Wood Cellulose fibers bound by
Stiff mineral “fibers” in
a soft organic matrix
permeated with holes
filled with liquids
Granular composite of
Two or more chemically different constituents combined macroscopically to yield a useful material.
• A material which is composed of two or more materials at a microscopic
scale and have chemically distinct phases.
• Heterogeneous at a microscopic scale but statistically homogeneous at
• Constituent materials have significantly different properties.
• Conditions for a material to qualify as a composite:
1. Combination of materials should result in significant property changes.
2. Content of the constituents is generally more than 10 %
3. In general, property of one constituent is much greater ( ≥ 5 times) than
Anatomy of composite materials
What are the functions of reinforcement?
1. Contribute desired properties
2. Load carrying
3. Transfer the strength to matrix
What are the functions of a matrix?
1. Holds the fibres together
2. Protects the fibres from environment
3. Protects the fibres from abrasion (with each other)
4. Helps to maintain the distribution of fibres
5. Distributes the loads evenly between fibres
Single Layer Multi-layer
• High beam stiffness
• High torsional stiffness
• Low density
• Good fatigue resistance
Tailoring the elastic
control of the fibre
Problem arises due to
combined forward &
Helicopter Rotor Blade
Composite Pressure Vessels
The project was launched in partnership with M/s. Kineco Pvt. Ltd.,
Panaji and with technology support from IIT-Bombay.
The project aimed at developing filament wound pressure vessels for
the following applications.
1. Undercarriage FRP tanks (450 mm diameter with 2.00 bar operating pressure to be fitted to the railway passenger
coaches for water supply to the toilets ).
2. Two sizes of pressure vessels (500 mm & 600 mm diameter) for water treatment application; operating pressure :
The project was launched in
partnership with M/s. Supal FRP Pvt.
Ltd, Hyderabad with design inputs
from the Industrial Design Centre (IDC)
For DG sets of capacities of 15 KVA &
100 KVA to meet 25 dB noise
attenuation levels as prescribed by
Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
The enclosure was supplied to M/s
Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd., Pune for
testing and its performance was found
The composite enclosure offers
resistance to corrosion and provide
high internal damping & low noise
Composite Artificial Limbs for Physically Handicapped
The project was lunched in collaboration with M/s. Mohana Orthotics &
Prosthetic Centre, Chennai and technology support from Madras Institute of
Technology (MIT), Chennai.
Below-knee endoskeleton type artificial limbs are lighter in weight and better
appearance than ever before with improved gait for the patients.
The limb consists of the following parts:
1. a FRP tubular structure,
2. top & bottom connectors,
3. PU foot with composite keel embedded in it and
4. a polypropylene socket to accommodate the amputee stump.
Such indigenously developed below-knee artificial limb is cheaper than the
• An Introduction to Composite Materials, D.Hull & T.W.Clyne, Second
Edition, Cambridge Solid State Science series
• Introduction to Composite Materials and Structures ,
nptel.ac.in/courses/112104168/L01, Nachiketa Tiwari, Indian Institute
of Technology Kanpur
• http://nptel.ac.in/courses/105108124/11#, Dr.P.C.Pandey, IISc
Bangalore, Composite materials; Civil Engineering