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STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
 Definitions

Law Of Rank Size Rule ( By Mark Jefferson)
Law Of Primate City ( By C.P.Zipf)
 Introduction

Factors Affecting Primate Cities.
Examples Of Countries
Case Study Of City Of Angels: Bangkok.
 Rank Size Rule
Theoretical Base For Rank Size .
Case Study Of Germany .
 Conclusions And Summary

THE LAW OF rank size rule

―IF ALL THE SETTLEMENTS OF A COUNTRY ARE
RANKED ACCORDING TO POPULATION SIZE, THE
SIZES OF THE SETTLEMENTS WILL BE
INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THEIR RANK.”
-ZIPF
The law of PRIMATE CITY

“THE PRIMATE CITY IS COMMONLY ATLEAST
TWICE AS LARGE AS THE NEXT LARGEST CITY
AND MORE THAN TWICE AS SIGNIFICANT.
-MARK JEFFERSON
INTRODUCTION
 Primacy – primacy is the product of small size of the country, short

history, urbanization, simple economic and political
organization, economy and export orientation of the economy.
 The degree of primate city refers to the dominance of the largest city
over the rest of the country.
 Primacy of a country is a result of unplanned development.
 Primate city –
 It is a major city that works as the financial, political, and population

centre of a country and is not rivaled in any of these aspects.
 A primate city must be at least twice as populous as the second
largest city in the country.
 Primate cities are often, but not always, the capital cities of a country.
Factors affecting primacy
 Size of the country
 Colonial history
 Export orientation of the economy
 Simple economic and political organization
 Dual economy
FACTORS ENCOURAGING PRIMACY
 Spread of colonialism

 Strong centralized government
 Economic factors
 Industrial agglomeration

 Rural urban migration
 Efficiency of modern transport
ADVANTAGES OF PRIMATE CITIES

 Economies of large scale can be achieved

because they attract overseas investment and
benefits that will eventually benefit the whole
country.
 Attractive places of migration.
 Resources, services and infrastructure
available on a large scale.
PROBLEMS FACED BY PRIMATE CITIES
 House shortages.
 Traffic congestion.
 Crime.
 Pollution.
 Urban rural inequalities.

 Concentration of power supplies.
 Increase in land value resulting in price rise .
 Imbalance in development – usually a progressive

core, lagging periphery, on which primate city
depends for labour and other resources.
EXAMPLES OF COUNTRIES WITH PRIMATE CITIES
 Paris (9.6 million) is definitely the focus of France

while Marseilles has a population of 1.3 million.
 United kingdom has London as its primate city (7
million) while the second largest city, Birmingham
is home to a mere one million people.
 Mexico city, Mexico (8.6 million) outshines
Guadalajara (1.6 million).
 A huge dichotomy exists between Bangkok (7.5
million) and Thialand’s second city, Nanthaburi
(4,18,000).
EXAMPLES OF COUNTRIES LACKING PRIMATE CITIES
 India’s most populous city is Mumbai with a population

of 16 million, second is Kolkata with more than 13
million.
 China, Canada, Australia, and brazil are other examples
of countries which lack primate cities.
 U.S. Lacks a true primate city. New York city has a
population of approx. 21 million, second ranked Los
Angeles at 16 million, and third ranked Chicago with a
population of 9 million.
CASE STUDY -CITY OF ANGELS : BANGKOK
 Some facts :
 Bangkok has been the capital
city for more than 200 years
 One of the world’s most
populated cities.
 Registered population of over
6.5 million.
 1,569 sq.Km. Area.
 Population density is about
3600 persons per sq.Km.
 Recently has been explosive
growth of urbanization.
 Growth started recently, in the
fifties and sixties.
 The Bangkok metropolitan area represents one of the world’s most

extreme examples of primacy. Its share of the national urban
population increased from 45% in 1945 to 63% in 1980.
 Approximately 70% of Thailand's urban population now live in
Bangkok (and 10% of the country’s total population).
In comparison, 30% of the Philippine's total urban population live
in manila and 27% of Malaysia's urban population live in Kuala
Lampur - the regions second and third most primate cities.
 Bangkok has a disproportionate share of other development
indices:





79% of all pharmacists
45% of all doctors
80% of the country’s telephones
72% of all registered passenger cars

 It provides 60% of the country’s gross domestic product.
 The primacy of Bangkok means that it does not fit the 'rank size

rule'.
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO BANGKOK’S PRIMACY
 The large distances between major urban

cities is a contributory factor to Bangkok's
primacy.
Nakhon ratchasima, Thailand's second largest
city is 250 kilometers away from Bangkok.
 The size of Bangkok also hampers the
emergence of contending larger cities since
employment and business opportunities are
concentrated in the city.
POPULATION OF THAILAND CITIES
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
Urban problems in Bangkok
 Extreme traffic congestion and











rapid urbanization.
Disorderly settlements, shanty
towns.
Poor planning.
Pressure on land use means few
recreational
areas, cramped, squalid conditions.
Economic problems –
unemployment.
Poverty.
Poor housing condition.
Degradation of standard of living.
Pollution.
Conflicting demands.
RANK SIZE RULE

If all the cities in a country are placed in
order from the largest to the smallest, each
one will have a population half the size of
the preceding city.
Main aim of rank size rule

The main aim of the rank size rule is to
find regularities concerning the
characteristics of settlements in various
countries, and to fit a graphical
description of size distribution of the
cities.
THEORY OF RANK SIZE RULE
 Zipf’s observed the size and number of settlements in

various countries. He noticed a common characteristic
which has been called the rank size rule. Having
observed this order in the real world, he then sought to
explain it. The rank size rule is an empirical regularity.
 The settlements within a defined area are ranked in
descending order according to the size of their
population.
 The size of a particular town can be predicted by
observing its rank and the size of the largest city in the
area.
 The town’s population is derived by dividing the largest
city’s population by the towns' rank.
THE RANK SIZE RULE - FORMULA
 Pr = Pi / r

where,
Pr = population of rth rank size.
Pi = population of the largest city
r = rank of the city
 The second ranking city of a country has one half of the
population of the largest city. The third largest city is one
third of the largest .
The rank size pattern
 The theoretical rank size rule pattern is a

straight line.
 In urban primacy, a single city dominates and is
much greater than the next large center. (Primary
pattern)
 In binary pattern two or more cities are larger
than the predicted size.
 In stepped order pattern there are series of
levels and steps. (Conurbations, cities, towns etc.)
The rank size pattern
Problems and applicability
 There is no universal definition of city sizes ; where to limit the







city present problems.
There are many areas where the built up area exceeds
outside the administrative boundaries.
And many city workers live beyond the edge of the building
area.
To what area should the rank size rule be applied.
The inclusion and exclusion of a very large city will very much
affect the analysis.
Rank size rule can be better used to comparative purposes it
is more descriptive rather than explanatory or predictive.
Case study- Germany
Applicability in India
 At national level rank size rule is absent in India.

 At upper hierarchy India is dominated by three cities all of which have a

population very close to each other.


For example according to 2001 census Greater Mumbai has
16368,Kolkatta has 13216 and Delhi has 12791 thousand population.

 At the second level Chennai has 6424,Bangalore 5686 and Hyderabad

5533 and Ahemdabad 4519 thousand population.
 Absence of rank size rule at the national level is because there is no

integrated system of settlements.


But by and large rank size relationships in India are an exception rather
than a rule.
case study -Maharashtra
12000000

10000000

8000000

6000000

4000000

2000000

0
Case study - Assam
3000000

2500000

2000000

1500000

1000000

500000

0
References
 Research paper by Gerald W. Fry

 Geo fact sheet ( Sept. 1998)
 Wikipedia
 Research paper by r. Shukla( spa- 2008)
 Rank-size distribution and primate city

characteristics in India — A temporal analysis By
Raju j. Das, Ashok K. Dutt.

Thank you for listening….

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Structure and Rank Size Rule of Cities

  • 1.
  • 2. STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION  Definitions Law Of Rank Size Rule ( By Mark Jefferson) Law Of Primate City ( By C.P.Zipf)  Introduction Factors Affecting Primate Cities. Examples Of Countries Case Study Of City Of Angels: Bangkok.  Rank Size Rule Theoretical Base For Rank Size . Case Study Of Germany .  Conclusions And Summary 
  • 3. THE LAW OF rank size rule ―IF ALL THE SETTLEMENTS OF A COUNTRY ARE RANKED ACCORDING TO POPULATION SIZE, THE SIZES OF THE SETTLEMENTS WILL BE INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THEIR RANK.” -ZIPF
  • 4. The law of PRIMATE CITY “THE PRIMATE CITY IS COMMONLY ATLEAST TWICE AS LARGE AS THE NEXT LARGEST CITY AND MORE THAN TWICE AS SIGNIFICANT. -MARK JEFFERSON
  • 5. INTRODUCTION  Primacy – primacy is the product of small size of the country, short history, urbanization, simple economic and political organization, economy and export orientation of the economy.  The degree of primate city refers to the dominance of the largest city over the rest of the country.  Primacy of a country is a result of unplanned development.  Primate city –  It is a major city that works as the financial, political, and population centre of a country and is not rivaled in any of these aspects.  A primate city must be at least twice as populous as the second largest city in the country.  Primate cities are often, but not always, the capital cities of a country.
  • 6. Factors affecting primacy  Size of the country  Colonial history  Export orientation of the economy  Simple economic and political organization  Dual economy
  • 7. FACTORS ENCOURAGING PRIMACY  Spread of colonialism  Strong centralized government  Economic factors  Industrial agglomeration  Rural urban migration  Efficiency of modern transport
  • 8. ADVANTAGES OF PRIMATE CITIES  Economies of large scale can be achieved because they attract overseas investment and benefits that will eventually benefit the whole country.  Attractive places of migration.  Resources, services and infrastructure available on a large scale.
  • 9. PROBLEMS FACED BY PRIMATE CITIES  House shortages.  Traffic congestion.  Crime.  Pollution.  Urban rural inequalities.  Concentration of power supplies.  Increase in land value resulting in price rise .  Imbalance in development – usually a progressive core, lagging periphery, on which primate city depends for labour and other resources.
  • 10. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRIES WITH PRIMATE CITIES  Paris (9.6 million) is definitely the focus of France while Marseilles has a population of 1.3 million.  United kingdom has London as its primate city (7 million) while the second largest city, Birmingham is home to a mere one million people.  Mexico city, Mexico (8.6 million) outshines Guadalajara (1.6 million).  A huge dichotomy exists between Bangkok (7.5 million) and Thialand’s second city, Nanthaburi (4,18,000).
  • 11. EXAMPLES OF COUNTRIES LACKING PRIMATE CITIES  India’s most populous city is Mumbai with a population of 16 million, second is Kolkata with more than 13 million.  China, Canada, Australia, and brazil are other examples of countries which lack primate cities.  U.S. Lacks a true primate city. New York city has a population of approx. 21 million, second ranked Los Angeles at 16 million, and third ranked Chicago with a population of 9 million.
  • 12. CASE STUDY -CITY OF ANGELS : BANGKOK  Some facts :  Bangkok has been the capital city for more than 200 years  One of the world’s most populated cities.  Registered population of over 6.5 million.  1,569 sq.Km. Area.  Population density is about 3600 persons per sq.Km.  Recently has been explosive growth of urbanization.  Growth started recently, in the fifties and sixties.
  • 13.  The Bangkok metropolitan area represents one of the world’s most extreme examples of primacy. Its share of the national urban population increased from 45% in 1945 to 63% in 1980.  Approximately 70% of Thailand's urban population now live in Bangkok (and 10% of the country’s total population). In comparison, 30% of the Philippine's total urban population live in manila and 27% of Malaysia's urban population live in Kuala Lampur - the regions second and third most primate cities.  Bangkok has a disproportionate share of other development indices:     79% of all pharmacists 45% of all doctors 80% of the country’s telephones 72% of all registered passenger cars  It provides 60% of the country’s gross domestic product.  The primacy of Bangkok means that it does not fit the 'rank size rule'.
  • 14. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO BANGKOK’S PRIMACY  The large distances between major urban cities is a contributory factor to Bangkok's primacy. Nakhon ratchasima, Thailand's second largest city is 250 kilometers away from Bangkok.  The size of Bangkok also hampers the emergence of contending larger cities since employment and business opportunities are concentrated in the city.
  • 15. POPULATION OF THAILAND CITIES 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0
  • 16. Urban problems in Bangkok  Extreme traffic congestion and          rapid urbanization. Disorderly settlements, shanty towns. Poor planning. Pressure on land use means few recreational areas, cramped, squalid conditions. Economic problems – unemployment. Poverty. Poor housing condition. Degradation of standard of living. Pollution. Conflicting demands.
  • 17. RANK SIZE RULE If all the cities in a country are placed in order from the largest to the smallest, each one will have a population half the size of the preceding city.
  • 18. Main aim of rank size rule The main aim of the rank size rule is to find regularities concerning the characteristics of settlements in various countries, and to fit a graphical description of size distribution of the cities.
  • 19. THEORY OF RANK SIZE RULE  Zipf’s observed the size and number of settlements in various countries. He noticed a common characteristic which has been called the rank size rule. Having observed this order in the real world, he then sought to explain it. The rank size rule is an empirical regularity.  The settlements within a defined area are ranked in descending order according to the size of their population.  The size of a particular town can be predicted by observing its rank and the size of the largest city in the area.  The town’s population is derived by dividing the largest city’s population by the towns' rank.
  • 20. THE RANK SIZE RULE - FORMULA  Pr = Pi / r where, Pr = population of rth rank size. Pi = population of the largest city r = rank of the city  The second ranking city of a country has one half of the population of the largest city. The third largest city is one third of the largest .
  • 21. The rank size pattern  The theoretical rank size rule pattern is a straight line.  In urban primacy, a single city dominates and is much greater than the next large center. (Primary pattern)  In binary pattern two or more cities are larger than the predicted size.  In stepped order pattern there are series of levels and steps. (Conurbations, cities, towns etc.)
  • 22. The rank size pattern
  • 23. Problems and applicability  There is no universal definition of city sizes ; where to limit the      city present problems. There are many areas where the built up area exceeds outside the administrative boundaries. And many city workers live beyond the edge of the building area. To what area should the rank size rule be applied. The inclusion and exclusion of a very large city will very much affect the analysis. Rank size rule can be better used to comparative purposes it is more descriptive rather than explanatory or predictive.
  • 25. Applicability in India  At national level rank size rule is absent in India.  At upper hierarchy India is dominated by three cities all of which have a population very close to each other.  For example according to 2001 census Greater Mumbai has 16368,Kolkatta has 13216 and Delhi has 12791 thousand population.  At the second level Chennai has 6424,Bangalore 5686 and Hyderabad 5533 and Ahemdabad 4519 thousand population.  Absence of rank size rule at the national level is because there is no integrated system of settlements.  But by and large rank size relationships in India are an exception rather than a rule.
  • 27. Case study - Assam 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0
  • 28. References  Research paper by Gerald W. Fry  Geo fact sheet ( Sept. 1998)  Wikipedia  Research paper by r. Shukla( spa- 2008)  Rank-size distribution and primate city characteristics in India — A temporal analysis By Raju j. Das, Ashok K. Dutt. Thank you for listening….