Berlinwall

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Berlinwall

  1. 1. THE BERLIN WALL By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk
  2. 2. Another Cold War crisis <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>East – West rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin divided – contrast the two halves. </li></ul>WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as infection in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
  3. 3. Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West <ul><li>1949-129,245 </li></ul><ul><li>1951- 165,648 </li></ul><ul><li>1953- 331,390 </li></ul><ul><li>1955- 252,870 </li></ul><ul><li>1957- 261,622 </li></ul><ul><li>1959- 143,917 </li></ul><ul><li>1961- 207,026 </li></ul><ul><li>1962- 21,356 </li></ul><ul><li>1963- 42,632 </li></ul><ul><li>1964- 41,876 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What they wanted <ul><li>The West </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany </li></ul><ul><li>To see a united, democratic Germany </li></ul><ul><li>The East </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain control over E Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Make the West recognise it as an independent state </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1958-Soviet demands <ul><li>West should: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise GDR </li></ul><ul><li>Withdraw troops from West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Hand their access routes over to the East German government </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev bluffed that he would hand East Berlin over to the GDR. West refused and Khrushchev backed down. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Events of 1961 <ul><li>June-Vienna Summit </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused </li></ul><ul><li>July – Western powers reject Khrushchev’s Vienna demands </li></ul><ul><li>July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day </li></ul><ul><li>July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending </li></ul>
  7. 7. Events cont’d <ul><li>13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks </li></ul><ul><li>All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points </li></ul><ul><li>This was against the Four Power agreement reached in Paris on 20 June 1949. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Did Kennedy really mind the wall? He had protected West Berlin and he never promised to protect East Berlin?
  9. 9. Results <ul><li>Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall </li></ul>
  10. 11. Results cont’d <ul><li>Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war. </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed? </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘ Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>LINK: CNN - Cold War-The Wall </li></ul>

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