Fabric Expansion Joint Webinar


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This presentation will briefly touch on the basics of fabric expansion joints; however, is mainly focused on the various designs, material details, and applications. Learn how fabric expansion joints are engineered and fabricated for various applications and the many factors that influence those designs. View the abundance of materials used, including Fluoroplastic and Fluoroelastomer, and their respective capabilities. Take a journey through a Fossil Fired Power Plant and see exactly where fabric expansion joints are required.

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Fabric Expansion Joint Webinar

  1. 1. U.S. Bellows, Inc. Worldwide Leader in Metallic and Fabric Expansion Joints ▫ Fast Turnaround ▫ Repair ▫ Replace ▫ Refurbish ▫ Quick Delivery ▫
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pioneer in expansion joints, in business since the 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Joined the PT&P Family in 1995 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5x the resources: PT&P, SWECO, Pipe Shields and Fronek Anchor Darling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better location next to the Houston Ship Channel (one of the largest ports in the U.S. and in the world) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Bellows got a further shot in the arm with the acquisition of RM Engineered Products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquired the expansion joint assets of Lortz Manufacturing in 2011 </li></ul>Introduction to U.S. Bellows Manufacturing Facility <ul><li>More than 450,000 sq/ft of covered shop space </li></ul><ul><li>40 acre property </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing to expand </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>EJMA Member </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approx. 10 years now! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Committee (Roy Felkner, Rakesh Agrawal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management committee (Durga Agrawal, Rakesh Agrawal) </li></ul></ul></ul>Certification / Membership EJMA Technical Committee Meeting (Barcelona, November 2009)
  4. 4. <ul><li>ASME U-Stamp, R-Stamp and NS Certified </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Business Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Houston Minority Business Council </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9001:2008 </li></ul>Certification / Membership <ul><li>ASME Section IX </li></ul><ul><li>AWS D1.1 </li></ul><ul><li>MIL-STD-248 </li></ul>Manufacturing Qualifications QA / QC Approval <ul><li>UOP </li></ul><ul><li>GE / Stewart and Stevenson </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>This presentation will cover the following topics </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric Expansion Joint Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric Belt Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Installation Instructions </li></ul>Presentation Overview
  6. 6. What is a Fabric Expansion Joint? <ul><li>Fabric expansion joints compensate for duct misalignment and duct thermal growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric expansion joints can absorb larger movements than metal expansion joints using a smaller “span” </li></ul><ul><li>A fabric expansion joint has two main components—the fabric gas seal material and the metal frames </li></ul><ul><li>Fabric expansion joints are found where there is a need to convey hot media in low pressure applications such as “in flowing air” and “out flowing gas” in large combustion processes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fabric Belt Material Introduction <ul><li>The fabric belt deforms to allow thermally induced movements. The belt must be able to withstand the thermal, pressure and chemical conditions. </li></ul>Resist “Flutter” High Temperatures Heavy Particulates Wet Corrosive Chemicals
  8. 8. <ul><li>TYPE OF PLANTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil Fired Power Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulp and Paper Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cement Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refineries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Plants </li></ul></ul>Where are Fabric Joints Found?
  9. 9. <ul><li>Fossil Fired Power Plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boiler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Heater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FD Fan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID Fan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrubber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stack </li></ul></ul>Fabric Expansion Joint Applications A fossil fired power plant is used to illustrate a range of conditions that can be found in many industrial applications.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Economizer to Air Heater Expansion Joint </li></ul>Application Example Economizer Air Heater Economizer to Air Heater Expansion Joint Economizer to Air Heater Example
  11. 11. Application Example <ul><li>High Temperature Dirty Flue Gas </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>HOW TO FILL OUT THE DATA SHEET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact Information </li></ul></ul>Fabric EJ Data Sheet
  14. 14. <ul><li>Part Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belt Attachment Frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasket and/or Insulation Tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation Pillow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation Barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fabric Belt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-up-Bars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasteners </li></ul></ul>Fabric Expansion Joint Basics
  15. 15. Bolt In vs. Weld In Designs <ul><li>Framed EJs that weld in are less expensive to manufacture than framed bolt in designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Weld in designs reduce potential problems in field fit up. </li></ul><ul><li>Weld in designs, when factory integrated into purchased ducting, save the customer money. </li></ul><ul><li>U-shaped designs are an alternative to framed EJs but should be used in limited applications </li></ul>Expansion joints can either bolt or weld directly to the duct or duct flanges. Comparisons include the following.
  16. 16. Metal Attachment Frames – No Baffles
  17. 17. Metal Attachment Frames – With Baffles
  18. 18. Metal Attachment Frames – With Baffles, Pillows, & Seals
  19. 19. Fabric Expansion Joint Basics <ul><li>Factors influencing expansion joint design </li></ul><ul><li>Belt material </li></ul><ul><li>Frame material </li></ul><ul><li>Frame design </li></ul><ul><li>Liner </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation Pillow </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulation Barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face </li></ul><ul><li>Standoff </li></ul><ul><li>Drain </li></ul><ul><li>Gasket </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Factors influencing expansion joint design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet Corrosive Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasive Media / Particulate Accumulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure / “Flutter” </li></ul></ul>Fabric Expansion Joint Basics
  21. 21. Expansion Joint Components Additional components are available to augment certain fabric expansion joint styles in specific applications. Insulation Pillow Drain Accumulation Barrier Bolt In Liner Particulate Deflector
  22. 22. Fabric Belt Materials <ul><li>Fabric belt material selection is a critical factor </li></ul><ul><li>in the successful design of each fabric expansion </li></ul><ul><li>joint. A number of materials are widely accepted </li></ul><ul><li>for use in fabric expansion joint applications. </li></ul><ul><li>These materials fall into two general families— </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoroplastics (PTFE)— Also known </li></ul><ul><li>commercially as Teflon®. The chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>of this material is unequaled. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorelastomers— A general name for the group </li></ul><ul><li>of synthetic “rubber” materials that are characterized </li></ul><ul><li>by their elastic property. These materials are </li></ul><ul><li>also known by their commercial names as Viton®, </li></ul><ul><li>Hypalon®, EPDM, and Chlorobutyl. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Fabric Belt Variables <ul><ul><li>Fabric belt material variables include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiberglass Tensile Strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical barrier thickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of a bonded insulation mat of varying thickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross film technology </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Materials Comparison Chart Furnaces, Kilns Low Low Excellent resistance to chemicals, High Temp. Stability Silica/PTFE Fabric with Kaowool High 1000 - 1800°F *3-layer Boiler Exhaust Low Low High abrasion resistance, Won’t rot or mildew Silica Fabric Cloth High 700 - 1000°F Exhaust Ventilation, Fume Protection, Gaskets or Seals Medium Low High tear / crease resistant; Smooth, low friction, non-stick surface, high tensile strength PTFE Impregnated Fiberglass, PTFE Coated Glass Cloth High 500 - 700°F Gaskets or Seals, Recirculation Air, Air Intake High Low Resistant to deterioration by weathering and engine oil remains Fiberglass, Reinforced Silicone Medium 250 - 500°F Hot and Cold Water, Low Pressure Steam, Neutral Solutions High Medium High Tensile Strength, Ozone and weathering resistance Butyl Rubber, Neoprene, Viton Low Ambient - 250°F Applications Chemical Resistance Pressure Advantages Materials Temperature
  25. 25. Fabric Belt Materials Fluoroplastics – PTFE PTFE Coated Glass Cloth <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent Chemical Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Temperature: 600°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensile Strength: 1200 lb./in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: .047″ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight: 60 oz/yd 2 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Fabric Types <ul><li>Reinforced Silicone Fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent Gasketing Material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremes High & Low Temperature Resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV / Ozone Resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Toxic, Chemically Inert </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature Range: 70 +/-10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensile Strength, PSI: 1300 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain Weave Thread Count: 20 x 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiberglass Diaphragm Burst Strength (psi): 750 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression Set: 35 Max </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Fabric Types <ul><li>Aluminized Glass Cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resists most acids & alkalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Liquid Aluminum Compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K Factor of .25 (ANSI /ASTM C 3335) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensile Strength: 400 lb./in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: .045″ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight: 38.5 oz/yd 2 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Fabric Types <ul><li>Silica Oxide Glass Cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Flammable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains High Tensile Strength at Elevated Temperatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains Flexible at High Temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Product Value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weave Style: Satin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal Weight: 26 oz/yd 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Width: 38, 60 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: .030 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll Length: 50 yards </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Fabric Types <ul><li>PFA Fluoropolymer Film </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outstanding flex life and stress crack resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance from -254°C to 260°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outstanding anti-stick release properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent electrical properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent weather ability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: .0005″ to .010″ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widths up to 64″ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear or Translucent </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Fabric Types <ul><li>Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density: 4, 6, 8 pf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickness: fi-2 (12.5-50) in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melting Point: 3200°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max cont. use limit: 2000°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max temp. rating: 2300°F </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Fabric Expansion Joint Adhesives <ul><li>Loctite 404 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparent / Colorless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VersaChem Red Silicone 650 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Temperature up to 650°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Pasta </li></ul></ul>Adhesives
  32. 32. Fabric Types <ul><li>Braided Material </li></ul><ul><li>Available in 304, 321, & 316L Stainless Steel </li></ul><ul><li>Temp. from cryogenic to 1500°F </li></ul>
  33. 33. Fabric Belt Materials - Elastomers <ul><li>Elastomer belt materials are built up into a multi-layered sheet reinforced with fiberglass or Aramid fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>The finished product: </li></ul><ul><li>1/8 ″ to 1/4 ″ thick </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a flat belt or as an integrally flanged U-shaped cross section that bolts directly to duct or equipment flanges. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent characteristics of flexibility, </li></ul><ul><li>abrasion resistance, and flutter resistance = long service life when applied properly. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Single Ply vs. Two Ply Elastomers – Rubber / Viton Reinforcement Reinforcement Elastomer Elastomer Typical 1/8 ″ thick belt with single ply reinforcement Typical 1/4 ″ thick belt with two ply reinforcement
  35. 35. Manufacturing Capabilities <ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single layer PTFE: temperatures up to 600°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-layer Belt and Insulation Pillow: temperatures up to 2,000°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inside Layer: 100% fiberglass, coated with an aluminum compound on both sides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Layer: ½” thick KO wool </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside Layer: PTFE fiberglass reinforced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 40’ Length and 20’ Wide </li></ul>Fabric Expansion Joints Duct Expansion Joint – Low Temperature Duct Expansion Joint – High Temperature (up to 1200°F) 10’ square fabric expansion joint w/ high temp. and corrosion resistant composite belt
  36. 36. A Variety of Fabric Expansion Joints
  37. 37. A Variety of Fabric Expansion Joints
  38. 38. Fabric EJ Installation <ul><li>Pre-Installation Check </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm dimension data per U.S. Bellows drawing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm duct/duct flanges are in good condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirm duct/duct flanges are lined up correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to installing the frames, the opening to which the unit will be installed must be inspected to make sure it meets design requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make available necessary tools such as a drill, come along, rope and pry bar </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Fabric EJ Installation <ul><li>Use the U.S. Bellows drawing as a guide for dimensional info </li></ul><ul><li>Clean duct/flange surfaces and prepare for welding or bolting </li></ul><ul><li>Using proper lift equipment, attach straps to the expansion joint (do not attach to the shipping bars) </li></ul><ul><li>If the unit has a liner, make certain the flow arrow of the liner is in the proper system flow direction </li></ul>
  40. 40. Fabric EJ Installation <ul><li>If ducting is in place & cannot be moved for the installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift expansion joint into place using sufficient straps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit up and tack weld one flange of the expansion joint into place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During any welding, protect the fabric belt material from potential weld splatter </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. US Bellows Experience <ul><li>General Electric </li></ul><ul><li>Exxon Mobile Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Tulsa Heaters </li></ul><ul><li>KBR </li></ul><ul><li>Augering Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Bechtel </li></ul><ul><li>ALBEMARLE Corp. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Fabric Types <ul><li>Rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sizes: 1.5” to 144” Diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 to 4 Arches as Required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice of Cover and Liner Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement – Wire or Solid Rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built to your Specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operational Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum 3 to 1 safety factor, rated to burst pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Temp. Resistant fabric for up to 400°F </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure cured components, for structurally sound long life service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional exterior coat for Hypalon paint for additional protection </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Manufacturing Capabilities <ul><li>New Customer Standard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liner and flange used to be 2 pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We combined the liner and flange into one piece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As result, there is less welding for us and a smoother flow in the duct work for them </li></ul></ul>Fabric Expansion Joints
  44. 44. <ul><li>U.S. Bellows is a diverse manufacturer of a wide variety of high-quality, competitively priced expansion joints. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Bellows has focused experience in supplying expansion joints around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Bellows is here for all your engineering needs… </li></ul>Conclusion Please forward any additional questions or inquiries to us at [email_address] , call us at 877-660-1795 or visit our website at www.usbellows.com