OFFICE OF THE GENERAL COUNSEL                   Division of Operations-ManagementMEMORANDUM OM 11-74                      ...
Employees’ Facebook Postings About Job Performance and            Staffing Were Protected Concerted Activity     In one ca...
We first concluded that the discharged employees’ postingson Facebook were concerted activity under the Meyers cases.Meyer...
NLRB 814, 816-817 (1979), typically applied to employeesdisciplined for public outbursts against supervisors.      Interne...
during nonworking time. As to the subject matter of thediscussion, the comments were made during an online employeediscuss...
postings were part of a course of protected, concerted conductrelated to employees’ concerns over commissions and were not...
comments related to the pond incident and the sales event. TheEmployer’s General Sales Manager called the employee at home...
U.S. 464 (1953). As noted above, Atlantic Steel is generallyapplied to an employee who has made public outbursts against a...
money. She also asserted that the Employer’s owners could noteven do paperwork correctly. One employee--Charging Party A--...
Section 7. Moreover, the comments were initiated outside of theworkplace during the Charging Parties’ nonworking time, and...
determine if a work rule would have such an effect. LutheranHeritage Village–Livonia, 343 NLRB 646, 647 (2004). First, aru...
appropriate to post these types of tweets. The employee askedif the newspaper had a social media policy. The Human Resourc...
concluded, however, that the Employer did not implement anunlawful rule. Although some of the Employer’s statements couldb...
not discuss the posting with his coworkers, and none of themresponded to the posting. There had been no employee meetingso...
We concluded that the employee here did not engage in anyconcerted activity under the Meyers test discussed above. Asnoted...
posts. Moreover, she was not seeking to induce or prepare forgroup action, and her activity was not an outgrowth of theemp...
indicated that they   had found the employee’s first postinghumorous, asked why   the employee was so “wound up,” or offer...
employee’s performance of his work duties for a nonunionemployer. See Electrical Workers Local 98 (Tri-M Group, LLC),350 N...
complained to their manager about this, but he had not doneanything to rectify the situation.     One weekend, the nurse w...
The Employer’s online social networking policy, included inthe Employer’s employee handbook, prohibited employees on their...
The Employer operates a supermarket chain. It implementeda new social media and electronic communication policy, whichstat...
Employer’s Rule Restricting Employee Contacts with Media                            Was Lawful     Another case presented ...
employees were instructed to answer all media/reporter questionsin a particular way, the required responses did not convey...
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NLRB report of the acting general counsel concerning social media cases


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The National Labor Relations Board’s Acting General Counsel report detailing the outcome of investigations into 14 cases involving the use of social media and employers’ social and general media policies. For download, go to NLRB web site:

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NLRB report of the acting general counsel concerning social media cases

  1. 1. OFFICE OF THE GENERAL COUNSEL Division of Operations-ManagementMEMORANDUM OM 11-74 August 18, 2011To: All Regional Directors, Officers-in-Charge, and Resident OfficersFrom: Anne Purcell, Associate General CounselSubject: Report of the Acting General Counsel Concerning Social Media Cases Attached is a report of the Acting General Counselconcerning social media cases within the last year. /s/ A.P.Attachmentcc: NLRBURelease to the Public MEMORANDUM OM 11-74
  2. 2. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARDOFFICE OF THE GENERAL COUNSELWASHINGTON, D.C. 20570 REPORT OF THE GENERAL COUNSEL During my term as Acting General Counsel, I have endeavoredto keep the labor-management community fully aware of theactivities of my office. It is my hope that this openness willencourage compliance with the Act and cooperation with Agencypersonnel. As part of this goal, I continue the practice ofissuing periodic reports of cases raising significant legal orpolicy issues. This report presents recent case developments arising inthe context of today’s social media. Social media includevarious online technology tools that enable people tocommunicate easily via the internet to share information andresources. These tools can encompass text, audio, video,images, podcasts, and other multimedia communications. Recentdevelopments in the Office of the General Counsel have presentedemerging issues concerning the protected and/or concerted natureof employees’ Facebook and Twitter postings, the coercive impactof a union’s Facebook and YouTube postings, and the lawfulnessof employers’ social media policies and rules. This reportdiscusses these cases, as well as a recent case involving anemployer’s policy restricting employee contacts with the media.All of these cases were decided upon a request for advice from aRegional Director. I hope that this report will be of assistance topractitioners and human resource professionals. ___________/s/_____________ Lafe E. Solomon Acting General Counsel
  3. 3. Employees’ Facebook Postings About Job Performance and Staffing Were Protected Concerted Activity In one case, we found that an Employer--a nonprofit socialservices provider--unlawfully discharged five employees who hadposted comments on Facebook relating to allegations of poor jobperformance previously expressed by one of their coworkers--adomestic violence advocate. We concluded that the dischargedemployees were engaged in protected concerted activity. In or around July 2010, the advocate began complaining toone particular coworker that clients did not want to seekservices from the Employer. Similarly, in August she hadconversations with other coworkers in which she criticized thework done by the Employer’s employees. She also sent regulartext messages to the one particular coworker, criticizing otheremployees’ work performance and complaining about workloadissues. In early October, the advocate discussed several client andworkload issues with this one coworker, with the advocateasserting, among other things, that the coworker had notproperly assisted a client. They exchanged multiple textmessages related to these issues. During the final exchange ofmessages, the advocate said that the Employer’s ExecutiveDirector would settle their differences. The one coworker then talked to another employee about whatshe considered to be a constant barrage of text messages fromthe advocate criticizing the job performance of the Employer’semployees. This employee suggested that she meet with theEmployer’s Executive Director. To prepare for this meeting, the one coworker posted onFacebook that the advocate felt that her coworkers did not helpthe Employer’s clients enough. She then asked her coworkers howthey felt about it. The four coworkers who were laterdischarged and the advocate responded to the Facebook posting. That evening, the advocate reported the Facebookconversation to the Employer’s Executive Director, indicatingthat she considered her coworkers’ Facebook comments to be“cyber-bullying” and harassing behavior. On the next workday, the coworker tried to meet with theExecutive Director. The Executive Director said that she wasbusy, but that she would call when she was available. A fewhours later, the coworker was called to the Executive Director’soffice and was terminated. That same day, the Employerterminated the four other employees who had posted Facebookresponses to their coworker’s initial solicitation.
  4. 4. We first concluded that the discharged employees’ postingson Facebook were concerted activity under the Meyers cases.Meyers Industries (Meyers I), 268 NLRB 493 (1984), revd. sub nomPrill v. NLRB, 755 F.2d 941 (D.C. Cir. 1985), cert. denied 474U.S. 948 (1985), on remand Meyers Industries (Meyers II), 281NLRB 882 (1986), affd. sub nom Prill v. NLRB, 835 F.2d 1481(D.C. Cir. 1987), cert. denied 487 U.S. 1205 (1988). In thesecases, the Board explained that an activity is concerted when anemployee acts “with or on the authority of other employees, andnot solely by and on behalf of the employee himself.” We decided that the Facebook discussion here was a textbookexample of concerted activity, even though it transpired on asocial network platform. The discussion was initiated by theone coworker in an appeal to her coworkers for assistance.Through Facebook, she surveyed her coworkers on the issue of jobperformance to prepare for an anticipated meeting with theExecutive Director, planned at the suggestion of anotheremployee. The resulting conversation among coworkers about jobperformance and staffing level issues was therefore concertedactivity. We next found that the discharged employees were engaged inprotected activity. The Board has found employee statementsrelating to employee staffing levels protected where it wasclear from the context of the statements that they implicatedworking conditions. This finding of protected activity does notchange if employee statements were communicated via theinternet. See, e.g., Valley Hospital Medical Center, 351 NLRB1250, 1252-54 (2007), enfd. sub nom. Nevada Service EmployeesUnion, Local 1107 v. NLRB, 358 F. App’x 783 (9th Cir. 2009). Here, the coworker sought input from a fellow employeeabout her dispute with the advocate after the advocate indicatedthat they should have the Executive Director settle theirdifferences. The coworker had reason to believe that theadvocate’s action would result in a discussion with managementabout employees’ responsibilities and performance and couldresult in discipline. The comments of the other employees inresponse to the coworker’s initial Facebook posting weredirectly related to criticisms of job performance andstaffing/workload issues. Thus, because the Facebook postingsdirectly implicated terms and conditions of employment and wereinitiated in preparation for a meeting with the Employer todiscuss matters related to these issues, we concluded that theFacebook conversation was concerted activity for “mutual aid orprotection” under Section 7. Finally, we held that the discharged employees did not losethe Act’s protection. Although there was swearing and/orsarcasm in a few of the Facebook posts, the conversation wasobjectively quite innocuous. We also found that the postingswere not “opprobrious” under the Atlantic Steel Co. test, 245
  5. 5. NLRB 814, 816-817 (1979), typically applied to employeesdisciplined for public outbursts against supervisors. Internet and Blogging Standards and Discharge of Employee for Facebook Posting Were Unlawful In this case, we considered whether the Employer--anambulance service--maintained an unlawful internet and bloggingpolicy and whether it unlawfully terminated an employee whoposted negative remarks about her supervisor on her personalFacebook page. When asked by her supervisor to prepare an incident reportconcerning a customer complaint about her work, the employeeasked for a union representative while she prepared the report.She did not receive any union representation. Later that dayfrom her home computer, the employee posted a negative remarkabout the supervisor on her personal Facebook page, which drewsupportive responses from her coworkers, and led to furthernegative comments about the supervisor from the employee. Theemployee was suspended and later terminated for her Facebookpostings and because such postings violated the Employer’sinternet policies. The Employer’s employee handbook contained a blogging andinternet posting policy. It prohibited employees from makingdisparaging remarks when discussing the company or supervisors,and from depicting the company in any media, including but notlimited to the internet, without company permission. We initially concluded that the incident report theemployee was asked to prepare constituted an investigatoryinterview to which the employee had a Weingarten right to unionrepresentation, and that the Employer unlawfully denied her thatright and threatened her with discipline for invoking thatright. We then turned to whether the Employer unlawfullyterminated her for engaging in protected activity and whether itmaintained unlawful internet and blogging policies. We found that the General Counsel established a prima faciecase under Wright Line, and that the Employer did not meet itsrebuttal burden. The employee engaged in protected activity byexercising her Weingarten right and by discussing supervisoryactions with coworkers in her Facebook post. It is wellestablished that the protest of supervisory actions is protectedconduct under Section 7. See Datwyler Rubber and Plastics,Inc., 350 NLRB 669 (2007). Applying Atlantic Steel, we concluded that the employee didnot lose the Act’s protections when she referred to hersupervisor by such terms as “scumbag.” As to the place of thediscussion, the Facebook postings did not interrupt the work ofany employee because they occurred outside the workplace and
  6. 6. during nonworking time. As to the subject matter of thediscussion, the comments were made during an online employeediscussion of supervisory action, which is protected activity.Regarding the nature of the outburst, the name-calling was notaccompanied by verbal or physical threats, and the Board hasfound more egregious name-calling protected. We found that thelast Atlantic Steel factor strongly favored a finding that theconduct was protected; the employee’s Facebook postings wereprovoked by the supervisor’s unlawful refusal to provide herwith a union representative and by his unlawful threat ofdiscipline. We also considered the lawfulness of the Employer’sblogging and internet posting policy. The first challengedportion of the policy prohibited employees from posting picturesof themselves in any media, including the internet, which depictthe company in any way, including a company uniform, corporatelogo, or an ambulance. We concluded that this language violatedSection 8(a)(1) because it would prohibit an employee fromengaging in protected activity; for example, an employee couldnot post a picture of employees carrying a picket sign depictingthe company’s name, or wear a t-shirt portraying the company’slogo in connection with a protest involving terms and conditionsof employment. We also concluded that the portion of the policyprohibiting employees from making disparaging comments whendiscussing the company or the employee’s superiors, coworkers,and/or competitors was unlawful. In University Medical Center,335 NLRB 1318, 1320-1322 (2001), enf. denied in pertinent part335 F.3d 1079 (D.C. Cir. 2003), the Board found that a similarrule prohibiting “disrespectful conduct” towards others violatedSection 8(a)(1). Like the rule in University Medical Center,the rule here contained no limiting language to inform employeesthat it did not apply to Section 7 activity. Also under challenge was the Employer’s standards-of-conduct policy. This policy prohibited the use of language oraction that was inappropriate or of a general offensive nature,and rude or discourteous behavior to a client or coworker. Weconcluded that the prohibition here of “offensive conduct” and“rude or discourteous behavior” proscribed a broad spectrum ofconduct and contained no limiting language to remove the rule’sambiguity in prohibiting Section 7 activity. Employee’s Facebook Postings Were Part of Protected Concerted Conduct Related to Concerns Over Commissions In this case, we concluded that the Employer--a luxuryautomobile dealership--violated Section 8(a)(1) when itdischarged an employee--a salesperson--for posting on hisFacebook page photographs and commentary that criticized a salesevent held by the Employer. We concluded that the employee’s
  7. 7. postings were part of a course of protected, concerted conductrelated to employees’ concerns over commissions and were notdisparaging of the Employer’s product or so “egregious” as tolose the Act’s protection. In early June 2010, the employee was at work when someonein a vehicle at a dealership across the street, which was alsoowned by the Employer, accidently drove into a pond in front ofthe dealership. The employee joined his coworkers in watchingthe commotion, and he took some photographs. That same week, the Employer was hosting an all-day eventto introduce a new car model. Clients registered for thisevent, and the corporate office provided professional drivers todrive the cars with clients. Shortly before the event, aroundJune 6, the Employer’s General Sales Manager met with thesalespeople to discuss the event. He explained that theEmployer would serve hot dogs, cookies and snacks from awarehouse club, and water. The salespeople remarked about thechoice in food, and at least one asked why the Employer was notserving more substantial refreshments. After the meeting, the salespeople discussed theirdisappointment with the way the Employer was handling the event.They were concerned that the inexpensive food and beverageswould send the wrong message to their clients and negativelyaffect their sales and commissions. During the sales event, the employee took photographs ofthe food and beverages served, of his coworkers posing with thefood, and of a large promotional banner advertising the new carmodel. The following week, while at home, the employee posted onhis Facebook page the photographs of the vehicle in the pond andof the sales event. In an introduction to the sales eventphotographs, he remarked that he was happy to see that theEmployer had gone all out for the important car launch byproviding small bags of chips, inexpensive cookies from thewarehouse club, semi-fresh fruit, and a hot dog cart whereclients could get overcooked hot dogs and stale buns. Thephotographs included one of a coworker holding a water bottle,kneeling next to a cooler with ice and water bottles; several ofthe cookie and snack table; one of a coworker near the hot dogcart, and one of the promotional banner. The employee includedcomments along with the photographs, reflecting his criticalopinion of the inexpensive food and beverages provided. The following week, the Employer received a call fromanother dealer who commented about the photographs of the car inthe pond. A part-time coworker, who was Facebook “friend” withthe employee, had also seen the posting and had mentioned it toher supervisor. This prompted the Employer to look at theemployee’s Facebook page and to print out the photographs and
  8. 8. comments related to the pond incident and the sales event. TheEmployer’s General Sales Manager called the employee at home andtold him to remove the photographs and comments from hisFacebook page; he immediately complied. When the employee went to work on June 16, he was calledinto a meeting with managers. The Employer tossed the printoutof the sales event photographs at him, asked him what he wasthinking, and said they were embarrassing to the dealership andits founder and CEO. The Employer sent him home while itconsidered a final decision regarding his employment. Shortlyafter, the employee was terminated. Several months later, the Employer claimed that the realreason for the employee’s discharge was his posting of thephotographs of the car in the pond because he had made light ofa serious accident. We concluded that the employee was engaged in concertedactivity, under the Meyers cases discussed above, when he postedthe comments and photographs regarding the sales event on hisFacebook page. As noted, before the event, several employeeswere displeased with the planned food choices, and after themeeting, the employees discussed this frustration amongthemselves. At the event, the employee took photographs todocument the event and capture his coworker’s frustration. Hetold his coworkers that he would put the photographs onFacebook, and in doing so, expressed the sentiment of the group.The Facebook activity was a direct outgrowth of the earlierdiscussion among the salespeople that followed the meeting withmanagement. Although the employee posted the photographs on Facebookand wrote the comments himself, we concluded that this type ofactivity was clearly concerted. We found that he was vocalizingthe sentiments of his coworkers and continuing the course ofconcerted activity that began when the salespeople raised theirconcerns at the staff meeting. Further, we concluded that thisconcerted activity clearly was related to the employees’ termsand conditions of employment. Since the employees workedentirely on commission, they were concerned about the impact theEmployer’s choice of refreshments would have on sales, andtherefore, their commissions. We found that the Employer knew of the concerted nature ofthe employee’s conduct and that it could not meet its burdenunder Wright Line of demonstrating that it would have dischargedthe employee, even in the absence of the protected activity,because of his postings regarding the incident with the car inthe pond. We also concluded that the employee’s activity did not losethe protection of the Act under either Atlantic Steel or underNLRB v. Electrical Workers Local 1229 (Jefferson Standard), 346
  9. 9. U.S. 464 (1953). As noted above, Atlantic Steel is generallyapplied to an employee who has made public outbursts against asupervisor, while Jefferson Standard is usually applied where anemployee has made allegedly disparaging comments about anemployer or its product in the context of appeals to outside orthird parties. Applying Atlantic Steel, we found that the employee’sFacebook postings regarding the sales event were not soopprobrious as to lose the Act’s protection. The activityconcerned a subject matter protected under Section 7. Further,although the activity was not provoked by any unfair laborpractice committed by the Employer, the nature of the outburstwas much less offensive than other behavior found protected bythe Board. We found it unnecessary to rule on the place of thediscussion factor because, on balance, the conduct clearlyretained the Act’s protection. Under Jefferson Standard, the inquiry is whether thecommunication is related to an ongoing labor dispute and whetherit is not so disloyal, reckless, or maliciously untrue as tolose the Act’s protection. Here, the employee’s postings wereneither disparaging of the Employer’s product nor disloyal. Thepostings merely expressed frustration with the Employer’s choiceof food at the sales event. They did not refer to the qualityof the cars or the performance of the dealership and did notcriticize the Employer’s management. We found it irrelevantthat the postings did not clearly indicate that they wererelated to a labor dispute given that they were neitherdisparaging nor disloyal. Employees’ Facebook Postings About Tax Withholding Practices Were Protected Concerted Activity We also considered a case in which the Employer-—a sportsbar and restaurant--discharged and threatened to sue twoemployees who participated in a Facebook conversation initiatedby a former coworker about the Employer’s tax withholdingpractices. This case also raised issues concerning theEmployer’s internet/blogging policy that prohibited“inappropriate discussions.” We found that the discharges,threats of legal action, and the internet policy were unlawful. In early 2011, several of the Employer’s former and currentemployees discovered that they owed state income taxes for 2010,related to earnings at the Employer. After this discovery, atleast one employee brought the issue to the Employer’s attentionand requested that the matter be placed on the agenda fordiscussion at an upcoming management meeting with employees. Thereafter, on February 1, a former employee posted on herFacebook page a statement, including a short-hand expletive,that expressed dissatisfaction with the fact that she now owed
  10. 10. money. She also asserted that the Employer’s owners could noteven do paperwork correctly. One employee--Charging Party A--responded to this posting by clicking “Like.” That same day, aseries of statements related to the initial posting followed.Two other employees commented that they had never owed moneybefore, and one of them referred to telling the Employer that wewill discuss this at the meeting. Two of the Employer’scustomers joined in the conversation, as did Charging Party B,who asserted that she also owed money and referred to one of theEmployer’s owners as “[s]uch an asshole.” The Charging Parties were not working on the day of theFacebook conversation. When Charging Party B reported back towork on February 2, she was told that her employment wasterminated due to her Facebook posting and because she was not“loyal enough” to work for the Employer anymore. The followingday, Charging Party A reported to work and was confronted by theEmployer about the Facebook conversation. He was terminated andtold that he would be hearing from the Employer’s attorney. Thereafter, Charging Party B received a letter datedFebruary 5 from the Employer’s attorney stating that legalaction would be initiated against her unless she retracted her“defamatory” statements regarding the Employer and itsprincipals published to the general public on Facebook. As noted, under the Meyers cases, the Board’s test forconcerted activity is whether activity is “engaged in with or onthe authority of other employees, and not solely by and onbehalf of the employee himself.” Concerted activity alsoincludes “circumstances where individual employees seek toinitiate or to induce or to prepare for group action” and whereindividual employees bring “truly group complaints” tomanagement’s attention. Meyers II, 281 NLRB at 887. Here, the February 1 conversation on Facebook related toemployees’ shared concerns about a term and condition ofemployment--the Employer’s administration of income taxwithholdings. Moreover, prior to the Facebook conversation,this shared concern had been brought to the Employer’s attentionby at least one employee who specifically noted on Facebook thatshe had requested it be discussed at an upcoming managementmeeting with employees. Thus, the conversation that transpiredon Facebook not only embodied “truly group complaints” but alsocontemplated future group activity. We found that the Charging Parties’ statements did not loseprotection either under Atlantic Steel or, as the Employerasserted, because they were defamatory. Applying Atlantic Steel, we found that three of the fourfactors weighed in favor of the Charging Parties’ retaining theprotection of the Act. As noted, the ChargingParties’statements related to a core concern protected under
  11. 11. Section 7. Moreover, the comments were initiated outside of theworkplace during the Charging Parties’ nonworking time, andneither disrupted operations nor undermined supervisoryauthority. Furthermore, although the activity was not provokedby any unfair labor practice committed by the Employer, thenature of the Charging Parties’ postings was much less offensivethan other behavior found protected by the Board. With regard to the Employer’s allegation of defamation, analleged defamatory statement will not lose its protected statusunless it is not only false but maliciously false. Here,Charging Party A merely indicated that he “liked” the initialFacebook posting by his former coworker, which accused theEmployer’s owners of not being able to do paperwork correctly.Charging Party B’s posting was limited to a factually correctstatement that she had an outstanding tax obligation, and heropinion that one of the Employer’s owners was “[s]uch anasshole.” The Charging Parties’ Facebook postings, to theextent that they constituted statements of fact that could bealleged as defamatory, were not even false, much lessmaliciously false under the Board’s standard. We also concluded that the Employer’s threats to sue theCharging Parties for engaging in protected concerted activityviolated Section 8(a)(1). It is well established that anemployer’s threat to sue employees for engaging in Section 7activity violates the Act because it would reasonably tend tointerfere with the exercise of Section 7 rights. The Board hashistorically distinguished the threat of a lawsuit from theactual filing of a lawsuit and has rejected employers’ attemptsto extend the First Amendment protection accorded to lawsuits tothreats to sue where those threats, as here, were not incidentalto the actual filing of a suit. Thus, we found that theEmployer’s threats to sue the Charging Parties were unlawful,even if there was a reasonable basis for potential legal action. We also considered the lawfulness of the Employer’sinternet/blogging policy. This policy, included in theEmployer’s employee handbook, provided that the employersupported the free exchange of information and camaraderie amongemployees. The policy went on to state that when internetblogging, chat room discussions, e-mail, text messages, or otherforms of communication extend to employees revealingconfidential and proprietary information about the employer, orengaging in inappropriate discussions about the company,management, and/or coworkers, the employee may be violating thelaw and is subject to disciplinary action, up to and includingtermination. An employer violates Section 8(a)(1) of the Act through themaintenance of a work rule if that rule would “reasonably tendto chill employees in the exercise of their Section 7 rights.”Lafayette Park Hotel, 326 NLRB 824, 825 (1998), enfd. 203 F.3d52 (D.C. Cir. 1999). The Board uses a two-step inquiry to
  12. 12. determine if a work rule would have such an effect. LutheranHeritage Village–Livonia, 343 NLRB 646, 647 (2004). First, arule is unlawful if it explicitly restricts Section 7activities. If the rule does not explicitly restrict protectedactivities, it is unlawful only upon a showing that: (1)employees would reasonably construe the language to prohibitSection 7 activity; (2) the rule was promulgated in response tounion activity; or (3) the rule has been applied to restrict theexercise of Section 7 rights. Applying these standards here, we concluded that theprovision of the Employer’s policy stating that employees aresubject to discipline for engaging in “inappropriatediscussions” about the company, management, and/or coworkerscould reasonably be interpreted to restrain Section 7 activity.This policy utilized broad terms that would commonly apply toprotected criticism of the Employer’s labor policies, treatmentof employees, and terms and conditions of employment. Moreover,the policy did not define what was encompassed by the broad term“inappropriate discussions” by specific examples or limit it inany way that would exclude Section 7 activity. Absent suchlimitations or examples of what was covered, we concluded thatemployees would reasonably interpret the rule to prohibit theirdiscussion of terms and conditions of employment amongthemselves or with third parties. Employee Who Posted Offensive Tweets Was Not Engaged in Protected Concerted Activity In another case, we considered whether the Employer--anewspaper--violated Section 8(a)(1) when it discharged anemployee--a reporter--for posting unprofessional andinappropriate tweets to a work-related Twitter account. Weconcluded that the employee’s Twitter postings did not involveprotected concerted activity. In the spring of 2009, after the Employer encouragedemployees to open Twitter accounts and to use social media toget news stories out, the employee opened a Twitter account,picked his screen name, and controlled the content of histweets. In the biography section of his account, he stated thathe was a reporter for the Employer’s newspaper, and he includeda link to the newspaper’s website. In early 2010, the employee posted a tweet critical of thepaper’s copy editors. The tweet was in response to his concernsabout sports department headlines, but there is no evidence thathe had discussed his concerns with any of his coworkers. About a week after that tweet, the Employer’s HumanResources Director asked the employee why he felt the need topost his concerns on Twitter instead of simply speaking topeople within the organization, and whether he thought it was
  13. 13. appropriate to post these types of tweets. The employee askedif the newspaper had a social media policy. The Human ResourcesDirector replied that the policy was being worked on. About a week later, the employee was told that he wasprohibited from airing his grievances or commenting about thenewspaper in any public forum. He replied that he understood. He continued to tweet and to use other social media to postabout various matters, including matters relating to his publicsafety beat. He did not make public comments about thenewspaper. Between August 27 and September 19, he postedvarious tweets about homicides in the city, as well as severalwith sexual content. On September 21, the employee posted a tweet thatcriticized an area television station. The next day, a webproducer for the television station took issue with the tweetand emailed the paper about it. Thereafter, the employeeemailed the web producer and apologized. During the afternoon of September 22, the employee wascalled into a meeting with the Managing Editor, the City Editor,and his team leader. The Managing Editor referred to the tweetabout the television station and then asked the employee why hewas tweeting about homicides. She told him that it was not okayto make these types of tweets and that they would meet againwhen the Executive Editor and Human Resources Director werethere. Until then, she said that he was not allowed to tweetabout anything work-related. The employee asked whether thepaper had a social media policy. She replied that it had notyet been established and that it was almost complete. Two days later, the employee was suspended for three dayswithout pay. When he returned to work, he was terminated. Thetermination letter asserted that he had disregarded guidance torefrain from using derogatory comments in any social mediaforums that could damage the goodwill of the company and thatthe Employer had no confidence that he could sustain itsexpectation of professional courtesy and mutual respect. We found that the employee’s discharge did not violateSection 8(a)(1) because he was terminated for writinginappropriate and offensive Twitter postings that did notinvolve protected concerted activity. His conduct was notprotected and concerted: it did not relate to the terms andconditions of his employment or seek to involve other employeesin issues related to employment. Ignoring his Employer’swarning, he continued to post inappropriate tweets whilecovering his beat. He was discharged for this misconduct, whichdid not involve protected activity. The employee alleged that he was disciplined pursuant to anunlawful rule that prohibited certain Section 7 activities. We
  14. 14. concluded, however, that the Employer did not implement anunlawful rule. Although some of the Employer’s statements couldbe interpreted to prohibit activities protected by Section 7,these statements did not constitute orally promulgated,overbroad “rules”. They were made solely to the employee in thecontext of discipline, and in response to specific inappropriateconduct, and were not communicated to other employees orproclaimed as new “rules.” In fact, the Employer indicated thatit had not yet developed a written social media rule. Bartender Who Posted Facebook Message About Employer’s Tipping Policy Was Not Engaged in Concerted Activity This case concerned an employee--a bartender--who wasdischarged for posting a message on his Facebook page thatreferenced the Employer’s tipping policy, in response to aquestion from a nonemployee. We found that the employee was notengaged in concerted activity. The Employer operates a restaurant and bar. It maintainsan unwritten policy that waitresses do not share their tips withthe bartenders even though the bartenders help the waitressesserve food. Sometime in the fall of 2010, the employee had aconversation with a fellow bartender about this tipping policy.He complained about the policy, and she agreed that it “sucked.”However, neither they nor any other bartender ever raised theissue with management. In February 2011, the employee had a conversation onFacebook with a relative. Responding to her query as to how hisnight at work had gone, he complained that he hadn’t had a raisein five years and that he was doing the waitresses’ work withouttips. He also called the Employer’s customers “rednecks” andstated that he hoped they choked on glass as they drove homedrunk. He did not discuss his posting with any of hiscoworkers, and none of them responded to it. About a week later, the Employer’s night manager told theemployee that he was probably going to be fired over it. InMay, the employee received a Facebook message from theEmployer’s owner informing him that his services were no longerrequired, and the next day, the Employer’s day manager left hima voice message stating that he was fired for his Facebookposting about the Employer’s customers. As noted above, under the Meyers cases, the Board’s testfor concerted activity is whether activity is “engaged in withor on the authority of other employees, and not solely by and onbehalf of the employee himself.” We found no evidence ofconcerted activity here. Although the employee’s Facebookposting addressed his terms and conditions of employment, he did
  15. 15. not discuss the posting with his coworkers, and none of themresponded to the posting. There had been no employee meetingsor any attempt to initiate group action concerning the tippingpolicy or raises. We also found that this internet“conversation” did not grow out of the employee’s conversationwith a fellow bartender months earlier about the tipping policy. Employee Who Posted on Her Senator’s ‘Wall’ Was Not Engaged in Concerted Activity In another case, we considered whether the Employerunlawfully discharged an employee who had posted messages on theFacebook page of one of the U.S. Senators who represented herstate. We concluded that the discharge was not unlawful becausethe employee was not engaged in concerted activity. The Employer provides emergency and nonemergency medicaltransportation and fire protection services to municipal,residential, commercial, and industrial customers. The employeeworked as a dispatcher for the Employer, and her husband was anEMT. The Senator had announced on Facebook that four firedepartments in his state had received federal grants.Responding to this announcement, the employee wrote comments onthe Senator’s Facebook “wall”. She stated, among other things,that her Employer had contracts with several fire departmentsfor emergency medical services because it was the cheapestservice in town and paid employees $2 less than the nationalaverage. She complained that the state was looking for morecheap companies to farm jobs out to. She also referred to thefact that the Employer had only two trucks for an entire county,and she mentioned an incident in which a crew that responded toa cardiac arrest call did not know how to perform CPR. The employee did not discuss her Facebook comments withother employees before or after posting them. She claimed thatshe wanted to let the Senator know that she disagreed with howemergency medical services were handled in her state and thather kind of company was not helping the current situation. Shedid not think that the Senator could help with her employmentsituation. Although she had discussed wages with otheremployees after the Employer had announced a wage cap, there isno evidence that employees had met or organized any group actionto raise wage issues with the Employer. Ten days after her Facebook comments, the Employerterminated her for publicly posting disparaging remarks aboutthe Employer and confidential information about its response toa service call. Her termination form also stated that hercomments violated the Employer’s code of ethics and businessconduct policy.
  16. 16. We concluded that the employee here did not engage in anyconcerted activity under the Meyers test discussed above. Asnoted, she did not discuss her posting with any other employee,including her spouse. There had been no employee meetings orany attempt to initiate group action. She was not trying totake employee complaints to management and admittedly did notexpect the Senator to help her situation. Instead, she wasmerely trying to make a public official aware of the conditionof emergency medical services in her state. Employee Who Made Facebook Comments About Mentally Disabled Clients Was Not Engaged in Concerted Activity In this case, we considered whether the Employer--anonprofit facility for homeless people--violated the Act when itdischarged an employee for inappropriate Facebook posts thatreferred to the Employer’s mentally disabled clients. Weconcluded that the employee was not engaged in protectedconcerted activity and therefore the discharge was not unlawful. In May 2010, the Employer received a grant to develop a newresidential program for residents with significant mental healthissues. The employee, who had been a part-time residentialassistant, became a full-time recovery specialist in the newprogram. On January 27, 2011, the employee, while working onthe overnight shift, engaged in a “conversation” on herFacebook wall with two Facebook “friends”. Among otherthings, she stated that it was spooky being alone overnightin a mental institution, that one client was cracking herup, and that the employee did not know whether the clientwas laughing at her, with her, or at the client’s ownvoices. The two “friends” who commented on the employee’s postswere not coworkers. The employee was Facebook “friends”,however, with one of the Employer’s former clients, who saw thepostings and called the Employer to report her concern. As aresult, when the employee reported for work on January 31, shewas terminated. The termination letter referenced the phonecall from the former client and quoted the employee’s January 27Facebook posts. The letter stated that “[w]e are invested inprotecting people we serve from stigma” and it was not “recoveryoriented” to use the clients’ illnesses for the employee’spersonal amusement. The letter also cited confidentialityconcerns and noted that the employee’s posts were entered whenshe should have been working. We found that the employee did not engage in any protectedconcerted activity under the Meyers cases discussed above. Theemployee did not discuss her Facebook posts with any of herfellow employees, and none of her coworkers responded to the
  17. 17. posts. Moreover, she was not seeking to induce or prepare forgroup action, and her activity was not an outgrowth of theemployees’ collective concerns. In fact, her Facebook posts didnot even mention any terms or conditions of employment. Theemployee was merely communicating with her personal friendsabout what was happening on her shift. Employee’s Facebook Postings About Manager Were Individual Gripes, Not Concerted Activity In another case, the Employer--a retail store operator--disciplined a customer service employee for profane Facebookcomments that were critical of local store management. We foundinsufficient evidence that the employee engaged in concertedactivity. On October 28, after an interaction with a new AssistantManager, the employee posted a comment complaining about the“tyranny” at the store and suggesting that the Employer wouldget a wake up call because lots of employees are about to quit.Several coworkers responded to his comment, expressing emotionalsupport, and asking why he was so wound up. The employee responded to his coworkers’ postings byasserting that the Assistant Manager was being a “super megaputa” and complaining about being chewed out for mispriced ormisplaced merchandise. The employee asserted that two othercoworkers also made supportive comments. One of those coworkersconfirmed that she made a “hang in there” type of remark. At least one coworker who viewed the employee’s Facebookpostings provided a printout to the Employer’s Store Manager.On about November 4, the Store Manager told the employee thathis Facebook comments were slander and that he could be fired.She imposed a one-day paid suspension that precluded promotionopportunities for 12 months. She also prepared a disciplinereport stating that the employee had put bad things on Facebookabout the Employer and Assistant Manager, that the employee’sbehavior was not within company guidelines, and that theemployee would be terminated if such behavior continued. The employee subsequently deleted the Facebook postings. We concluded that the employee’s Facebook postings were anexpression of an individual gripe, and were not concerted withinthe Meyers cases discussed above. They contained no languagesuggesting that the employee sought to initiate or inducecoworkers to engage in group action; rather they expressed onlyhis frustration regarding his individual dispute with theAssistant Manager over mispriced or misplaced items. Moreover,none of the coworkers’ Facebook responses indicated that theyhad otherwise interpreted the employee’s postings. They merely
  18. 18. indicated that they had found the employee’s first postinghumorous, asked why the employee was so “wound up,” or offeredemotional support. We also found no evidence that establishedthat the employee’s postings were the logical outgrowth of priorgroup activity. Union Violated Section 8(b)(1)(A) by Posting ‘Interrogation’ Videotape on YouTube and Facebook In this case, we found that a Union violated Section8(b)(1)(A) when it interrogated employees at a nonunion jobsiteabout their immigration status, videotaped that interrogation,and posted an edited version of the videotape on YouTube and theLocal Union’s Facebook page. A Union business agent and three Union organizers visitedthe worksite of a nonunion subcontractor. The Unionrepresentatives did not identify themselves or reveal theirUnion affiliation. One carried a video recorder. Afterclimbing to the roof where employees were working, the chiefUnion spokesman told the employees that they had to ask somequestions, that they were inspecting the job, and that they hadreports of illegal workers. He then asked three employees abouttheir country of origin, their immigration status, whether theyhad “ID’s,” when and how they were hired, how they were paid,how they paid their taxes, and whether they supplied socialsecurity numbers or the Employer assigned them numbers. At various times, the employees tried to resist answeringthe questions and return to work, but the Union agentsinstructed them not to. They asked the employees foridentification to verify their legal status. When the employeessaid that they did not have identification, the Union agentssaid that they would return in a half hour and that theemployees better have identification then. The Union agentsthen climbed down to the ground level and asked similarquestions of some of the employees there. The videotape of this incident runs approximately eighteenminutes. The Union gave copies of the DVD to various federaland state government officials. A Local Union member edited thevideo down to approximately four minutes and interspersedwritten editorial comments. He posted the edited version onYouTube and on the Facebook page for his Local Union. We initially concluded that the Union’s videotaped“investigation” violated Section 8(b)(1)(A). The Board willfind a violation of Section 8(b)(1)(A) if a union’s conduct hada reasonable tendency to restrain or coerce employees in theexercise of their Section 7 rights. It implicitly has foundthat there is a protected right to work for a nonunion employer.In the Electrical Workers Local 98 cases, the Board ruled that aunion violated Section 8(b)(1)(A) by interfering with an
  19. 19. employee’s performance of his work duties for a nonunionemployer. See Electrical Workers Local 98 (Tri-M Group, LLC),350 NLRB 1104, 1105-08 (2007), enfd. 317 F. App’x 269 (3d Cir.2009); Electrical Workers Local 98 (MCF Services), 342 NLRB 740,740, 752 (2004), enfd. 251 F. App’x 101 (3d Cir. 2007). In addition, union threats to call immigration authoritiesor to have employees deported constitute unlawful coercion.Further, videotaping or photographing employees is unlawfulunder Section 8(b)(1)(A) where accompanied by other conductindicating that the union would react adversely to employees’exercising their Section 7 right to refrain from union activity. In this case, we found that the Union’s own videotapedemonstrates that its agents engaged in coercive conduct withinthe scope of Section 8(b)(1)(A). As described above, Unionagents entered the Employer’s jobsite in a threatening manner,interfered with its employees’ performance of their work, andcoercively interrogated the employees in circumstances thatreasonably would have led them to believe that they were indanger of being deported for immigration violations. We also concluded that the Union’s posting of an editedversion of the videotape on YouTube and the Local’s Facebookpage was unlawful as well. Any employees who viewed thesepostings, either through the YouTube link that expressly namedthe Union or through the Local’s Facebook page, were subject tothe same coercive message conveyed to the workers at thejobsite. Provisions of Employer’s Social Media Policy Were Overly Broad In another case, we found that several provisions of anEmployer’s social media policy were overly broad as employeescould reasonably construe them to prohibit protected conduct. The Employer--a hospital--issued a social media, bloggingand social networking policy, which was later incorporated intothe Employer’s employee handbook. Rule 4 of the policyprohibited employees from using any social media that mayviolate, compromise, or disregard the rights and reasonableexpectations as to privacy or confidentiality of any person orentity. Rule 5 prohibited any communication or post thatconstitutes embarrassment, harassment or defamation of thehospital or of any hospital employee, officer, board member,representative, or staff member. Rule 6 contained a similarprohibition against statements that lack truthfulness or thatmight damage the reputation or goodwill of the hospital, itsstaff, or employees. In this case, several nurses were unhappy with one of theircolleagues who was frequently absent, creating extra demands ontheir time and workload. The Charging Party and others had
  20. 20. complained to their manager about this, but he had not doneanything to rectify the situation. One weekend, the nurse who was frequently absent called insick. Several days later, the Charging Party posted a commenton her own Facebook page complaining about her colleague’srecent absence. The Charging Party referred to the colleague’spattern of calling in sick or absent and that she had disruptedthe work that weekend. The posting ended with asking anyonewith other details to contact her. One of the Charging Party’sFacebook “friends” gave a copy of this posting to the Employer. About a week later, the Charging Party was reprimanded forher posting on Facebook, told that she had “talked badly aboutthe hospital” in violation of the Employer’s social mediapolicy, and was terminated. We concluded that the provisions of the Employer’s socialmedia policy, as set out above, were overly broad as employeescould reasonably construe them to prohibit protected conduct. We concluded that portions of the Employer’s social mediapolicy were unlawful under the second step of the LutheranHeritage test discussed above. We found that Rule 4 provided nodefinition or guidance as to what the Employer considered to beprivate or confidential. Yet, the Employer relied on the ruleto terminate the Charging Party for her Facebook complaints thatwere clearly concerted and related to her working conditionsand, if she was a statutory employee, would be protected underthe Act. Thus, absent any limitations on what was covered, andin light of the Employer’s application of the rule to protectedconduct, Rule 4 could reasonably be interpreted as prohibitingprotected employee discussion of wages and other terms andconditions of employment, and was therefore overbroad. We also found that Rules 5 and 6 were overbroad. Theseincluded broad terms that would commonly apply to protectedcriticism of the Employer’s labor policies or treatment ofemployees. The policy did not define these broad terms or limitthem in any way that would exclude Section 7 activity. Weconcluded that the Employer’s application and interpretation ofthe broad language in Rule 5 to cover the Charging Party’sexpression of frustration over a colleague’s conduct thatfrequently resulted in heavier demands on the staff wouldreasonably lead employees to conclude that protected complaintsabout their working conditions were prohibited. Employee Handbook Rules on Social Media Policies Were Overly Broad Similarly, we found that another Employer’s handbook rulespertaining to social media policies were overly broad.
  21. 21. The Employer’s online social networking policy, included inthe Employer’s employee handbook, prohibited employees on theirown time from using micro-blogging features to talk aboutcompany business on their personal accounts; from postinganything that they would not want their manager or supervisor tosee or that would put their job in jeopardy; from disclosinginappropriate or sensitive information about the Employer; andfrom posting any pictures or comments involving the company orits employees that could be construed as inappropriate. It alsocautioned that one inappropriate picture or comment taken out ofcontext could fall into the wrong hands and cost an employee hisor her job. We found that the prohibited conduct section of the policywas unlawful under the second part of the Lutheran Heritagetest, described above, because its prohibitions would reasonablybe construed to prohibit Section 7 activity. These prohibitions were broad terms that would commonlyapply to protected discussion about, or criticism of, theEmployer’s labor policies or treatment of employees. Neitherthe handbook nor its online social networking policy sectionprovided any definition or guidance as to what communicationsthe Employer was referring to that would put employees’ jobs injeopardy, or that the Employer would consider inappropriate orsensitive. Absent such limitations or examples of what wascovered, the rules would reasonably be interpreted asprohibiting the employees’ right to discuss wages and otherterms and conditions of employment, as well as to communicatethrough the posting of pictures. The Employer’s policy prohibited employees from using thecompany name, address, or other information on their personalprofiles. We found that this prohibition was unlawful. TheEmployer offered no explanation as to why employees could notidentify the Employer on their personal profiles, but evenassuming that it had a legitimate interest in preventingdisclosure of certain protected company information to outsideparties, the ban was not narrowly drawn to address thoseconcerns. Here, moreover, the function that the “personalprofile page” serves in letting employees use the social networkto find and communicate with their coworkers made thisprohibition particularly harmful to their Section 7 rights. Policy’s Bar on Pressuring Coworkers to Use Social Media Was Lawful, But Other Prohibitions Were Too Broad In another case, we looked at three policy guidelines in anEmployer’s social media policy. We found one guideline lawful,where it was narrowly drawn to restrict harassing conduct andcould not reasonably be construed to interfere with protectedactivity. However, we found that two other provisions of thepolicy were unlawfully broad.
  22. 22. The Employer operates a supermarket chain. It implementeda new social media and electronic communication policy, whichstated that it was designed to protect the Employer’s reputationand that it governed employee communications during both workand personal time. Guideline 3 of the policy precludedemployees from pressuring their coworkers to connect orcommunicate with them via social media. Guideline 5 precludedemployees from revealing, including through the use ofphotographs, personal information regarding coworkers, companyclients, partners, or customers without their consent.Guideline 6 precluded the use of the Employer’s logos andphotographs of the Employer’s store, brand, or product, withoutwritten authorization. Applying Lafayette Park Hotel and Lutheran Heritage, asdiscussed above, we concluded that the Employer’s admonition inguideline 3 that no employee should ever be pressured to“friend” or otherwise connect with a coworker via social mediacould not be reasonably read to restrict Section 7 activity.The rule was sufficiently specific in its prohibition againstpressuring coworkers and clearly applied only to harassingconduct. It could not reasonably be interpreted to apply morebroadly to restrict employees from attempting to “friend” orotherwise contact colleagues for the purposes of engaging inprotected concerted or union activity. We found, however, that guideline 5’s restriction uponrevealing personal information was unduly broad and couldreasonably be interpreted as restraining Section 7 activity.Employees have a Section 7 right to discuss their wages andother terms and conditions of employment. A rule precludingemployees from discussing terms and conditions of employment, orsharing information about themselves or their fellow employeeswith each other or with nonemployees violates Section 8(a)(1).Absent any limitations or examples of what is covered, weconcluded that the guideline would reasonably be interpreted asprohibiting employees’ right to discuss wages and other termsand conditions of employment. Similarly, we decided that the prohibition in guideline 6on using the Employer’s logos or photographs of the Employer’sstores would restrain an employee from engaging in protectedactivity. For example, an employee could not post pictures ofemployees carrying a picket sign depicting the Employer’s name,peacefully handbill in front of a store, or wear a t-shirtportraying the Employer’s logo in connection with a protestinvolving terms and conditions of employment.
  23. 23. Employer’s Rule Restricting Employee Contacts with Media Was Lawful Another case presented a challenge to an Employer’s policyrestricting employees’ contacts with the media. Applying theLutheran Heritage standard, discussed above, we concluded thatthe policy could not reasonably be interpreted to prohibitemployees from speaking on their own behalf with reporters andtherefore did not violate the Act. The Employer--a grocery store chain--included a mediarelations and press interviews policy in its employee handbook.Under this policy, the public affairs office was responsible forall official external communications; employees were expected tomaintain confidentiality about sensitive information; and it wasimperative that one person should speak for the Employer todeliver an appropriate message and avoid giving misinformation. The policy also prohibited employees from using cameras inthe store or parking lot without prior approval from thecorporate office. In addition, employees were directed torespond to all media questions by replying that they were notauthorized to comment for the Employer or did not have theinformation being sought, to take the name and number of themedia organization, and to call the public affairs office. It is well established that employees have a Section 7right to speak to reporters about wages and other terms andconditions of employment. See Kinder-Care Learning Centers, 299NLRB 1171, 1172 (1990). Therefore, while an employer has alegitimate business interest in limiting who can make officialstatements for the company, its rules cannot be so broadlyworded that employees would reasonably think that they wereprohibited from exercising their Section 7 right to speak withreporters about working conditions. However, a media policy that simply seeks to ensure aconsistent, controlled company message and limits employeecontact with the media only to the extent necessary to effectthat result cannot be reasonably interpreted to restrict Section7 communications. In AT&T Broadband & Internet Services, Case12-CA-21220 at 10, Advice Memorandum dated November 6, 2001, wedetermined that a policy that stated that “the company willrespond to the news media in a timely and professional manneronly through the designated spokespersons” could not be read as“a blanket prohibition” against all employee contact with themedia. Additional language in the rule referring to “crisissituations” and ensuring “timely and professional” response tomedia inquiries further clarified that the rule was not meant toapply to Section 7 activities. Similarly, we concluded here that the Employer’s mediapolicy repeatedly stated that the purpose of the policy was toensure that only one person spoke for the company. Although
  24. 24. employees were instructed to answer all media/reporter questionsin a particular way, the required responses did not convey theimpression that employees could not speak out on their terms andconditions of employment. We also concluded that the Employer’s rule against allowingcameras in the store was not unlawfully overbroad. Theprohibition of cameras followed and preceded instructions abouthow to deal with news media and events drawing outsideattention. The only reasonable interpretation of this rule wasthat the cameras referred to are news cameras, not employees’own personal cameras, and therefore this part of the mediapolicy would not chill employees’ Section 7 conduct.