COMMUNITY RADIO IN EUROPE  AND FINLAND Pirita Juppi, PhD. Principal Lecturer in Media and Communication Diaconia Universit...
HISTORY OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY RADIOS <ul><li>First occured in form of alternative pirate stations in 1960’s and 1970’s. </...
CURRENT STATE OF  COMMUNITY RADIOS <ul><li>Over 3000 community radio statios in Europe  </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly in Wester...
Orange:  very active, well established regulations  Light Orange:  very active, recently changed regulation  Yellow:  very...
FACTORS INFLUECING DIFFERENCES IN ACTIVITY <ul><li>Level of democracy and freedom of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of...
COMMUNITY RADIO IN FINLAND <ul><li>One of the least active countries in Europe, together with some new EU member states. <...
COMMUNITY RADIO IN FINLAND <ul><li>5 non-commercial local radios, 2 of which student radios and 3 local community radios r...
COMMUNITY RADIO IN FINLAND <ul><li>No recognition by law  </li></ul><ul><li>Run on normal lisences for commercial local ra...
CONCEPTUAL CHAOS? free radio   närradio radio comunitaria lähiradio alternative radio citizen radio yhteisöradio associati...
RECOGNITION BY EU <ul><li>25.9.2008 a non-legislative resolution by European parlament: ”Community media in Europe” </li><...
RECOGNITION BY EU <ul><li>Resolution stressed e.g. that community media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are an effective means of st...
RECOGNITION BY EU <ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Advises Member States, without causing detriment to traditional med...
REFERENCES <ul><li>KEA (Kern European Affairs) 2007. The State of Community Media in European Union. Brussels: European pa...
ORGANIZATIONS AND NETWORKS <ul><li>AMARC, World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters,  www.amarc.org </li></ul><ul>...
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Community Radio In Europe and Finland

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Presentation by Dr. Pirita Juppi, Principal Lecturer in Communication and Media, Diaconia University of Applied Sciences (2009)

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  • Hi Richard,

    If you'll be relocating in Helsinki, you should definitely get involved in the activities of Helsingin lähiradio (http://www.lahiradio.fi/ - unfortunately their wenpage is only in Finnish). Or if in Turku, Radio Robin Hood (http://www.radiorobinhood.fi/). They have programmes in different language and a rather multicultural team of volunteers.
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  • It is a shame that Community Radio is not so available in Finland. We are presenters on a Community Radio Station in the UK and would love the opportunity to continue when we relocate to Finland.
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Community Radio In Europe and Finland

  1. 1. COMMUNITY RADIO IN EUROPE AND FINLAND Pirita Juppi, PhD. Principal Lecturer in Media and Communication Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Finland August 2009
  2. 2. HISTORY OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY RADIOS <ul><li>First occured in form of alternative pirate stations in 1960’s and 1970’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Only in 1980’s community radio were granted a legal status in many European countries, along with the liberalisation of the broadcasting sector. </li></ul><ul><li>In Western Europe emerged to provide alternatives and challenged the monopoly of public broadcasting companies. </li></ul><ul><li>In Eastern Europe pirate radios functioned as a tool for civil rights movements to protest agains government. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983 Community Radio Association in UK -> since then several national associations. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 Community Media Forum Europe (CMFE). </li></ul>
  3. 3. CURRENT STATE OF COMMUNITY RADIOS <ul><li>Over 3000 community radio statios in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly in Western Europe, very little activity in East Europe and in Baltic countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Big differences in activity also within Western Europe, even among Nordic countries. Seems to be related to recognition of the community radio in national media laws. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Orange: very active, well established regulations Light Orange: very active, recently changed regulation Yellow: very active and public awareness, legal recognition but no funding Green: comparably active, lack of legislative recognition and regulations Blue: only limited activity Grey: no data available Source: KEA 2007
  5. 5. FACTORS INFLUECING DIFFERENCES IN ACTIVITY <ul><li>Level of democracy and freedom of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of the public about community media </li></ul><ul><li>National policies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of the CM in media law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licencing practises and other regulatory framework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of radio spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public support (funding, subsidises, splitting of licence fees etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural factors (i.e. strength of the civil society) </li></ul><ul><li>National media landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Media technological advancement </li></ul>
  6. 6. COMMUNITY RADIO IN FINLAND <ul><li>One of the least active countries in Europe, together with some new EU member states. </li></ul><ul><li>National monopoly of public broadcasting company was broken only in 1985 –> beginning of local radio stations. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea was to provide alternative, genuinely local programme to supplement the stations of the Public Broadcastin Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Under market pressure the nature of the local radios soon changed: commercial, etnertainment oriented, almost all now part of bigger media companies and radio station chains. </li></ul>
  7. 7. COMMUNITY RADIO IN FINLAND <ul><li>5 non-commercial local radios, 2 of which student radios and 3 local community radios run by associations formed by several member associations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Robin Hood (since 1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helsingin lähiradio/KSL radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Inari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Pro, Tornio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Moreeni (a university radio at Tampere) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>– > But are they all genuinely inclusive and participatory community radios? </li></ul><ul><li>National association of community radios was established in 2008 to promote the sector in Finland. </li></ul>
  8. 8. COMMUNITY RADIO IN FINLAND <ul><li>No recognition by law </li></ul><ul><li>Run on normal lisences for commercial local radios </li></ul><ul><li>Radio- and tv-broadcasting regulated by Ministry of transport and communications (crf. cultural magazines are under Ministry of education and can apply for funding from it) </li></ul><ul><li>No public funding mechanisms – project funding is vital for survival. </li></ul><ul><li>No must carry -regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Same copyright fees as the commercial radios (for Finnish Composers’ Copyright Society Teosto and the copyright society for performing artists and producers, Gramex). </li></ul>
  9. 9. CONCEPTUAL CHAOS? free radio närradio radio comunitaria lähiradio alternative radio citizen radio yhteisöradio associative radio radio libre lokal radio non-commercial local radio campus radio community radio radio associative radio popular
  10. 10. RECOGNITION BY EU <ul><li>25.9.2008 a non-legislative resolution by European parlament: ”Community media in Europe” </li></ul><ul><li>Defines community media as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-profit making and independent, not only from national, but also from local power, engaging primarily in activities of public and civil society interest, serving clearly defined objectives which always include social value and contribute to intercultural dialogue; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accountable to the community which they seek to serve, which means that they are to inform the community about their actions and decisions, to justify them, and to be penalised in the event of any misconduct, so that the service remains controlled by the interests of the community and the creation of 'top-down' networks is prevented; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open to participation in the creation of content by members of the community, who may participate in all aspects of operation and management, although those in charge of editorial content must have professional status; </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. RECOGNITION BY EU <ul><li>Resolution stressed e.g. that community media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are an effective means of strengthening cultural and linguistic diversity, social inclusion and local identity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help to strengthen the identities of specific interest groups, while at the same time fostering tolerance and pluralism in society and contributing to intercultural dialogue; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can play a significant role in training programmes and act as a valuable hub for work experience, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act as a catalyst for local creativity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contribute to the goal of improving citizens´’ media literacy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help to strengthen media pluralism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may provide the only source of local news and information and the sole voice of local communities. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. RECOGNITION BY EU <ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Advises Member States, without causing detriment to traditional media, to give legal recognition to community media as a distinct group alongside commercial and public media where such recognition is still lacking; </li></ul><ul><li>Calls on Member States to support community media more actively in order to ensure media pluralism, provided that such support is not to the detriment of public media; </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses the role that may be played by local, regional and national authorities in supporting and promoting community media by providing suitable infrastructure , together with support within the context of programmes encouraging exchanges of best practice; </li></ul><ul><li>Calls on Member States to make television and radio frequency spectrum available , both analogue and digital, bearing in mind that the service provided by community media is not to be assessed in terms of opportunity cost or justification of the cost of spectrum allocation but rather in the social value it represents. </li></ul>
  13. 13. REFERENCES <ul><li>KEA (Kern European Affairs) 2007. The State of Community Media in European Union. Brussels: European parliament, Policy Department Sturctural and Cohesion Policies. </li></ul><ul><li>European Parlament 2008. ” Community Media in Europe ”, a non-legislative resolution by European parliament 25.9.2008 </li></ul>
  14. 14. ORGANIZATIONS AND NETWORKS <ul><li>AMARC, World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters, www.amarc.org </li></ul><ul><li>Community Media Forum Europe (CMFE) www.cmfe.eu </li></ul><ul><li>The Communication Initiative Network http://www.comminit.com/ </li></ul>
  15. 15. THANK YOU!

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