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Algae fuel


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breif intro to algar biofuel and methods.

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Algae fuel

  1. 1. Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering Department of Chemical Engineering Presented by :- PIYUSH KUMAR 1DS12CH026 Seminar on :- Algae-Biofuel 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 1
  2. 2. Contents :-  Introduction  Why algae fuel?  Comparison of Oil yields  Production process  Other uses of algae  Conclusion  References 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 2
  3. 3. Algae:-  Algae (Latin: seaweed) are prokaryotic or eukaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms that can grow rapidly and live in harsh conditions due to their unicellular or simple multicellular structure.  Autotrophic: Organisms that produce complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules using energy from light (photosynthesis)  Algae are dated back to approximately 3 billion years in the Precambrian age (4600 Ma to 542 Ma; 88% of geological time).  The first plants on earth evolved from shallow freshwater algae. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 3
  4. 4. Biofuels – the green alternative :  Derived form biological materials through biomass conversion  Renewable  Production requires more effort and resources  Can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions 1. Release CO2 when burning 2. Biofuel production consumes it back.  Types: • Ethanol • Biodiesel • Bio gasoline • Bio butanol • Methane • Jet fuel 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 4
  5. 5. Evolution of Biofuel Production :- BIOFUEL 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 5
  6. 6. Why Algae Fuel ?  Can be grown on marginal lands useless for ordinary crops .  High yield per acre – have a harvesting cycle of 1–10 days .  Can be grown with minimal impact on fresh water resources .  Can be grown using flue gas from power plants as a CO2 source .  Can convert a much higher fraction of biomass to oil than conventional crops, e.g. 60% versus 2-3% for soybean.  No competition with food supply. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 6
  7. 7. Comparison of Oil Yields :- Yields ( Gallons of oil per acre per year ) Corn 18 Soybeans 48 Safflower 83 Sunflower 102 Rapeseed 127 Oil Palm 635 Micro Algae 5000-15000 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 7
  8. 8. Production process:- 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 8
  9. 9. Algae Cultivation :-  Algae Cultivation systems Currently, two main systems for algae cultivation widely adopted are :- • Open ponds (raceways) • Photobioreactors (PBR) Open ponds Photobioreactors 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 9
  10. 10. Open pond :-  Algae is cultivated in ponds which are exposed to open air.  Mostly uses environmental carbon dioxide.  Open ponds are the most widely used system for large- scale outdoor microalgae cultivation  low cost method but needs plenty amount of water.  Subject to contamination from predator strains  Subject to evaporative water loss  Subject to a difficult control of temperature (day/night, seasonal)  Lead to solutions with little biomass concentration  Require larger amount of nutrients (N, P) 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 10
  11. 11. Photobioreactors :-  Made up of Plastic or borosilicate glass tubes that are exposed to sunlight.  Allow single species culture  Allow easier and accurate provision of nutrients (N, P)  Lead to more concentrated solutions  Need larger amounts of energy for mixing and to maintain temperature  With flue gases (having an higher CO2 concentration than the atmosphere)  Provides carefully controlled artificial environment and specific conditions to algae.  Biomass could be derived from nutrient- rich wastewater and flue gas carbon dioxide in a photobioreactor. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 11
  12. 12. Harvesting :-  The harvesting process occurs through a number of steps 1. Flocculation •Use of chemical binding agents and air flotation (established solution for sewage systems) in order to collect biomass. Eg FeCl3 2. Filtration • Process used after flocculation, to reduce the amount of water (de-watering) 3. Centrifugation • Mechanical process well established in industry, it enhances the concentration and may destroy the cell wall, leading to a difficult extraction of oils. As a result, appropriate strains would need to be developed Flocculation, filtration about 3% concentration in water Centrifugation about 20% Further concentration of the biomass is required for the oil extraction through conventional solvents. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 12
  13. 13. Drying:-  Harvested algae contain 97%-99% water.  Removal of most of the water is necessary for long term storage of the algae feedstock and is required for many downstream processes.  To keep algae from prolonged microbial growth, the moisture level of the harvested algae should be kept below 7%.  Drying is an energy intensive process and can account for up to 30% of the total production costs.  Natural drying (solar and wind) is the most economical way; however, its weather dependent nature could easily put the operation at risk of spoilage.  It also requires a large space. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 13
  14. 14. Extraction :-  Pressing oil from the algae:- Dry the algae and press the oil from it , can retrieve up to 70% of the oil simplest and cheapest method  Chemical Oil Extraction :- Use Hexane solvent to remove the oil .  Super Critical Oil Extraction :- Most efficient method , uses CO2 at critical pressure and temperature causing rapid diffusion of the oil , very expensive process. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 14
  15. 15. Other uses of algae :-  Microalgae are used as human nutrition, animal feed, aquaculture etc.  Algal biomass contains 20%-40% protein, 30%-50% lipid, 20% carbohydrate, and 10% other compounds.  Depending on the conversion processes, a range of products can be obtained from algal biomass 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 15
  16. 16. Conclusion:-  Conclusion Algae Biofuel is a very promising candidate to replace fossil fuels  Algae’s cultivation does not require that it compete with food crops  Ability for algae to be cultivated on non-arable land, using saltwater, greatly reduces its impact on the environment  Algae is easy to grow. Can produce a high yield of oil.  Further research necessary to unlock full potential of algae  Help to solve dependence on fossil fuels can be better for the Earth. 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 16
  17. 17. References :-  Research Papers • Ben, A., Amotz , Large Scale Open Algae Ponds, The National Institute of Oceanography Nature Beta Technologies Ltd. Nikken Sohonsha Co, Japan Seambiotic Ltd. ISRAEL • Eleazer ,P. R. , Lisa, M. C. , Mark, A. White , Andres F. C., 2012,  Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach, Bioresource Technology 126 (2012) 298– 306 • Jorquera, O., Kiperstok, A., Sales, E.A., Embiruçu, M., Ghirardi, M.L., 2010. Comparative energy life-cycle analyses of microalgal biomass production in open ponds and photobioreactors. Bioresource Technology 101, 1406–1413.  Websites 16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 17
  18. 18. THANK YOU !16-Mar-16DSCE CHEMICAL ENGG. 18