Asian Longhorned Beetle

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  • Broad host range with some overlap w/ A. glabripennis. Attacks 100 different tree species, including bonsai and some fruit trees.
  • Cottonwood borer: black antennae with no white bands. White strips around the neck.Banded alder borer: Mistaken in West; large white marking on neck and banded pattern on back.Northeastern sawyer: Brown color and faint white spot at base of elytraEyed elater: click beetle, false eyespots, short black antennae
  • Quickly mention the different discoveries, dates and places
  • So far, monitoring and survey for ALB depends on ground surveyors and tree climbers. Unfortunately, ground survey is only ~20% efficient and although tree climbing is very efficient, it is highly time consuming and expensive. There is an urgent need for a user-friendly, economical, and efficient monitoring technique for ALB.
  • Letters indicate significantly different from control
  • Asian Longhorned Beetle

    1. 1. Asian Longhorned Beetle: Threat to shade trees across North America Kelli Hoover Penn State University University Park, PA
    2. 2. How did ALB get here and where did it come from?
    3. 3. Beetle Damage Katsura tree Cercidiphyllum japonicum is a new confirmed host for ALB
    4. 4. ALB impacts • Estimated loss of 30% of urban trees, 26% of canopy cover, & value loss of $669 billion (Nowak et al. 2010) • Infestations in NY, IL, NJ, OH, MA, Toronto & 9 countries in Europe • Survey, eradication & prophylactic treatment $300-400 million to date • 25 known host species in U.S. (47 worldwide) – Acer, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Populus, Salix • USDA-APHIS management goal: eradication
    5. 5. Will the real ALB please stand up? • Large, 0.75-1.25 inches long; hardwoods • Very long black and white antennae • Body glossy black with irregular white spots Male Female
    6. 6. Whitespotted sawyer (Monochamus scutellatus) Male Female • Adults 0.75-1.25 inches in length; attack conifers • Males metallic black with 1 white dot at base of wing covers. Females brown with speckles and with white dot at base of wing covers (red arrow) • ALB does not have this white dot, though has many white spots on wing covers
    7. 7. Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorned beetle)
    8. 8. For 5 points, which is ALB?
    9. 9. Other species mistaken for ALB http://www.uvm.edu/albeetle/identification/index.html Northeastern sawyer Banded alder borer Cottonwood borer Eyed elater
    10. 10. 1996: First ALB discovered in New York City, NY 2000  2007: more in NJ, NY, and Staten Island 18,467 trees removed in NY 21,981 trees removed in NJ
    11. 11. 1998: ALB discovered in Chicago, IL 2004  2006: Declared Eradicated 1,771 trees removed in IL
    12. 12. Quarantine zone after expansion Nov. 2011 = 110 sq mi 23,540 infested trees, almost 4 million surveyed August 15, 2008: ALB first reported in Worcester, MA Infestation dates back before 1998
    13. 13. Quarantine zone 56 sq mi and 8,000+ trees infested June 17, 2011: ALB first reported in Bethel, Clermont County, Ohio
    14. 14. Most recent ALB infestation discovery late August 2013, Farmingdale, NY
    15. 15. Forest Block Before After Core Area Before After
    16. 16. ALB Host List http://www.uvm.edu/albeetle/hosts.htm
    17. 17. Possible Replacement Non-Hosts  Japanese Lilac  Kentucky Coffee Tree  Dawn Redwood  Southern Catalpa  English Oak  Swamp White Oak  White Oak  Bur Oak  Basswood  Tulip Tree  Ironwood  Serviceberry  Gingko  Bald Cypress  Honey Locust  Turkish Filbert  Linden  Apple/ Crabapple  Cherry/ Plum  Hawthorn  Dogwood  Magnolia  Pear  Black Walnut  Buckthorn
    18. 18. Survey Used in Program • Ground survey (accuracy ~30%) • Tree climbing (60% accuracy; time consuming & expensive) In Development • Traps • Detector Dogs
    19. 19. Identification of male-produced pheromone H O 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal O I H O O 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol II Male produced pheromone is a 1:1 (v/v) blend of dialkylethers (MP) • Compounds identified and confirmed after organic synthesis • Structures unusual and have not been found in other cerambycids to date Zhang et al. 2002
    20. 20. Quarantine Facility at PSU
    21. 21. Initial studies on pheromone/plant volatile combinations
    22. 22. 2012 Number of beetles trapped in 9 Harbin, China 8 a* Females Males Beetles Caught 7 6 a 5 c 4 3 b 2 b b b b 1 0 * Difference between genders Females: p = 0.0041 Males: p = 0.0818
    23. 23. Trapping studies Worcester, MA 2009-2013 Pheromone + blend of plant volatiles Intercept Panel traps Core of infestation Trapping sites
    24. 24. Traps set up within canopy
    25. 25. Some beetles caught in traps where trees had already been surveyed or all infested trees thought to have been removed. Further survey around trap catches revealed undetected, infested trees.
    26. 26. New infested trees found: used to calculate potential draw distance 177 m exit holes ~40 m exit holes 84 m oviposition pits only Empty trap Trap caught beetles Tree removed earlier Infested Tree 27 July & 11 August, 2010 1 & 11 August, 2011
    27. 27. New Exit Holes and Trap Catches Empty trap Trap caught beetles Infested Tree (exit or oviposition) 9/1/2011 8/23/2011 9/27/201 1 8/23/2011 8/8/201 1 9/26/2011 9/2/2011 8/23 /2011 9/13/2011
    28. 28. Ongoing ALB Trap Research • Refine lures to improve trap catch and increase number of males and mated females caught • Evaluate best trap spacing for optimum information on ALB populations in neighborhoods • Trial deployment in high risk areas to detect new infestations
    29. 29. Funding Sources USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area
    30. 30. USDA -APHIS -Vic Mastro - Christine Markham - Al Sawyer - Ron Mack & Crew -Clint McFarland -Joe Gittleman Thank you PSU: Maya Nehme, Peter Meng, Jim McNeil, David Long, Ezra Schwartzberg USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station - Trotter Crew Sentinel Plant - Keena Crew Network ALB Cooperative Eradication Program -Joan Mahoney -Ken Gooch -Kevin Freeman -Julie Coop (MA DCR) -USDA Climbers -NY Agriculture and markets crew

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