Figure 10: Mood lighting in airplane cabin■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 29
  30. 30. 70% of the respondents would welcome introducing mood lighting in an airplane cabin. 26%would do so only on long haul flights and only 4% on short flights (Figure 10).All of the 50 lighting designers shared their ideas and thoughts about the colour range whichcould be used for mood lighting in airplane cabins. The answers varied from very precise like:2,700K62, 3,000K63, 4,100K64 to more descriptive, giving the colour range and informationabout the application. 22% of the surveyed lighting designers would use only white lightduring flights, they described it as the following: 2,700K-3,200K65, 2,700K-4,100K66, 2,700K-6,000K67, warm white 2,500K or below68, white - warm to cool69, neutral white to very warmlight70. 50% of experienced lighting designers chose would recommend white lights. Apartfrom white, blue was also mentioned by 22% of the survey’s participants, varying from lightblue for sunrise and waking people up to deep blue for night time flights. 10% of the survey’sparticipants mentioned red and another 8% would use pastel and turquoise colours. Otherrelevant factors affecting the choice of the applied mood lighting are presented as follows:  “a mix of warm to cool light depending on the length of the flight and the time of the day”71  “depends on the time of the year and day, warmer colours in the winter and slightly cooler in the summer”72  “depends on the brand and the duration and time of the flight”7362 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience63 2 responders: both male with over 20 years of professional experience64 1 responder: male with over 20 years of professional experience65 1 responder: male with 5-10 years of professional experience66 1 responder: male with 5-10 years of professional experience67 1 responder: female with over 20 years of professional experience68 1 responder: male with over 20 years of professional experience69 1 responder: male with over 20 years of professional experience70 1 responder: male with 15- 20 years of professional experience71 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience72 1 responder: female with 15-20 years of professional experience73 1 responder: male with 10- 15 years of professional experience■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 30
  31. 31. 2.2.3 MAIN ACTIVITIESMEALA total of 68% of respondents chose white lighting for the Meal. 40% of the surveyed lightingdesigners would use only warm white lighting, 10% would apply cold white lighting andsome of them would vary “from cool white (4,500K) in the morning for breakfast, through towarm white (2,700K) in the evening for dinner”.74 The colour range of red, orange, andamber were chosen by 12% of the lighting designers and described by some of them ascolours that stimulate hunger. A very important criteria mentioned by 14% of respondentswas very good colour rendering (CRI above 85).RELAXMost of the respondents strongly agreed (46,9%) or agreed (40,8%) that colour lightingcould help people to relax during a flight. The split in terms of gender also confirms thisstatementIn general, the surveyed lighting designers shared the opinion that passengers wouldwelcome colour-change lighting for relaxation. 36,7% of respondents strongly agreed and24,5% agreed with this statement. Analysing the gender split among the respondents, it canbe noticed that the female lighting designers were more convinced of the ascertainmentthan the male respondents were. 44% of the female designers strongly agreed and agreedbut only 33% and 15% of the male designers strongly agreed and agreed with the statementThe most commonly listed colours for creating a relaxing atmosphere were:Blue (40%) – was described as cool and calming and associated with the sky. The colour wasmentioned in different variations from light blue to deep blueWarm White (22%) - all respondents described it as a warm white between 2500-3000K.Red, orange, magenta, purple – were mentioned by a number of lighting designers as beingalways associated with creating a warm and cosy atmosphere.74 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 31
  32. 32. Respondents often suggested that if coloured lighting is used it should be very soft orapplied only as accent lighting. According to the respondents, general lighting should createa pleasant, comfortable atmosphere for relaxing and cold white individually controlled tasklighting should be used for reading or working. Colour lighting can help people to RELAX Passengers would welcome colour changing during a flight. for the RELAX during a flight. 46.9% 36.7% 40.8% 24.5% 18.4% 10.2% 10.2% 10.2% 2.0% 0.0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (5)– Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 11: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during a flight Colour lighting can help people to RELAX Passengers would welcome colour changing during a flight. for the RELAX during a flight. Male Female Male Female 50% 45% 44% 44% 42% 38% 33% 27% 15% 15% 12% 13% 9% 6% 6% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5)– Strongly Disagree (1) Strongly Agree (5)– Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 12: Gender split: Respondents’ feelings about mood lighting for the RELAX during a flight■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 32
  33. 33. DUTY FREEThe majority of respondents confirmed that specific lighting could improve sales in the DutyFree Shop on board an airplane (Figure 13). 46 % of the most experienced designers agreedwith this statement and half of the respondents with 15 to 20 years of experience within thelighting profession strongly agreed that specific lighting would increase duty free sales(Figure 14).The opposite proportion can be noticed by the statement that colour changing lightingwould improve the sales of the duty free items (Figure 13). 35 % of all respondents could notsee a relationship between colour changing and an increase in duty free sales. Half of theprofessionals with 15 to 20 years of experience disagreed with this viewpoint and 33% of themost experienced designers strongly disagreed with it (Figure 15). Specific lighting could improve sales Colour changing lighting would improve sales in the DUTY FREE SHOP. in the DUTY FREE SHOP. 31.3% 35.4% 27.1% 25.0% 22.9% 22.9% 12.5% 14.6% 4.2% 4.2% 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree ( 1) Strongly Agree (5) – Strongly Disagree (1)Figure 13: Respondents’ opinions about lighting during the DUTY FREE SHOP during a flight■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 33
  34. 34. Specific lighting could improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 23% 46% 15% 0% 15% 15-20 50% 17% 33% 0% 0% 10-15 11% 22% 44% 11% 11% 5-10 38% 25% 13% 13% 13% 1-5 17% 33% 33% 0% 17%Figure 14: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about specific lighting during the DUTYFREE SHOP Colour changing lighting would improve sale in the DUTY FREE SHOP 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 5 4 3 2 1 20-XX 8% 8% 25% 25% 33% 15-20 0% 0% 33% 50% 17% 10-15 11% 11% 56% 11% 11% 5-10 0% 22% 33% 11% 33% 1-5 0% 25% 33% 25% 17%Figure 15: Years of professional experience: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting during theDUTY FREE SHOPCold white light (4,000K-6,500K) was chosen by 20% of respondents as the most preferredscenario for duty free shopping. 10% of the lighting designers also mentioned good colourrendering as an important criteria in creating good lighting for sale purposes.8% of the lighting designers would apply yellow, amber or orange colours to create a moreinteresting atmosphere. One respondent even mentioned purple lighting to “add some■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 34
  35. 35. mystery”75 to the sales of duty free items. Only 4% of the respondents would consider“dynamic retail lighting”76 or gentle colour changes.14% of the survey’s participants would not emphasize the selling of duty free items with adifferent colour. Selling duty free items was described as “disturbing”77, an “intrusion”78 or“not an event that the many passengers participate in”79 and therefore no particular lightingconditions were desired.ENTRY AND EXITIn the comparison of Entry and Exit scenes, 43% of respondents would use a moreinteresting lighting scene at the beginning of the flight, only 8,3% of the designers would usemore interesting lighting conditions for the Exit. 35,4% of respondents would differentiatelighting conditions for the Entry and Exit, and 27,1% of the surveyed designers would usethe same lighting scene (Figure 16). Would you use the same lighting scene for ENTRY and EXIT? MORE INTERESTING FOR EXIT 8.3% MORE INTERESTING FOR ENTRY 43.8% NO 35.4% YES 27.1%Figure 16: Respondents’ opinions about different lighting scenes for ENTRY and EXITCOLOUR CHANGINGThe half of the surveyed participants would not recommend a colour changing scene duringthe flight in general. 29,2% of the lighting designers would introduce a colour changing scene75 1 responder: female with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialized in Lighting for Leisure76 1 responder: male with 10-15 years of professional experience, specialized in Lighting for Leisure77 1 responder: female with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialized in Domestic Lighting78 1 responder: male with more than 20 years of professional experience79 1 responder: male with 10-15 years of professional experience, specialized in Retail Lighting■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 35
  36. 36. for both entry and exit activities and 22,9% would use colour changing only at the beginningof a flight (Figure 17). In general, more female designers would apply colour changinglighting throughout the flight (41% for both of the scenes), but more than half of the malerespondents (56%) would not welcome colour changing scenes at all (Figure 18). Only 4,2%would recommend colour change lighting as an Exit scenario. This option was chosen onlyby the most experienced lighting designers.80 Would you recommend to have a colour changing lighting for: NOT AT ALL 50.0% BOTH 29.2% EXIT 4.2% ENTRY 22.9%Figure 17: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY and EXIT Would you recommend to have a colour changing lighting for: Female Male 29% NOT AT ALL 56% 41% BOTH 21% 6% EXIT 3% 24% ENTRY 21%Figure 18: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for ENTRY and EXIT80 Detailed analysis of the results can be found in File 01 on the attached CD■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 36
  37. 37. More than half of the surveyed lighting designers (56%) were of the opinion that colourchanging lighting would be the most suitable for relaxation on board (Figure 19). This viewwas shared by 71% of female and 43% of male respondents. The rest of the female lightingdesigners (29%) would welcome colour changing lighting during the purchasing of duty freeitems (Figure 20). Only 6,3% of all respondents would apply a colour changing lighting sceneduring mealtimes, among them are only male designers with 1 to 15 years experience.81Still 31% of the male respondents would not introduce mood lighting in the cabin at all. In your opinion colour changing lighting would be the most suitable for: NOT AT ALL 22.9% DUTY FREE 22.9% RELAX 56.3% MEAL 6.3%Figure 19: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for all activities In your opinion colour changing lighting would be the most suitable for: Female Male 0% NOT AT ALL 31% 29% DUTY FREE 17% 71% RELAX 43% 0% MEAL 9%Figure 20: Gender split: Respondents’ opinions about colour changing lighting for all activities81 Detailed analysis of the results can be found in File 01 on the attached CD■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 37
  38. 38. 2.3 GENERAL COMMENTS AND CONCLUSIONSGenerally the participants of the survey have a positive attitude towards the researchsubject, although some individuals were very critical about applying mood lighting on anairplane. “I personally cant see any relevance for colour changing on board a plane. I thinkairlines would be better spending their time and money improving the comfort of theirstandard class seats!”82Many respondents were aware of the opportunities that mood lighting could give inreducing the jet lag effect on long flights across time zones. The experienced lightingdesigners would recommend changing only the light intensity and colour temperature of thewhite light. Other respondents emphasized that if coloured lighting is applied the coloursshould be faded and not too saturated. The transition between the scenes should be veryslow and smooth, so that it is hardly noticed by the passengers.Some of the lighting designers remarked that the lighting concept should be linked to theconcept of space rather than to a function. “The air cabins have specific space characteristicsthat make them interesting but not the tasks which can happen in any environment.”83 Inaddition, the time of the flight was pointed out as an important factor. The lighting conceptshould differentiate between day-time and night-time flights and the colour of the lightshould relate to the amount of daylight available in the airplane cabin.Only one respondent84 emphasized that the lighting design should be seen as a part of theairlines brand message. The other respondent comparing the lighting concepts in VirginAtlantic and Emirates expressed the desire for more variations in the design: “the design isexactly the same in almost all aircraft it would be more interesting if lighting effects variedbetween different aeroplanes, you would feel more interested if some planes had patternedor broken light on the ceiling instead of uniform flat light”.8582 1 responder: male with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialised in Domestic Lighting83 1 responder: female with 5-10 years of professional experience84 1 responder: male with 10-15 years of professional experience, specialised in Retail85 1 responder: male with more than 20 years of professional experience, specialised in Lighting for Leisure■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 38
  39. 39. Some of the young designers would welcome more individual control over the lighting inorder to create a personal atmosphere. Other designer mentioned linking lighting and musicas an interesting option supporting relaxation.86The results of the survey were analysed and used as a basis to determine the tested lightingscenes. The main experiment benefited from the comments as well as criticisms about theresearch topic.86 1 responder: female with 1-5 years of professional experience, specialised in Domestic Lighting■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 39
  40. 40. 3 RESEARCH PROBLEMThe specific conditions of the aircraft industry make the illumination of a cabin a specialchallenge. The primary goal is the security and comfort of passengers. Apart from that, moretechnical parameters like: performance, energy consumption and weight have to beconsidered constantly.Being aware of the technical advantages of applying the very latest technology for cabinlighting systems the question arises, how much is the comfort and well- being of passengersgoing to profit from it? Is introducing mood lighting a good option and how much wouldpassengers appreciate it?The current trend in aircraft cabin lighting is focused on creating a unique and unforgettableatmosphere on board by means of the latest LED technologies. The advantages of LEDs areused by airlines to create corporate identity coloured lighting throughout the cabin. Lightingdesigners are getting involved in developing lighting concepts for this specific environment.Not many publications are available to date regarding passenger responses to colouredlighting on aboard a plane. More research in the field should help lighting designers choosethe right colours and lighting levels and be aware of the possible effects on passengers.The main aim of the work presented in this report was to gain a better understanding of theeffects of coloured lighting on people on board a passenger plane.RESEARCH QUESTION:What is the impact of mood lighting on passengers satisfaction on board an aircraft?■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 40
  41. 41. 4 METHODOLOGY - THE EXPERIMENTThe research experiment was undertaken in cooperation with Diehl Aerospace researchcentre in Nuremberg, Germany. Diehl’s facilities allowed the field research to be carried outin very similar conditions to that of a real aircraft cabin. The process of the flight wassimulated by preset activities, like a meal, relax, work, and duty free sales.The goal of the experiment was to analyse the effect of predefined mood lighting conditionson the visual comfort, task performance and mood of passengers. All possible variables thatmay affect the measurements, except colour and light intensity, were kept constant duringthe experiment. This was necessary to ensure that the changes recorded where due to theeffect of colour and lighting conditions only.The main experiment was carried out after the results and conclusions from the pilot studywere collected and analysed.4.1 ROOM AND EQUIPMENTThe experiment was conducted in the Diehl‘s Airplane Cabin Mock Up. The room wasneutrally coloured and furnished with a size of approximately 2.8 m wide by 5m in lengthand 2.5m in height in the centre and 1.5m in height on the sidewalls. The full scale MockUp’s lining was typical for an Airbus aircraft cabin of light grey colour. No daylight wasaccessible or simulated in the Mock up, so any influence from daylight was not consideredduring the experiment.For the purpose of the experiment the room was equipped with 10 standard officechairs.The chairs were allocated in five rows of two seats; the split between the window (A)and aisle (C) places was equal. The legroom between the chairs was 350mm. The roomlayout is presented in Image 7(page 42). The test subjects entered the room from the backand were seated facing a partition door to another room.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 41
  42. 42. Image 7: Experimental room with allocation of the chairsThe Cabin Mock Up was equipped with general lighting and no reading lights were available.The general lighting consisted of two ceiling lights (Ceiling In and Ceiling Out) and Side Walllights. Except for the tested mood lighting, no additional lights were used in the room duringthe experiment. The lighting was mounted in the Mock Up as indicated in Image 2.The Mock Up was built and equipped with LED lighting in 2005. In 2008 ceiling lights werechanged and the new LEDs from the same bin were used. It was noticeable that there was adifference in the light distribution and lighting colour between the side wall lights (2005) andceiling lights (2008).The LED lighting consisted of RGB W lights with a 2.5-inch resolution (2 R + 2G + 2B + 2W).The software used for the lighting control in the Mock up was designed by Diehl Aerospace –Lightdaemon V 1.5.0 and was able to address each module (12.5-inch). The lighting sceneswere preset the day before the experiment. The software was operated by a Diehl employeewho coded the lighting parameters for each scene.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 42
  43. 43. Image 8: Sketch of the Experimental Mock up with the indicated position of the lightDuring the presetting of the lighting scenes the light intensity and the colour parameters(x,y) were measured and an illuminance meter was placed on the floor in the middle of theaisle.The measurements of the proposed lighting scenes were performed by using the followingequipment:  Illuminance meter: Konica Minolta T-10 87  luminance meter: Minolta LS-10088  colour measurement by spectrometer - AvaSpec- 1288987 http://www.konicaminolta.com88 http://www.konicaminolta.com89 http://www.avantes.com■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 43
  44. 44. 4.2 TEST SUBJECTSThe experiment participants consisted of a range of 19 people comprised of 2 females and17 males. The participants ware mostly in the age group 15-40 with only one participantabove 40 years old.The participants were recruited with the help of the local university90 and wereundergraduate students (Course: Precision Engineering/Mechatronics). The day of theexperiment was organised as a study excursion to the Diehl Aerospace facilities. Thestudents were accompanied by their professor. Due to the limited space in the Mock up, theparticipants were divided into two groups. Each group attended a Diehl companypresentation and took part in the experiment. The agenda of the day is presented inAppendix 3. The subjects were paid for their participation in the experiment.It was preferred to invite a test person with good colour vision which was tested91 beforethe experiment by means of one plate of the Ishihara Colour Test92 (Ishihara 1917).4.3 EXPERIMENTAL SET UPThe lighting scenes were chosen by the author of the report based on the results of the pilotstudy and the personal preferences. Tested lighting colours were chosen for the daytimeflight. The main criteria for the selected lighting conditions were the type of activity whichwas related to each scene. The entrance scene was designed to be comparable with day-light. Warm colours were chosen for the meal scenes and ambient lighting for a relaxing /working environment. Duty free shopping scenes were designed to be bright and mostlywhite only with light colour accents. A more colorful and dynamic scene was used for theexit. Before the lighting conditions in the mock up were chosen, schematic sketches( Image 9, page 45) were designed to visualize the desired lighting scenes.90 Georg Simon Ohm University of Applied Sciences (OHM) Nuremberg, Germany, Contact Person: Prof. Hans Poisel91 Question 5, Page1, Initial Questionnaire. See Appendix 692 The Ishihara Colour Test is a test for red-green colour deficiencies.■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 44
  45. 45. Image 9: Initial sketches of proposed lighting scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 45
  46. 46. Table 1: The initial summary of the lighting scenes■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 46
  47. 47. The day before the experiment, the lighting scenes were set up and coded using theLightdaemon V 1.5.0 software. The colours were created through additive colour mixing ofprimary colours (Red, Green, Blue) and White and were described on the scale 0-100% foreach of those four colours. The initial summary of the set up lighting scenes is presented inTable 1, page46.Special care was taken to assure that the previous coloured scene did not affect theperception of the following coloured scene. In order to achieve this balance, white scenesand breaks were introduced. The Lighting Scenes LS03, LS06 and LS09 as well as the BreaksB01 and B02 were identical – white93 (ca 4,000K) side walls and ceiling lights.Two lighting scenes (LS07, LS11) with dynamic colour change were proposed.LS07 can be described as a simulation of blue sky with clouds. The side wall light was whiteand the ceiling light was mostly blue with a subtle effect of “white cloud” slowly passing by.The scene consisted of 22 waypoints and the properties were measured only in onewaypoint (0 out of 22).“white cloud” – 5 units (12,5 inch each) were addressed and the slow and gradual transitionfrom blue to 30% white colour was achieved (Figure 21)blue (1) 10% white (2) 20% white (3) 30% white (4) 20% white (5) 10% white blueFigure 21: Colour transition in LS07LS11 was designed as a colourful “rain bow“ effect. The scene consisted of 100 waypointsand 5 main colours were introduced (turquoise, orange, pink, purple and violet). In order todesaturate the colours 30% white was added. The colour changing rate was much higherthan in LS07. The properties of this lighting scene were measured for three differentwaypoints (25, 50, 75 out of 100) and are described as LS11a (25/100), b (50/100) and c(75/100).93 The numerical colour describtions can be found in Chapter 5.2 and Appendix 4■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 47
  48. 48. Image 10: Experimental room with indicated illuminance and luminance measuring pointsIn order to numerically describe the scenes, illuminance and luminance was tested for eachlighting condition. Two points on the table were chosen to establish the illuminance 94 levelsas well as two points on the front wall were chosen to perform the luminance95measurements. The measuring points are indicated on Image 10. The luminancemeasurements were taken from the eye level of the sitting person situated on the chairbehind the table. The luminance and illuminance values of the chosen exposure points arepresented in Table 2 (page 49).The spectral distribution for each lighting scene was measured by means of a fiber opticspectrometer 96 and the results are presented in Chapter 5.2 and Appendix 5.94 Illuminance meter: Konica Minolta T-1095 luminance meter: Minolta LS-10096 colour measurement by spectrometer AvaSpec-128■ MSc LIGHT AND LIGHTING ■ NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AIRCRAFT CABIN LIGHTING ■ KATJA LESZCZYNSKA 48

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