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Energy in Factory Automation and the Role of Industrial Networks

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In today’s world energy cost big dollars for manufactures and the fact is most plants don’t know where there energy is being used. To help with this problem the Industrial Network communities are providing common interfaces to gather and control energy in the industrial space. This presentation will focus on aspects of Energy where it relates to Industrial Automation and some of the challenges we face. We will also cover upcoming initiative for interfacing to the smart grid for demand response request.

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Energy in Factory Automation and the Role of Industrial Networks

  1. 1. September 10, 2014 1
  2. 2. Cost of Energy The Role of Industrial Networks Energy Usage Reporting Standardization Controlling Usage Smart Grid Connection CIP Energy Overview Applications 2
  3. 3. Knowing when and where energy is used is important According to the DoE and eia the industrial sector uses about 1/3 of the energy in the US. 3
  4. 4. Studies suggest that 15-30% may be saved overall Profinet International Study – Measurements were taken in an automotive assembly plant to determine the amount of energy that could be saved during downtime. – It suggested that up to 60% of the total energy used during production may be consumed during downtime. 4
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  6. 6. Most of the electrical energy consumed is for electrical motors – As of 2012 only 28% of low voltage motors are classified as high-efficiency. – By 2017 high-efficiency low voltage motors should account for 62%. – 96% of the total cost of ownership for a motor is the electrical energy usage, leaving 2% for the purchase cost and 2% for maintenance. 6
  7. 7. Aspects of energy management – Monitoring energy usage. – Controlling the amount of power a machine may use at any given time. – Powering down when the machine is not active. 7
  8. 8. Many of the industrial protocols have support for energy: – PROFINET has a profile for energy monitoring and power control. – EtherNet/IP has objects for monitoring and power control (production and idle states). – Sercos III has a profile for monitoring and power control. 8
  9. 9. Common reporting unit: kWh. – Report the total energy consumption within the plant in kWh. – Many energy types: steam, chilled water, natural gas, oil, etc. may be reported in kWh. – Allows reporting of the total energy usage within the machine regardless of energy sources (cost per widget). 9
  10. 10. Two approaches – Power down unused devices and machines. – Run the device at a lower power level during production. •Running the device or machine at a lower power level may not save overall energy cost per widget, but would reduce the energy usage for a given period of time, for example at peak demand. 10
  11. 11. Powering down devices should ideally be done during breaks – E.g. lunch, weekends, scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. – Machine is idling. Factors to consider – How much time is required to bring back up the device after shutting down. – The energy used to shut down and start up, is it less than remaining powered up? 11
  12. 12. Running at a lower power level during production – May be applied as an attempt to keep peak energy consumption below a certain point for a specific pay period (due to overage penalties). – External environment factors ( transformer problems, overloaded grid, etc.). – Power source changes (coal, wind, solar, etc.). 12
  13. 13. Connection solutions could come in the form of gateways – Provide translation between Industrial Networks and Smart Grid Networks (e.g. IEC 61850). – The approach allows for a firewall between the utilities provider and the factory floor. 13
  14. 14. 14 Assembly 0x04 Connections Objects architecture Identity Energy Curtailment Object TCP/IP Interface 0x01 Base Energy Message Router 0x02 0xF5 Ethernet Link 0xF6 Assembly 0x04 Connection Manager 0x06 Assembly 0x04 Non-Electrical Energy Object Electrical Energy Object Object IO EM EtherNet/IP Unconnected Msg Connected Msg Parameters Objects Parameters Objects Parameters Objects Power Management Object Application Objects
  15. 15. Monitoring concepts: Base Energy, Electrical and Non-Electrical objects 15 Base Energy Object Electrical Energy Object Non-Electrical Energy Object (0 .. 1) Associated Base Energy Object Path
  16. 16. Base Energy Object normalizes all data to kWh’s and/or kW’s • Range: 999 terawatts hours to watts hours, 15 digits of accuracy. • kW’s are reported as a 32 bit real. Electrical Object has specific electrical attributes for example • Reactive Power, total and per line. • Active Power, total and per line. • Phase / Line Frequency. • Current Average, line to line and line to neutral. • Voltage Average, line to line and line to neutral. • Etc. 16
  17. 17. Non-Electrical Object may be used for any energy type – For example: • Natural Gas, Compressed Air, Fuel Oil, Tallow. • Provision for custom energy types. – Reports energy in native units, translated to kWh’s via the Base Energy Object. – Attributes are provided for conversion math. • E.g. 1 kWh = ((1 Gallon of Diesel * 383)/10). 17
  18. 18. Base Object may have a number of types 18 Energy Source Power monitor Line or department Energy measured Overload relay Motor amps (measured) Energy derived Voltage (assumed) Non-CIP servo Generic device Energy proxy Energy aggregated Software application Controller or Translator Parent/child relationship Specified using EPATHs Power supply 300W Energy fixed Infeed VFD Heating element Machine controller to line controller Power supply
  19. 19. Power Management Object – The purpose of this object is to bring the machine/device to a lower power state (non operational). – Time based, the longer the pause time the higher potential energy savings. – May support many levels of pause depending on the device. – The possible states are Owned, Paused, Sleeping and Resuming. 19
  20. 20. – Power Management Object States • Owned indicates that this device may be controlled by a power management client. • Paused indicates the device is in a lower power state. • Sleep indicates the device is fully powered off with exception of the MAC layer (waiting for Wake on LAN). • Resuming indicates the device is powering back up after being in a low power state. 20 Requested Pause or Sleep Time Resume Time Wake from Sleep Time Time to achieve low power level Minimum Pause or Sleep Time
  21. 21. Power Curtailment Object – This object is power based, requests are given in the amount of power required to be consumed. – Lowers power consumption during production, likely by lowering the production output (lower part count). – The object manages this by holding configuration sets for different power levels of run time modes e.g. 70%, 50%, 30% of full scale power usage. 21
  22. 22. Example Cell – The following Cell is an example of how Industrial networks can be utilized in the context of Energy. – The sample is only showing electrical energy but could easily be applied to other energy types. 1. Robot Controller 2. Robot Controller 3. Glue Gun 4. Drive Control 5. I/O Block 22 3 2 1 4 5
  23. 23. 23 Energy Monitoring Flow Energy Tool CIP Client [15kWh] Line PLC Energy Object Server Energy Aggregator [7kWh] Robot Controller (1) Inst 1 [2kWh] Inst 2 [1kWh] Robot Controller (2) Inst 1 [5kWh] Inst 2 [2.5kWh] End of Arm Tools Glue Gun (3) [1kWh] End of Arm Tools [0.5kWh] IO block Proxied Inst 1 [1kWh] Inst 2 [1kWh] Proxied IO Lift motor (5) Proxied IO Lift motor (5) Drive Controller (4) [100kWh] Ethernet/IP Ethernet/IP DeviceNet DeviceNet Line PLC Energy Object Server Energy Arregatitor [8kWh]
  24. 24. – Understand how much energy is consumed to build products at the Cell level. – Compare baseline with current data for preventive maintenance. – Schedule jobs in different cells to keep the peak energy consumption down and lower overall cost. – Use data to set up power curtailment programs, allowing for demand response capable production lines. 24
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