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Aquatic Invasive Plants: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

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Presentation by Liliana Duarte (Centre for Functional Ecology, Escola Superior Agrária de Coimbra) at the Invasive Aquatic Species Workshop in Beja, 6 February 2018.

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Aquatic Invasive Plants: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

  1. 1. Liliana Duarte Invasive Aquatic Species - Workshop Beja, 6th February 2018 International Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis Aquatic Invasive Plants: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
  2. 2. I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) II.i Invasive features and impacts II.ii Management options III. Guadiana river III.i Detection and control – what has been done Content I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 2
  3. 3. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Water fern (Azolla filiculoides) Giant reed (Arundo donax) Parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) African elodea (Lagarosiphon major) Kariba weed (Salvinia molesta) I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 3
  4. 4. Humans have been the main agent of the species spread around the world since the late 1800’s as an ornamental pond plant Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms) (Pontederiaceae) • Free-floating aquatic macrophyte • Amazon basin of Brazil – South America → 5 continents • 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species List (IUCN) • Regulation (EU) 1143/2014 (Union list) • Europe: Portugal, Spain and Italy I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 4
  5. 5. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms) (Pontederiaceae)I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 5 Distribution map of Eichhornia crassipes in Europe Source: Coetzee et al. (2017)
  6. 6. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms) (Pontederiaceae) • Two distinct morphologies: short (< 30 cm) or long (> 30 to 150 cm) I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 6
  7. 7. Taller than those on the edge “Elongated-petiole" vs. "bulbous-petiole" rosette Source: USDA Agricultural Research Service Morphology of water hyacinth plants I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 7
  8. 8. II.i Invasive features and impacts Seeds • One inflorescence produces up to 3000 seeds • Cross-pollination by Apis mellifera • Low size (1–1.5 mm) • Long-lived seeds: remain viable for up to 20 years • Its flowers and seeds can be produced within 12 weeks after germination Vegetative propagation • Major form of reproduction • Clones/ramets separate from the mother plant once they have developed roots • Easily transported with the water flow • Populations can double every 5 to 11–15 days I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 8Image source: Cifuentes/ Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (2012)
  9. 9. Colonises still or slow moving water (estuarine habitats, lakes, urban areas, water courses, wetlands, rice fields, and irrigation canals) Extremes of water-level fluctuation Seasonal variations in flow velocity Extremes of nutrient availability, pH, temperature and heavy metals II.i Invasive features and impacts Does not tolerate brackish and saline water October I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river January 9 Absence of natural enemies
  10. 10. II.i Invasive features and impacts I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana riverWhich are the impacts of these mats!? 10
  11. 11. Impacts of water hyacinth : Competes with native vegetation Ecosystem conditions change drastically Affects support services: photosynthetic activity and nutrient cycle Affects provisioning services: water, fish and rice growing areas availability Affects regulating services: floods, water quality and diseases Interfere with water body usage and supply Risk of mechanical damage to hydro-electric installations and other structures (eg. bridges) Source: Scalera et al. (2012) and Coetzee et al. (2017) II.i Invasive features and impacts I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 11
  12. 12. II.ii Management options Prevention Early detection Rapid response Physical methods Chemical methods Biological control I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 12
  13. 13. II.ii Management options I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 13 Physical methods • Manual removal (hand pull and pitch forks) Labour intensive, only effective for small infestations Image source: Cifuentes/ Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (2012)
  14. 14. II.ii Management options I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 14 Physical methods • Floating booms or fixed barriers Floating booms may prevent the spread of the infestation down rivers Image source: Cifuentes/ Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (2012)
  15. 15. II.ii Management options I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 15 Physical methods • Mechanical removal (boat, aquatic-harvester) Mechanical removal in Guadiana river a) b) c) d) Image source: Cifuentes/ Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (2012/2013)
  16. 16. Mechanical removal in Guadiana river: Aquatic harvester I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 16 II.ii Management options Physical methods
  17. 17. II.ii Management options I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 17 Chemical methods • Foliar application of herbicide Very susceptible to herbicides such as 2,4-D, diquat, paraquat and glyphosate Not an option against E. crassipes in the EU Biodegradable herbicide Comprises essential oil of Thymbra capitata (WO 2012113956 A1) (Ruiz-Téllez et al. 2016) • Follow-up applications • Environmental side effects • Expensive and it needs special conditions to be successful
  18. 18. II.ii Management options I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 18 Biological control Several arthropods and fungi • Release of host-specific natural enemies Weevils are the most commonly used: • Neochetina eichhorniae (37 countries) and • N. bruchi (34 countries) - both feed in the inside of the stems Highly successful in Africa, Thailand and Papua New Guinea Most cost-effective method… and environmentally safe! Not yet an option in EU Source: https://www.ibiocontrol.org/catalog/index.cfm
  19. 19. Recently in the portuguese news: I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river
  20. 20. I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana 20 Guadiana River
  21. 21. • 810 km (150 km in Portugal) • 4th largest hydrographic river basin in Iberian Peninsula (66 800 km2) Guadiana River I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 21
  22. 22. Abiotic factors Optimal conditions Guadiana (2005) Observations Medium temperature (ºC) 28 - 30 17,7 – 19 It’s growth stops when T< 8ºC ou T> 40ºC pH 6 a 8 7,25 a 8,1 - Nutrients (mg/L) NO3 - 21 19,63 a 23,52 - PO43 - 62 0,02 a 3,31 - Ca+ 5 48,58 - Source: (Gopal 1987 in OEPP/EPPO 2008; Ruiz-Téllez et al. 2008) Ideal growth conditions for water hyacinth I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river Jael Palhas Easily 22
  23. 23. Very high and High risk: agricultural areas between Mérida and Badajoz (‘zona regable de Montijo y Lobón’) and Alqueva in Portugal (orange and yellow, respectively) I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 23  There are no physico-chemical conditions that limit the distribution and persistence of Echhornia crassipes Map of the risk of water hyacinth infestation in the Guadiana River Basin Source: Ruiz-Téllez et al. (2008)
  24. 24. What happened in Guadiana river? • Autumn of 2004: first detection of the water hyacinth, and removal near Medelín; • Summer of 2005: in April occurred a strong regeneration of the fragments that had been left on the banks; • October - November of 2005: it occupied approximately 200 ha, covering 75 km of river (the equivalent to 175 000 tons of biomass); I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 24
  25. 25. I. Jacinto-de- água (Eichhornia crassipes) II. Introdução do jacinto-de-água em Portugal e Espanha III. Rio Guadiana Guadiana river 25
  26. 26. What happened in Guadiana river? • 2006: 183.000 tons were removed manually and mechanically • 2010: 5,53 tons were removed • 2011: 40.000 tons were removed • 2012: > 51.000 tons were removed • 2015: 505 to 825,94 tons/day were removed • 2016: 170.000 tons were removed I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 26 Manual and Mechanical control • Autumn of 2004: first detection of the water hyacinth, and removal near Medelín; • Summer of 2005: in April there occurred a strong regeneration of the fragments that had been left on the banks; • October - November of 2005: it occupied approximately 200 ha, covering 75 km of river (the equivalent to 175 000 tons of biomass);
  27. 27. I. Jacinto-de- água (Eichhornia crassipes) II. Introdução do jacinto-de-água em Portugal e Espanha III. Rio Guadiana Guadiana river 27
  28. 28. I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana 28 What happened in Guadiana river? Year Removed biomass (tons) 2005-2006 183.000 2010 5,54 2011 40.000 2012 > 51.000 2016 170.000 TOTAL > 420.000 In ten years (2005 – 2015/16) about 360.000 tons were removed with costs of about €26.000.000 Source: CHG 2016
  29. 29. November 2013 I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 29 Mérida (March and November 2013)
  30. 30. I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana Badajoz (May 2016) 30
  31. 31.  Early detection of new invasive spots (or species) and rapid response  Combine different control methods:  Manual removal for small patches and channels;  Mechanical removal for larger extensions;  Biological control agents, for long term purposes,  Chemical (biodegradable herbicide)  Persistence is fundamental in the control  Environmental education and public awareness Final remarks I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 31
  32. 32. Ethiopia – Lake Tana I. Aquatic Invasive Plants in Portugal II. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) III. Guadiana river 32 Ethiopia's largest lake is disappearing
  33. 33. DESAFIO ACEITA O S S
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  38. 38. References• Cifuentes N (2012). El Jacinto de Agua en la Cuenca del Guadiana. Experiencias de Manejo. Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana. http://www.agroambient.gva.es/documents/91061501/91067829/Camalote+CH+Guadiana/95de79fe-0c7c- 4fe1-b788-6468e7fe3577?version=1.0 Accessed February 5, 2018. • Coetzee JA, Hill MP, Ruiz-Téllez T, Starfinger U, Brunel S (2017). Monographs on invasive plants in Europe N° 2: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. Botany Letters, 164(4), 303–326. https://doi.org/10.1080/23818107.2017.1381041 • CHG - Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (2016) El Gobierno autoriza invertir 600.000 euros para intensificar la lucha contra el camalote en el río Guadiana en Badajoz. http://www.chguadiana.es/corps/chguadiana/data/resources/noticias/file/2016/febrero/16_02_12%20Actuaci ones%20contra%20el%20camalote%20Guadiana.pdf Accessed February 5, 2018. • OEPP ⁄ EPPO (2008) Data sheets on quarantine pests – Eichhornia crassipes. In: Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 441–449 https://doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2338.2008.01261.x • Ruiz-Téllez T, Brufao Curiel P, Blanco Salas J, Vázquez Pardo F (2016) “Pasado, presente y futuro de una invasión biológica: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (camalote) en el río Guadiana.[Past, Present and Future of A Biological Invasion: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (Water Hyacinth) in the River Guadiana].” Conservación Vegetal 20: 8–9. • Ruiz-Téllez T, López EM, Granado G, Pérez EA, López RM, Sánchez Guzmán JM (2008) The water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions 3(1), 42–53 https://doi: 10.3391/ai.2008.3.1.8 • Scalera R, Genovesi P, Essl F, Rabitsch W (2012) The impacts of invasive alien species in Europe. EEA Technical38
  39. 39. 39 Thank you for your attention! http://invasoras.pt/ https://www.facebook.com/InvasorasPt/ Email: lduarte@esac.pt invader@uc.pt

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