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Extraction of volatile oils
Extraction of volatile oils
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  1. 1. Extraction method of Volatile oils Pimpan Chatchinarat M.Sc. Student College of public health sciences, Chulalonglorn university
  2. 2. Volatile oils Volatile oil (or Essential oil) is a pure oil Extracted from plants. It can extracted from the seeds, flowers,leaves, fruits, bark, wood, roots which is a liquid with a complex chemical composition and varies in each species. It has low boiling point and evaporate at room temperature. Chemical composition of the essential oils that are many hundreds of different species. But the bulk can be separated and each group can be effective in the treatment of different. 1
  3. 3. History The volatile oil have been used for more than 5,000 years, using evidence from the ancient civilization such as Egypt, Greek, Roman, and China. They uses essential oils from plants such as the added fragrance to the body, the food preservation, the preservation of the body or Mummy ,using aromatherapy embellishments emotions and physical symptoms known today as “Aromatherapy” 2
  4. 4. THE FATHER OFAROMATHERAPY Rene-Maurice Gattefossé He is a famous French chemist and scholar, in 1910 he discovered the virtues of the essential oil of lavender. Gattefossé was working in the laboratories of the cosmetics firm owned and named after his family. He accident burned his hand during an experiment and plunged his hand into the nearest tub of water which just happened to be lavender essential oil. He was later amazed at how quickly his burn healed and with very little scarring. This started a fascination with essential oils and inspired him to experiment with them during the First World War on soldiers in the military hospitals. He used oils of lavender, thyme, lemon and clove for their antiseptic properties. Gattefossé noted an increase in the rate of healing in wounds treated with essential oils and that the oils seemed to be free from the disadvantages present with other antiseptic agents in use at that time. Rene-Maurice Gattefossé advanced the new science of aromatherapy and opened the door for thousands of peer-reviewed studies of these marvelous oils. Gattefossé is credited with coining the word “aromatherapy”. 3
  5. 5. 1. Classification by chemical structure 2. Classification by basic structure of aromatic substance 3. Classification by source 4
  6. 6. o Alcohol in the structure of the molecule the name often end in –ol,substances in this group is qualified antibacterial and antiviral. exsamples:linalool,citronellol,geraniol,boneol,menthol,ner ol 5
  7. 7. Clary sage oil Lemon Grass oil borneo camphor Galangal oil 6
  8. 8. o Aldehydes names often end with-al. Substances in this group has the effect of sedative ,reduce inflammation ,reduce obesity ,expand blood vessels and has the effect of disinfection. examples : citral, citronellal. Lemon Grass oil 7
  9. 9. o Esters Substances in this group has the effect of sedative, reduce inflammation ,calm relieve muscle and antifungal examples:linalyl acetate,geranyl acetate, lavendulyl acetate. jasmine oil Ylang-ylang oil 8
  10. 10. o Ketone helps to dissolve phlegm and reduce inflammation exsamples:jasmone ,camphor,carvone Jasmine oil 9
  11. 11. oOxides group substance in this group can help dissolve phlegm and nervous system stimulant example: cineole(eucalyptol) Eucalyptus oil (Other group) 10
  12. 12. oHydrocarbon substances in this group has the effect of anti-infection and reduce inflammation exsamples:camphene,dipentene,caryophllene, terpinene Caraway Turmeric 11
  13. 13. Called the number of C (carbon) in a molecule. C5 =hemiterpene C10 =monoterpene (geraniol, myrcene, nerol, cineol, terpineol, menthol, carvone, menthone, thujone, camphor) C15 =sesquiterpene (farnesol, neolidol, bisabolene,caryophyllene) C20 = diterpene(resin ) Clove oil Clove oil 12
  14. 14. oIsolates isolate is a substance derived from the aromatic essential oils or from natural fragrances through the process to be pure single aroma substance 13
  15. 15. o Semi synthetic (identical) substance derived from Isolates to the through chemical processes to create a new of an aroma compounds. oSynthetic made from the fundamental chemical processes such as coal or petroleum, chemical compounds that have a structure similar to that found in natural substances or substances that are not the same structure, but with the same fragrance. 14
  16. 16. volatile oils can be done from plants in several ways. but either way, it is appropriate to plant depends on the amount of oil that was stored in plants the stability of the oil to heat, oil accumulation in the organs of the plant, etc. oil production can be divided into 3 major ways. 1.Distillation 2.Solvent Extraction 3.Mechanical expression 15
  17. 17. -Distillation -Water distillation is an ancient technique for extraction of volatile oils. It is use 16 worldwide for its simplicity but requires high energy consumption for heating and cooling, this method can be used for such still ,condenser and receiver. packed plant in a pot and fill with water to flood and then boil until the water boil. When water evaporates the steam will help bring in the essential oils of the plant tissue out simultaneously on the condenser steam and vapor is condensed into liquid oil. the separation of oil and water together. Distillation plant for small amounts in the laboratory we can do it refined using a set made of glass called a refined kind “Clevenger type apparatus”.
  18. 18. 17
  19. 19. Stream distillation steam distillation require the boiler for vapor increase. the principles are similar to water distillation, but to place the plant on the grid in still and connect pipe with a boiler. 18
  20. 20. Steam-water distillation This method is applicable to all plants. Especially those that may be destroyed when it is boil. Done by placing wet plants (B)on the grid (C) boiling water (D) steam through the plant with volatile oils evaporates to go to (A)and (H) until the condensation and separation of the water and oil. 19
  21. 21. Destructive distillation -Destructive distillation This method is used for certain types of oils such as turpentine(Pine oil) using wood chopped into small pieces and put in a steel container and burned with high temperature oil will flow out of wood but the color is dark- black suited to use in various industries, or used in the manufacture of antiseptic disinfection. 20
  22. 22. Extraction of essential oils from plants have 2 type is extraction with solvent and extraction with fat. -solvent extraction Principles extracted using solvents uncomplicated. By soaking the plant to extract the pure solvent. Which often be volatile solvent, a polar low. Filter the solvent soaked the plant out. Evaporative distillation at low temperatures under pressure. The rest of the concrete washed with alcohol several times to remove other contaminants out. Called the absolute. 21
  23. 23. Solvent extraction -Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extract) from another (the matrix) use supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent. Extraction is usually from a solid matrix, and can also be from liquids. SFE can be used as a sample preparation step for analytical purposes or on a larger scale to either strip unwanted material from a product or collect a desired product (e.g. essential oils). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most used supercritical fluid, sometimes modified by co-solvents such as ethanol or methanol. 22
  24. 24. Start from the pump to suck out the carbon dioxide contained in the tank slowly until the pressure change from a gas to a liquid at supercritical ,Molecules of carbon dioxide are in supercritical condition due to interaction with the material extracted. Extract is through the micrometer valve for compressed carbon dioxide ,the pressure drop and the separation of the solvent from the solute. Extract is passed through a tube to keep it in a small glass tube. 23
  25. 25. -Enfleurage The extraction of essential oils from flower petals. The essential oil is stored in parenchyma cells, such as rose, jasmine, etc. has like the most natural aroma through. using oil or fatty odorless absorbing the oils from evaporating cells. (Mostly pork fat cattle or sheep) by the sorbent spread thin on a tray. Then remove the petals are arranged on the adsorbent. Stored in a closed container and leave it for 24 hours, then change the new petal. Do this until sorbents absorb oil until saturated (pomade) brought to absorbent the essential oils are extracted with alcohol (extrait or absolute de pomade). 24
  26. 26. -Expression expression can be used with plants such as orange peel, lemon oil glands. This method does not require heat. Not cause disintegration But loss to the waste oil. -Acuelle Extraction of essential oils from the orange. By providing of the Orange rolled to a container with many needle piercing is stabbed makes it bubbles burst. Oil flow will gather at the rail into the container to support below. 25
  27. 27. 26
  28. 28. Cupressus sempervirens. • Science name:Cupressus sempervirens var. Stricta • Family: CUPRESSACEAE • Other names: Italian Cypress,Pencil Pine, The tree is a perennial tree, conical-shaped,evergreen tree tall about 28 meters (80 feet) high and originated from the East, now mostly found in the Mediterranean region. It is an evergreen tree with dark green foliage, small flowers and round brown-gray cones with seed nuts inside.Can use Cypress essential oil as.., Antibacterial,Anti-infection,Anti-microbial, Anti-septic,Refreshing and relaxing 27
  29. 29. Cupressus sempervirens. 28
  30. 30. Water distillation (hydrodistillation) 29
  31. 31. Supercritical fluid extraction 30
  32. 32. 31
  33. 33. Hydrodistillation are popular and easiest method. But has the disadvantage is the high power consumption and take long exposition but it has few oil. Supercritical fluid extraction of essential oils has volume and quality better and takes less time than hydrodistillation method and carbon dioxide in the system can be reused again. The disadvantage is expensive tools. 32 Acuelle
  34. 34. Ben Hassine,D.,Abderrabba,M., Yvon., Lebrihi., A., Mathieu, F., Couderc, F., & Bouajila, J(2012). Chemical conposition and in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Eucalyptus gillii essential oil and extract.Molecules, 17(8), 9540-9558 Della Porta, G., Porcedda, S., Marongiu, B., & Reverchon, E. (1999). Isolation of eucalyptus oil by supercritical fluid extraction . Flavour and Fragrance Journal,14 214-218. Goncalves, M.J. Cruz, M.T., Tavares, A.C. Cavalriro, C., Lopes, M.C. Canhoto, J., & salgueiro, L.(2012). Composition and biology activity of the essential oil from Thapsia minor, a new source of geranyl acetate. Indrustial Crops and Products, 35,166-171 Pavlovic, I., Petrovic, S., Radencovic, M., Couladis, M., Brankovic, S., …,& Niketic,M.(2012). Composition,antimicrobial,antiradical and spasmolytic activity of Ferula heuffelii Griseb. Ex Heuffel (Apiaceae) essential oil.Food Chemistry, 130, 310-315 Reverchon, E.(1997). Supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of essential oil and ralated products. Tha Journal of supercritical Fluids,10,1-37 Seun-Ah, Y., Sang-Kyung, J., Eun-Jung,L., Chang-Hyun,S.,& In-Seon,L,(2010). Comparative study of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of six essential oils and their component. Natural product Research,24(2)140-151. 33