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104 Public Participation I

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104 Public Participation I

  1. 1. Public Participation College of Engineering, Pune
  2. 2. History of Public Participation (Global front)  Karl Mannhiem’s in his book “Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction (1940)”; first emphasised the importance of Public Participation in its crudest form.  He proposed the power quotient for the government and Action for the citizens.  Frederick Hayek lead an opposition against the authoritative role of government in Mannheim’s theories.  Planning was then defined in two context—the process (e.g. organizing public participation) or the content (e.g. designing policy to control sprawl). Evolution of Advocacy Planning.
  3. 3. Advocacy Planning.. Advocacy planning is about the development of. An Overall Change Strategy  long-term plan that embodies vision and reflects where we are, where we want to go and how we can get there. A Campaign  medium-term plan with activities aimed at influencing the policy environment and public opinion. Tactics, Actions, or Activities  short-term activities within a larger change strategy, designed for a specific moment and opportunity. Advocacy planning is a continual process. If some groups have not been involved in the initial stages of planning, they can be included later when plans are being reviewed and modified.
  4. 4. Indian contextual Public Participation..  During British Regime: Indian Leaders pressed for Autonomy at National Level..  After Independence: ‘Directive in article 40’ instated State to take steps to organise Village Panchayats (Unit of Self Govt.)  Rajeev Gandhi’s initiative: Notwithstanding cause Local units not functioning as units of representative democracy, elections not held for several years.  Until constitutional Amendment act: Municipalities functioned as agencies of civil services. Panchayats functioned as agencies of rural development schemes.  Micro level planning and Development required.
  5. 5. Amendments towards Public Participation 73rd Amendment Act, 1992 (Rural)  Hierarchy in administration (3 tier system): Village panchayat, District Panchayat and Intermediate (Janpad Panchayat)..  Plans for economic development and social justice. Power to impose taxes, dutys, tolls.. Grant in aid to Panchayats.  Election Commission: Gram Sabha. 74th Amendment Act, 1993 (Urban)  Hierarchy in administration (3 tier system): Nagar Panchayat for transitional areas, Municipal councils for smaller urban areas, Municipal Corporation for metropolis.  Town Planning: Regulation of land use and control of Buildings.  Slum improvement and upgradation.  Planning Committee: DP for Metropolitan areas  District Planning Committee for draft DP of District areas.  State Finance Commission.
  6. 6. Current Scenario.. (Indian Context)  Setting up of Ward Committees.  Rural areas: Panchayat Raj Institutions.  Community Participatory Law (CPL) mandated under JnNURM.  Ward Committees in Mumbai  MoUD: 12 States have enacted CPL.  Viz. AP, Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, MP, MH, Rajasthan, Bihar, Tripura, UP and WB.  Proposal for Sabha areas.
  7. 7. What is Public Participation  Political principle or practice, and may also recognised as a right.  Practice of stakeholder engagement and popular participation.  Seeks and facilitates the involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision.  The people affected by a decision have a right to be involved in the decision-making process.  The public's contribution will influence the decision.  Part of “people centred” or "human centric" principles.  Way of empowerment and as vital part of democratic governance.
  8. 8. Methods for involving citizens  Citizens must be given the opportunity and encouragement to participate.  Many citizens do not possess the skills necessary to act effectively on their own.
  9. 9. Merits Of Public Participation..  Improve qualities of decision.  Minimizing cost and delays  Increase ease of implementation.  Avoiding worst case of confliction.
  10. 10. Importance of Public Participation..  Opportunities for mutual education of everyone involved.  Decision makers, in a relatively short amount of time, often can get additional information, technical expertise, creativity .  Taking part in effective public participation encourages civic and community responsibility in meaningful ways.
  11. 11. Public Policy..  In few countries public participation has become a central principle of public policy making.  Large-scale consultations, focus group research, online discussion forums, or deliberative citizens' juries.  A tool, intended to inform planning, organising or funding of activities.  In the USA proposed rules are subject to public comment for a specified period of time.  Statutes or agency policies may mandate public hearings during this period.

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