An Overall Change Strategy This is usually a long-term plan that embodies our vision and reflects where we are, where we want to go and how we can get there. A Campaign This is a medium-term plan with activities aimed at influencing the policy environment and public opinion. The activities are intended to achieve some of your advocacy strategy Objectives.
Public participation is a political principle or practice, and may also recognised as a right ( right to public participation ). The terms public participation may be used interchangeably with the concept or practice of stakeholder engagement and/or popular participation. Generally public participation seeks and facilitates the involvement of those potentially affected by or interested in a decision.
If a community plans for a citizen participation event, say a public educational session, but fails to encourage participation, the event will not likely draw a large crowd. Likewise, encouraging people to participate without developing opportunities for their involvement will likely increase public confusion and lead to less participation. Many citizens do not possess the skills necessary to act effectively on their own—they need training. A series of educational sessions prior to the start of the comprehensive planning effort can provide orientation, build trust and develop a common level of understanding among the roader public related to planning and public involvement topics. This capacity building will help prepare citizens for the more rigorous and diffrent public involvement methods.
Participation is challenging, but is necessary to help planners make better decisions and a more thoughtful community plan. The Public Participation Plan can make the most effective use of limited public budgets and the public’s valuable participation time. The Four Cornerstones provide the framework to pack the PPP with necessary information, so local planning offi cials can engage the public effectively to reach desired outcomes. The PPP must also include provisions to identify whether public participation is reaching desired goals by documenting and evaluating activities. In summary, participation conducted concurrently to the planning process, with a broad array of relevant stakeholders, using a variety of methods to achieve various tasks, and by evaluating the results, participation can be both functional for planning and meaningful to the public.
104 Public Participation I
College of Engineering, Pune
History of Public Participation (Global front)
Karl Mannhiem’s in his book “Man and Society in an Age of Reconstruction
(1940)”; first emphasised the importance of Public Participation in its
He proposed the power quotient for the government and Action for the
Frederick Hayek lead an opposition against the authoritative role of
government in Mannheim’s theories.
Planning was then defined in two context—the process (e.g. organizing
public participation) or the content (e.g. designing policy to control
sprawl). Evolution of Advocacy Planning.
Advocacy planning is about the development of.
An Overall Change Strategy
long-term plan that embodies vision and reflects where we are,
where we want to go and how we can get there.
medium-term plan with activities aimed at influencing the policy
environment and public opinion.
Tactics, Actions, or Activities
short-term activities within a larger change strategy, designed for
a specific moment and opportunity.
Advocacy planning is a continual process. If some groups have not been
involved in the initial stages of planning, they can be included later when
plans are being reviewed and modified.
Indian contextual Public Participation..
During British Regime: Indian Leaders pressed for Autonomy at National
After Independence: ‘Directive in article 40’ instated State to take steps to
organise Village Panchayats (Unit of Self Govt.)
Rajeev Gandhi’s initiative: Notwithstanding cause Local units not
functioning as units of representative democracy, elections not held for
Until constitutional Amendment act: Municipalities functioned as agencies
of civil services. Panchayats functioned as agencies of rural development
Micro level planning and Development required.
Amendments towards Public Participation
Amendment Act, 1992 (Rural)
Hierarchy in administration (3 tier system): Village panchayat, District
Panchayat and Intermediate (Janpad Panchayat)..
Plans for economic development and social justice. Power to impose taxes,
dutys, tolls.. Grant in aid to Panchayats.
Election Commission: Gram Sabha.
Amendment Act, 1993 (Urban)
Hierarchy in administration (3 tier system): Nagar Panchayat for transitional
areas, Municipal councils for smaller urban areas, Municipal Corporation for
Town Planning: Regulation of land use and control of Buildings.
Slum improvement and upgradation.
Planning Committee: DP for Metropolitan areas
District Planning Committee for draft DP of District areas.
State Finance Commission.
Current Scenario.. (Indian Context)
Setting up of Ward Committees.
Rural areas: Panchayat Raj Institutions.
Community Participatory Law (CPL) mandated under JnNURM.
Ward Committees in Mumbai
MoUD: 12 States have enacted CPL.
Viz. AP, Assam, Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala, MP,
MH, Rajasthan, Bihar, Tripura, UP and WB.
Proposal for Sabha areas.
What is Public Participation
Political principle or practice, and may also
recognised as a right.
Practice of stakeholder engagement and popular
Seeks and facilitates the involvement of those
potentially affected by or interested in a decision.
The people affected by a decision have a right to
be involved in the decision-making process.
The public's contribution will influence the
Part of “people centred” or "human centric"
Way of empowerment and as vital part of
Methods for involving citizens
Citizens must be given the opportunity and encouragement to participate.
Many citizens do not possess the skills necessary to act effectively on their
Merits Of Public Participation..
Improve qualities of decision.
Minimizing cost and delays
Increase ease of implementation.
Avoiding worst case of
Importance of Public Participation..
Opportunities for mutual education of everyone involved.
Decision makers, in a relatively short amount of time, often can get
additional information, technical expertise, creativity .
Taking part in effective public participation encourages civic and
community responsibility in meaningful ways.
In few countries public participation has become a central principle of public
Large-scale consultations, focus group research, online discussion forums, or
deliberative citizens' juries.
A tool, intended to inform planning, organising or funding of activities.
In the USA proposed rules are subject to public comment for a specified
period of time.
Statutes or agency policies may mandate public hearings during this period.