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Images for impact

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A short talk on how to find, create and edit images for use in science communication

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Images for impact

  1. 1. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Images for impact How to create, edit, find images to enhance your communications Mary Williams mwilliams@aspb.org @PlantTeaching June 2016
  2. 2. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Outline • I will show you how to use PowerPoint tools to manipulate and optimize images • I will show you how to use PowerPoint tools to make appealing diagrams • I will show you how to find images you can reuse • I will show you obtain permission to reuse images Can this information be made more visually- interesting?
  3. 3. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Simply clicking on an icon turns your bulleted list into SmartArt. There are many possible default forms of SmartArt SmartArt is a simple way to make words into “images”
  4. 4. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists SmartArt turns your words into pictures effortlessly
  5. 5. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists You can use default settings or customize everything Manipulate and optimize images Make appealing diagrams Find images you can reuse Obtain permission to reuse images
  6. 6. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  7. 7. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Just because it’s easy doesn’t mean you should over use it - SmartArt should reinforce your message Just because it’s easy doesn’t mean you should over use it - SmartArt should reinforce your message
  8. 8. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists SmartArt with pictures
  9. 9. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Select your pictures and go to Picture Layout
  10. 10. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Smart art with pictures
  11. 11. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Pictures and words in one image
  12. 12. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Pictures and words in one image, fully customizable
  13. 13. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  14. 14. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  15. 15. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists SmartArt is easy to use but a little goes a long way • Select SmartArt that reinforces your meaning (sequential, groups, outputs, cycle) • Use a consistent font and color palette throughout your presentation • Replace words with pictures • Use consistent symbols throughout your presentation
  16. 16. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Editing images within PowerPoint Drag window to frame your content
  17. 17. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Removing a background increases the impact of your image
  18. 18. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  19. 19. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists After you remove the background, you can layer your image over a different background, or add a foreground
  20. 20. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  21. 21. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Plants resist pathogens through active processes that include recognition of the pathogen and defense responses to fight it Plants resist pathogens through active processes that include recognition of the pathogen and defense responses to fight it Some images I’ve created in PPT Photo background removed to enhance impact of figures
  22. 22. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Lignified xylem provides structural support for vascular plants 115mSequoiasempervirens Sydney Opera House 65 m Taj Mahal 65 m Statue of Liberty 93 m St. Paul’s Cathedral 111 m The tallest living trees tower over many familiar monuments
  23. 23. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Editing images – Crop to shape
  24. 24. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Mschel; Image 14869 CDC/ Nasheka Powell Household water pressure 0.3 MPa Car tire pressure 0.25 MPa Pressure required to blow up a balloon 0.01 MPa Vacuum cleaner -0.02 MPa (household) -0.1 MPa (commercial) Laboratory vacuum -0.01 MPa Human blood pressure < 0.02 MPa Inside typical plant cell 0.5 to 1.5 MPa Pressure washer 15 MPa Inside xylem: From +1 MPa to -3 MPa or lower * These numbers are relative to atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa), not absolute Pressure can be positive or negative Photos cropped to consistent shape
  25. 25. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Clip art plus cropped images
  26. 26. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Editing images – Color effects Increase brightness and contrast Desaturate Recolor Recolor Original Artistic effects - Posterize
  27. 27. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Starting from scratch – using drawing tools to make cartoons and diagrams
  28. 28. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Simple shapes are useful for cartoons and diagrams Necrotrophs: •“Smash and grab” •Produce toxins and cell wall- degrading enzymes Biotrophs: •“Pretend harmony” •Fewer cell wall-degrading enzymes than non-biotrophs •Evade detection and avoid elicitation of defense responses See for example Kemen, E. and Jones, J.D.G. (2012). Obligate biotroph parasitism: can we link genomes to lifestyles? Trends Plant Sci. 17:, and Spanu, P.D. (2012). The genomics of obligate (and nonobligate) biotrophs. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 50: Van Kan, J.A.L. (2006). Licensed to kill: the lifestyle of a necrotrophic plant pathogen. Trends Plant Sci. 11: 247-253. Laluk K., and Mengiste T. (2010) Necrotroph attacks on plants: Wanton destruction or covert extortion? The Arabidopsis Book 8:e0136. doi:10.1199/tab.0136. Glazebrook, J. (2005). Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 43: 205–227.
  29. 29. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Ca is [CO2] ambient Ca Ci Cc Ci is [CO2] inside the leaf Cc is [CO2] inside the chloroplast gs is stomatal conductance of CO2 (from outside the leaf to inside the leaf air spaces) gm is mesophyll conductance of CO2 (from air spaces into chloroplasts)
  30. 30. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Embryogenesis Seed reserve accumulation Water content Dry state, Dispersal Acquisition of desiccation tolerance Germination Embryogenesis Seed reserve accumulation Germination Water content Dispersal Orthodox seeds Recalcitrant seeds Recalcitrant seeds disperse without the stability associated with desiccation Recalcitrant seeds disperse without the stability associated with desiccation Adapted from Franchi, G.G., Piotto, B., Nepi, M., Baskin, C.C., Baskin, J.M. and Pacini, E. (2011). Pollen and seed desiccation tolerance in relation to degree of developmental arrest, dispersal, and survival. J. Exp. Bot. 62: 5267-5281.
  31. 31. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Salt water Fresh waterFresh water Salt water An animal cell might burst Plant cell walls prevent them from bursting Cells have a lower osmotic potential than pure water, (because of the salts and proteins in them), so water moves into them Salt water has a lower osmotic potential than cells, so water flows outwards Osmotic potential is written as Ψπ and measured in MegaPascals (MPa) For seawater, Ψπ is about -2.5 MPa, and for a typical cell, Ψπ is about -0.8 MPa Osmotic potential is written as Ψπ and measured in MegaPascals (MPa) For seawater, Ψπ is about -2.5 MPa, and for a typical cell, Ψπ is about -0.8 MPa
  32. 32. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Assimilation of nutrients from food is a complex process Processing Mouth Stomach Intestine Blood Maceration α-amylase digestion of starch Cell wall fragments and cellulose expelled Digestion of polymers to monomers Assimilation into blood Lipases Chemical contributions from bacteria Feedback and homeostasis mechanisms
  33. 33. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Fill shapes with gradients, transparent color and custom colors
  34. 34. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  35. 35. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Gradients can provide 3D effect Choat, B., Cobb, A.R. and Jansen, S. (2008). Structure and function of bordered pits: new discoveries and impacts on whole-plant hydraulic function. New Phytol. 177: 608-626 with permission from Wiley; Adapted from Myburg, A.A, Lev Yadun, S., and Sederoff, R.R. (Oct 2013) Xylem Structure and Function. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester.‐ Tracheids (gymnosperm) are narrow, up to 1 cm in length, and perforated by complex pit membranes Vessels (angiosperm) are made from vessel elements, which are wide, short, perforated by simple pit membranes, and have open or perforated end walls Tracheids Length 0.1 – 1 cm Diameter 5 -80 μm Vessels Length 1 cm - > 1 m Diameter 15 - 500 μm Vessel Vessel element Vessel Vessel Vessel
  36. 36. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Semi-transparent shapes can highlight features Cochard, H., Lemoine, D., Améglio, T. and Granier, A. (2001). Mechanisms of xylem recovery from winter embolism in Fagus sylvatica. Tree Physiol. 21: 27-33 by permission of Oxford University Press. 0 20 0 30 20 40 0 60 100 80 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun In some grasses, subsidiary cells participate in guard cell movement and make the pores more efficient
  37. 37. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Color match anything using instant eyedropper Install instant eyedropper Select color code Mouse-over any pixel to get the color Shape fill with custom color
  38. 38. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Color-match to hide imperfections
  39. 39. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Freehand drawing tools flagella chloroplast nucleus py Trace to highlight important features
  40. 40. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Connects points with straight lines Connects points with curves Freehand
  41. 41. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Move points Add / delete points Change steepness of curve at point
  42. 42. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Wind, water, insects and chemotaxis help pathogens reach their hosts Freehand drawing with clipart
  43. 43. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Finding images for reuse You can search images by usage rights
  44. 44. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists There are many sites where you can find images in the public domain
  45. 45. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists There are many sites where you can find images in the public domain
  46. 46. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Many images have CC (creative commons) licenses
  47. 47. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists
  48. 48. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Flickr.com/clearwood Tom Donald Tom Donald has an extensive collection of CC-licensed plant images for you to use
  49. 49. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Many stock photo sites host free as well as premium photos
  50. 50. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Most non-profit / educational needs are covered by “Fair Use” The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include—the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; the nature of the copyrighted work; the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
  51. 51. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Most journals make it easy to request images for reuse – some charge a fee, others don’t
  52. 52. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists Summary: Images enhance all of your communication efforts Dorothea Lang, public domain, New York Public Library

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