12.2.11. #2 mona jabbari

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12.2.11. #2 mona jabbari

  1. 1. Planning to fail, failing to plan? A most different systems comparison of urban planning in Portugal and Iran Mona Jabbari (U. Minho) Carlos Jalali (U. Aveiro) Frederico Moura e Sá (U. Aveiro)
  2. 2. 1. TERRITORY: FUNCTIONS AND USES • LAND FUNCTIONS (ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE): • ENVIRONMENTAL (ECOLOGICAL BALANCE) • PRODUCTIVE (PRIMARY SECTOR) • SUPPORT (INFRASTRUCTURE, BUILDING, …) • EVOLUTION OF LAND USE DOMINANT BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL ORDER CONFLICT / CLASH REFLECTION / MIRROR E.G. IN PORTUGAL MUCH OF THE LAND IS PRIVATE PROPERTY BASIC RIGHT (LIBERAL FRAMEWORK) EACH OWNER LEGITIMATELY DEMANDS THE MAXIMUM ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE OF THEIR "GOOD" CARVALHO, J. (2010). MERCADO, IDEOLOGIA E ORDENAMENTO DO TERRITÓRIO. AVEIRO, UNIVERSIDADE DE AVEIRO.
  3. 3. 2. LAND USE: CURRENT DYNAMICS URBAN (CITY) RURAL (FIELD) VS. CLASSICAL DICHOTOMY (CONCENTRATED OCCUPATION) STEAM ENGINE, AUTOMOBILE AND INFRASTRUCTURE EXPANSION SCATTERED / FRAGMENTED OCCUPATION (URBAN SPRAWL) MODEL (BASED ON CAR USE AND UNTIL NOW IN CHEAP ENERGY) THAT MULTIPLIES ITSELF BY: • THE PERMANENT EXTENSION OF INFRASTRUCTURES (IRRATIONALITY WITHOUT ASSESSING LEVELS OF SERVICE) • LAND OWNERS ACTION: • ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTION • PRODUCTIVE FUNCTION • SUPPORT FUNCTIONS (WITHOUT ECONOMIC RETURN) RELENTLESS PURSUIT OF BUILDING ON HIS PROPERTY CARVALHO, J. (2010). MERCADO, IDEOLOGIA E ORDENAMENTO DO TERRITÓRIO. AVEIRO, UNIVERSIDADE DE AVEIRO. DOMINGUES, Á. (2008). URBANIZAÇÃO EXTENSIVA – UMA NOVA ESCALA PARA O PLANEAMENTO. CITTA 1ST ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON PLANNING RESEARCH. PORTO, FEUP.
  4. 4. 4. SPRAWL IN PORTUGAL… Tehran province: Different Grain size of heterogeneous tissue GROWTH RATES OF HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES IN PORTUGAL, 1970-81, 1981-91 AND 1991-2001 GROWTH OF HOUSING HAS BEEN CONTINUOUSLY ABOVE 20%, ALWAYS WELL ABOVE THE INCREASE OF THE FAMILY NUMBERS. A EVOLUÇÃO DO PARQUE HABITACIONAL PORTUGUÊS: REFLEXÕES PARA O FUTURO
  5. 5. 4. SPRAWL IN PORTUGAL… THREE DIFFERENT TYPOLOGIES CONTINUOUS LINEAR BUILDING (EX: CARVALHEIRA – AVEIRO)
  6. 6. 4. SPRAWL IN PORTUGAL… THREE DIFFERENT TYPOLOGIES OCCASIONAL PATCHES OF URBANIZATIONS (EX: SÃO JOSÉ DA PONTE – ÉVORA)
  7. 7. 4. SPRAWL IN PORTUGAL… THREE DIFFERENT TYPOLOGIES UNIFORM PUNCTUAL BUILDING (EX: AZURVA – AVEIRO)
  8. 8. 3. SPRAWL IN IRAN… Tehran is the economic and political centre of the country. This helps explain sprawling settlements in the Tehran province. The province has a population of around 11 million. Statistical Center of Iran(2013) at : www.amar.org.ir Iran Tehran province
  9. 9. 3. SPRAWL IN IRAN… TWO DIFFERENT TYPOLOGIES TEHRAN PROVINCE: PUNCTUAL BUILDING, HETEROGENEOUS PLOT SIZES
  10. 10. 3. SPRAWL IN IRAN… TWO DIFFERENT TYPOLOGIES North of Iran Statistical Center of Iran(2013) at : www.amar.org.ir
  11. 11. 3. SPRAWL IN IRAN… TWO DIFFERENT TYPOLOGIES NORTH OF IRAN: CONTINUOUS LINEAR SPRAWL, HOMOGENEOUS PLOT SIZES
  12. 12. 3. SPRAWL IN IRAN… GROWTH RATES OF HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES IN IRAN, 1996-2000, 2001-2005 AND 2006-2010 Statistical Center of Iran(2013) at : www.amar.org.ir GROWTH OF FAMILIES HAS BEEN CONTINUOUSLY ABOVE DOUBLE AND HALF, ALWAYS WELL ABOVE THE INCREASE OF THE RATE HOUSE NUMBERS.
  13. 13. 5. THE RESEARCH QUESTION WHY? WHAT FACTORS EXPLAIN INEFFICIENT LAND USE AND SPRAWL? EXPLANATIONS OF INEFFICIENT LAND USE AND SPRAWL GENERALLY BASED ON CASE STUDIES. E.G.: CARVALHO, J. (COORDENAÇÃO GERAL) (NO PRELO). CUSTOS E BENEFÍCIOS, À ESCALA LOCAL, DE UMA OCUPAÇÃO DISPERSA. UNIVERSIDADE DE AVEIRO, UNIVERSIDADE DE ÉVORA, DGOTDU. (CASOS DE AVEIRO E ÉVORA). GRAHAM, S., MARVIN, S. (2001). SPLINTERING URBANISM: NETWORKED INFRASTRUCTURE, TECHNOLOGICAL MOBILITIES AND THE URBAN CONDITION. LONDON, NEW YORK, ROUTLEDGE. SIEVERTS, T. (2003). CITIES WITHOUT CITIES: AN INTERPRETATION OF THE ZWISCHENSTADT. LONDON, NEW YORK, SPON PRESS. SOARES, L. B. (2002). A REALIDADE INCONTORNÁVEL DA DISPERSÃO. SOCIEDADE E TERRITÓRIO, N. 33, FEVEREIRO, P. 123- 129.
  14. 14. 6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS LIJPHART (1971): SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION CONSISTS OF TWO BASIC ELEMENTS: (1) THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GENERAL EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TWO OR MORE VARIABLES, WHILE (2) ALL OTHER VARIABLES ARE CONTROLLED THAT IS, HELD CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD: “METHOD OF DISCOVERING EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIABLES” (LIJPHART, 1971: 683) SYSTEMATIC COMPARISON OF SMALL N; DELIBERATE AND CAREFUL SELECTION OF CASES; IDENTIFYING CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS BY ANALYSING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CASES TWO MAIN STRATEGIES: 1. MOST SIMILAR SYSTEMS DESIGN (MSSD): minimise variance in the independent (control) variables and maximise difference in the dependent variable 2. MOST DIFFERENT SYSTEMS DESIGN (MDSD): maximise variance in the independent variables and minimise difference in the dependent variable
  15. 15. 6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS THE LOGIC OF MDSD
  16. 16. 6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS PORTUGAL IRAN DEMOCRACY NOT DEMOCRACY MARKET ECONOMY TRANSITION ECONOMY 10 MILLION POP’N; HIGH DENSITY (115/KM2); LOW GROWTH (0.18%) 76 MILLION POP’N; LOW DENSITY (47/KM2); FAST GROWTH (1.25%) PIECEMEAL PLANNING SYSTEM CENTRALISED PLANNING PREPONDERANCE OF PRIVATE INITIATIVE PUBLIC CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION BUT BOTH WITH INEFFICIENT LAND USE (SPRAWL) PORTUGAL AND IRAN AS A MOST DIFFERENT SYSTEMS DESIGN COMPARISON
  17. 17. 7. THE PORTUGUESE CASE: FACTORS REASONS FOR DISORGANIZED OCCUPATION OF THE TERRITORY: PUBLIC ACTION ONLY USES PLANS (GENERALLY TOO PERMISSIVE) AND LICENSING (WITH CASE BY CASE APPROACH AND DEPENDENT ON THE INITIATIVE OF EACH OWNER - EVEN IF THE LICENSEE COMPLIES WITH THE PLAN, DISORDER REMAINS) WHAT IS MISSING: • ANOTHER REAL ESTATE TAX SYSTEM (THE PRESENT ONE REWARDS INACTION AND INHIBITS OPERATION OF THE MARKET) • AND ABOVE ALL, MORE PUBLIC INITIATIVE (DIRECT ACTIONS OR PROMOTION OF EFFECTIVE PARTNERSHIPS - IN STRATEGIC TERRITORIALLY INTERVENTIONS) CARVALHO, J. (2010). MERCADO, IDEOLOGIA E ORDENAMENTO DO TERRITÓRIO. AVEIRO, UNIVERSIDADE DE AVEIRO.
  18. 18. 8. THE IRANIAN CASE: FACTORS REASONS FOR DISORGANIZED OCCUPATION OF THE TERRITORY: 1990s-2000s: CONSTRUCTION AS THE ONLY LUCRATIVE USE OF LAND, AND PARTICULARLY PROFITABLE IN THE ECONOMY AS A WHOLE, GIVEN HIGH DEMAND. PRIVATE CAPITAL CHANNELLED TO CONSTRUCTION. Since 2000s: DIRECT GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION TO INCREASE HOUSING. HOWEVER, HAS SERVED TO FURTHER INCREASE VALUE OF LAND (PRIVATE) FOR CONSTRUCTION, AND LITTLE PLANNING STRUCTURE. WHAT IS MISSING: • ANOTHER REAL ESTATE TAX SYSTEM (NO TAXATION ON CONSTRUCTION PROFITS) • AND ABOVE ALL, MORE PUBLIC INITIATIVE (DIRECT ACTIONS OR PROMOTION OF EFFECTIVE PARTNERSHIPS - IN STRATEGIC TERRITORIALLY INTERVENTIONS)
  19. 19. 8. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WHAT FACTORS EXPLAIN INEFFICIENT LAND USE AND SPRAWL? DESPITE DIFFERENT URBAN PLANNING REGULATIONS AND CONTEXTUAL FACTORS, IRAN AND PORTUGAL WITH SIMILAR OUTCOMES. THE COMMON FACTOR: ABUNDANCE OF CHEAP CREDIT FOR CONSTRUCTION IN PORTUGAL, CREDIT PROVIDED BY FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN IRAN, CREDIT PROVIDED GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION IN BOTH CASES, SIMILAR IMPACT: ECONOMIC LOGIC OVERRIDES SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL LOGICS
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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