A learning disability may include difficulties with the ff:1. Confusion with text2. working memory3. sensory processing4. communication5. motor skills
Definition of Persons with Learning Disabilities1. Discrepancy clause significant difference between aspect of specific functioning and general ability2. disparity is not primarily due to intellectual, physical, emotional or environmental problem3. Etiology clause causation involving genetic, biochemical or neurological
“Specific learning disability means a disorderin one or more of the basic psychologicalprocesses involved in understanding or inusing language, spoken or written, which maymanifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen,think, speak, read, write, spell or to domathematical calculations. The term includessuch conditions as perceptual handicaps, braininjury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexiaand developmental aphasia” Public Law 94-142 (The Education of All Handicapped Children Act, 1991)
CLASSIFICATIONSA. Developmental Learning Disabilities deviation in the development of a number of psychological and linguistic functions 1. attention deficit delayed development to employ and sustain selective attention. 2. memory deficit inability to remember or recall what has been heard or seen. 3. perceptual motor disturbance difficulty in recognizing by seeing, hearing, touching or moving
4. visual perception disability difficulty recognizing, organizing, integrating and/or remembering visual images.5. fine motor disability difficulty in controlling groups of small muscles in their hands.6. thinking disability difficulty in cognitive operations of concept formations, problem solving and association of idles.
B. Academic Learning Disabilities Reading Disability or Dyslexia Written Expression Disability Spelling Disability Handwriting Disability or Dysgraphia Mathematical Disability or Dyscalculia
ACADEMIC DISCREPANCY COGNITIVE PROBLEMS Basic reading skill Short attention Reading comprehension Perceptual Math calculation Motor Written expression Memory Oral expression Problem solving Listening comprehension Metacognition SOCIAL EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS Hyperactivity Self-concept Learned helplessness Distractible Social imperceptions Motivation
CharacteristicsChildren who have learning disabilities frequently showsome combination of a variety of characteristics and/orweaknesses. Significant symptoms might include:READING – VISION ____ holds book too close ____ word caller ____ points to words ____ word reversals ____ word substitutions ____ skips complete words ____ sees double ____ re-reads lines ____ does not read fluently ____ vocalizes during silent reading ____ poor comprehension in oral reading
READING – VISION continued ____ skips lines as he reads ____ lacks word attack skills ____ eye regressions ____ omits ending consonants in oral reading ____ moves head when reading ____ loses place when reading ____ poor tracking and eye scan ____ frowns when reading ____ excessive eye blinking ____ closes or covers one eye ____ squinting ____ burning or itching of eyes ____ tends to rub eyes ____ visual closure problems ____ inability to focus properly ____ sights with one eye
WRITING ____ handedness not clearly established ____ lacks automatic response to alphabet ____ lacks spacing between words ____ letter reversals ____ has poor posture ____ improper position of paper ____ variation of letter heights ____ inability to write on the lines ____ grips pencil tightly or awkwardly ____ moves paper or body when writing ____ pressure points in writing ____ finger writing ____ poor closure of letters ____ poor organization of thoughts ____ poor grasp of writing mechanics
AUDITORY/VERBAL ____ listless ____ frequent colds, allergy, asthma ____ depends on others visually ____ faulty pronunciation ____ breathes through mouth ____ complains of ear problems ____ dizziness in head ____ unnatural pitch of voice ____ blank expression of face when spoken to ____ watches teacher closely ____ uses loud voice ____ looks at others for help ____ excessive volume needed for listening to TV, radio, or record player ____ unable to follow more than one direction at a time
MATHEMATICS ____ reverses the numbers ____ inability to transfer in computation ____ difficulty with story problems ____ poor digit memory ____ forward ____ backward ____ difficulty learning to tell time ____ poor number concept understanding ____ inability to respond automatically to basic math facts at appropriate level
SPELLING ____ omission of beginning or ending letters ____ can spell better orally than written ____ auditory perception problems ____ letter reversals ____ wrong number of letters in words unable to distinguish difference ____ long vowel sounds ____ short vowel sounds ____ spells phonetically ____ confusion between consonant ____ sounds of ____ d-b ____ d-t ____ m-n ____ p-b ____ f-v ____ s-z
Indicators and Descriptors Very SomeI. Academic Often Often - Rarely Never timesA. Language 1. Unable to state something in an organized, cogent way 2. Uses immature words and ungrammatical phrasing 3. Defines words by their concrete attributes or functions 4. Unable to summarize or tell a story in sequence 5. Recounts only isolated and highly detailed facts about an experience 6. Forget names of things that he knows and has to describe them Sub-Score ________
Indicators and Descriptors Very Some Often Often - Rarely Never timesB. Reading 1. Decodes words with difficulty 2. Shows poor word recognition 3. Reads without recognition and ignores punctuation 4. Omits, substitutes or adds words to a sentence 5. Reads word by word 6. Unable to draw conclusions 7. Has very limited slight words Sub-Score ________
Indicators and Descriptors Very Some- Often Often times Rarely NeverC. Spelling 1. Has trouble in retrieving or recognizing the letter sequences 2.Writes b for d and vice versa 3. Transposes the order of letters Sub-Score ________
Indicators and Descriptors Very Some Often Often - Rarely Never timesD. Mathematics 1. Counts by his fingers 2. Unable to commit multiplication facts to memory 3. Reverses two place numbers (13 becomes 31) 4. Does not understand place value 5. Has difficulty with peer relationship 6. Is disorganized (can’t locate materials) 7. Is easily distracted (watches every one else, short attention span)
Indicators and Descriptors Very Some- Often Often times Rarely Never8. Display inconsistencies in behavior9. Seems to misunderstand oral/or written directions10. Doesn’t complete lengthy assignments11. Can’t find correct number in text12. Gets lost easily13. May be able to remember written directions but not oral directions and vice-versa14. Difficulty in adjusting to changes15. Difficulty in changing from one task to another
Indicators and Descriptors Very Some Often Often - Rarely Never times16. Endlessly repeating something that is no longer meaningful17. Easily forgets lessons just learned18. Gives up easily or explodes when frustrated19. Fails to think about the consequences of behavior20. Unable to respond to the feelings and behavior of others21. Demands attention through overt behavior tactics Sub-Score ________
Indicators and Descriptors Very Some- Often Often times Rarely NeverE. Motoric 1. Display poor motor coordination (may appear clumsy and awkward) 2.Difficulty in line motor coordination (using scissors, pencils, crayons, buttons, etc.) 3. Confuses right and left 4. Lacks rhythm in movement, loses sequence and balance 5. Fails to position one’s body and distance from others while communicating Sub-Score ________
Interpretations A learner who manifests theindicators very often or often under eachcategory area has a learning disability inthat category/area.
Models of Assessment1. Use of Standardized Test2. Informal Measures3. Multifactored Assessment4
Global Strategies1. Behavioral approach positive reinforcement immediate and specific feedback task analysis rehearsal and practice structural development
Global Strategies2. Remediation based on cognitive skills modelling peer coaching study skills/habits intensify attention mnemonic devices chunking information rehearsal practice
Delivering Educational Services toChildren with Learning Disabilities Peer Cooperative Tutoring Learning Resource Regular Class Consultant Room with Mainstreaming Teacher Teacher IEP/ Special Pull-out Class One-to-One Instruction Special Day Other Residential Schools PROGRAMS
Who Is Disabled? If you fail to see The PersonBut only the disability Then who is blind? If you cannot hear Your brother’s Cry for justice Who is deaf?
If you do not Communicate With your sister But separate her from you Who is disabled? If your heart or mind Does not reach out to Your neighborWho has the mental handicap?
If you do not stand up for the Rights of all persons Who is the cripple?
Thank you! Juliet F. Lastimosa Education Program SupervisorSPED/Preschool/Private Schools