Scope 1: emissions are those over which a company has direct control via ownership of activities;Scope 2: is purchased electricity, heat or steam; andScope 3: all indirect emissions that occur as a result of facility or business activities that use goods or resources with potential greenhouse gas emissions
Work Experience• Environmental Resources Management, Thailand Office • Sustainability and Climate Change Concentration Team • Assistant Consultant (2008-2011)• Key Projects • GHG Accounting and Reporting Standard • For large Oil and Gas company • Carbon Footprint • PET Resin and Bottle production • CDM Projects • Hydropower project • Heat recovery generator in cement production • National GHG Inventory • Hong Kong SAR • LEED Green Building • An international bank’s new head office in Bangkok
Content• What is a ‘Carbon Footprint’?• How do you measure your carbon footprint?• How is carbon footprint useful?
Fossil fuels introduces new CO2 (actuallyancient CO2 back) into the atmosphere CO2 CO2 Time
What is a ‘Carbon Footprint’? If the world was a beach and our activities are our walking, • Bigger feet, bigger footprints • More walking, more footprints Focus on human activities only So, the carbon footprint is like a trail of footprints leftover from our activities
The Greenhouse Effect Do you know that water vapor is also a GHG?http://greenhouse-guides.blogspot.com/2011/06/greenhouse-effect-does.html
It’s not just CO2, it’s Greenhouse Gases CO2 1 x 100 = 100 CH4 21 x 100 = 2,100 N2O 310 x 100 = 31,000 + HFCs 140 x … = … …… …… PFCs to SUM of tCO2e SF6 23,900Kyoto Protocol GHGs (through 2012)
How do you measure tonnes of GHG? 24/7 or Take Samples tonnes + of GHG Measure the source of GHG C + 2x O CO2 12 g/mol 16 g/mol 44 g/mol Use scientific estimates per level of activity Activity Data x Emission Factor = GHG EmissionsLiters of Gasoline kgCO2 per liter of GasolineTonnes of Cement Production tCO2 per tonne of Cement Productionkm of road driven kgCO2 per km using small car… …
Source: IPCC 2006 Guidelines: Energy Volume 67,500 kgCO2per TJ (1012 J) 3 kgCH4 per TJ (1012 J) 0.6 kgN2O per TJ (1012 J)
Source: API Compendium 2009 GWP x 67,500 kgCO2per TJ (1012 J) = 2.234 kgCO2/Liter x133.1 MJ/Liter x 3 kgCH4 per TJ (1012 J) = 0.0000993 kgCH4/Liter x 21 = 2.242 kgCO2e/Liter x 0.6 kgN2O per TJ (1012 J) = 0.0000198 kgCO2/Liter x 310
Toyota Camry 3.5LTank Size: 17.0 Gallons or 64 Liters 64 Liters x 2.242 kgCO2e/Liter = 143.5 kgCO2e per tank
Emission Factors – Tier LevelsA tier represents a level of methodological complexity• Tier 1 – basic method • Use readily available national or international statistics, default emission factors and other additional parameters• Tier 2 – intermediate method • Use technology specific statistics• Tier 3 – most demanding in terms of complexity and data requirements • Use site specific statistics2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
Sources of GHG Emissions1. Fuel Combustion Emissions – emissions resulted from burning fuel • Stationary Fuel Combustion • Boilers, generators, etc. • Mobile Fuel Combustion • Trains, planes, automobiles, ships, etc.2. Process Emissions – emissions resulted from chemical reactions • Plastic production, cement production, etc.3. Fugitive Emissions – leakage of substances that are on- their-own GHGs • Natural gas leaks, refrigerant leaks, landfill gases, livestock, etc.
National GHG Inventory• According to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, the reporting of GHGs are separated into 4 categories1. Energy • Fuel use, petroleum production, energy production, transportation, etc.2. IPPU – Industrial Processes and Product Use • Chemical reactions, uses of GHG-contained products and chemicals, etc.3. AFOLU – Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use • Livestock, farming, land utilization, etc.4. Waste • Domestic waste, landfills, water treatment, waste management, etc.
Yeah, we contribute to global warming, too, you know? fart... CH4 fart... CH4 CH4 FaRR...T… CH4 FAAA…..AAART!!!
World GHG Emissions by Sector and Gas (2005)http://www.wri.org/image/view/11147/_original
How is Carbon Footprint useful?• Not until we know how much we emit can we determine how to reduce our emissions• Several global organizations are finding ways to reduce our emissions • Penalty schemes • Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries • Airline carbon fees • Incentive schemes • CDM Projects • Carbon credit exchange markets
Future Topics • GHG Accounting and Reporting System • CDM Projects and Carbon Credit Exchange Markets • Green Buildings • Green Business Opportunities and Green Entrepreneurs • Much, much more…