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Internet basic


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Internet basic

  1. 1. Computer Education 1 Internet Basic INTRODUCTION TO ICT INTEGRATION Now you know more about ICT and its importance in school education. Your professional experience on ICT Integration and your understanding will greatly influence your teaching. This activity is designed to enhance your thinking on Teaching and professional development.II Leaning Outcomes:At the end of this activity, you will be able to reflect on our professional practices as teachers to identify the scope for enhancing teaching proficiency to visualize the ICT enabled classroom practicesIII ProcedureWrite an overview on use of ICT in your school in which you Think about how you have developed as a teacher. Have you only developed in terms of gaining new knowledge in the subject that you teach, or, expanding your teaching skills? How can you make yourself more receptive to influences that can help you develop as a teacher? Use your e-diary to capture the most powerful lessons that you learnt during this activity and then save it in your personal folder for future use. ReflectionTake few minutes to reflect on your teaching and think on the scope for improvement.Web links
  2. 2. Computer Education 2 Internet Basic INTRODUCTION TO ICT INTEGRATION ICT is a potential tool makes our professional practice more interesting and meaningful. In this activity, you will be realizing the relevance of ICT in Schools by critically analyzing the existing resources, extent of use and design strategies to create ICT enabled classrooms.II Leaning Outcomes:At the end of this activity, you will be able: to realize how ICT enabled classrooms enhance students learning to develop interest in using ICT in classroom practices to identify the scope of integrating ICT in EducationIII Procedure Analyze the current state of ICT integration: First provide a description of the schools ICT resources and facilities. Include a summary if the staff ICT development levels. Use the framework as the basis for analyzing the current state of learning. Identify key principles for ICT integration: Based on your understanding of this module, identify between 5 and 10 key principles that should influence all activity regarding the use of ICT for learning in the school, including staff development. Provide a clear explanation for each principle that you include. Recommendations: From the above understanding identify the most important activities that should take place regarding ICT Integration. Think of an action Plan for realizing plans in programs in your schoolIV ReflectionImagine a classroom situation, where ICT is not at all used in the teaching learning process andis dominated by the traditional teaching methods. Compare this context with the ICT enabledclassrooms. List how these two classrooms are different from each other. According to you whichlearning environment is more learners friendly. And Why?V Web links 3Use goggle search for the following ICT policies and reports and prepare a short note on worddocument and same in a file. National ICT policy UNESCO ICT policy ICT Curriculum (NCERT, NCTE) ICT Standards- UNESCO
  3. 3. Computer Education 3 Internet Basic INTERNET BASIC Understand of Internet connectivity and structure - Understanding hardware, browsers & networking, Current ways of connecting to the internet. Describe the value of telecommunications to increase relevant and authentic learning opportunities. Locate web pages, given a list of web sites related to various curriculum topics. Equip with skills to research a relevant topic using a simple search technique using search engines. Apply effective strategies for safe and secure search for kids.What is internet?The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use thestandardized Protocol called TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter- linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail, in addition to popular services such as online chat, file transfer and file sharing, online gaming, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) person-to-person communication via voice and video. Accessing internetInternet access refers to the means by which users connect to the Internet. Commonmethods of internet access include dial-up, landline (over coaxial cable, fiber optic orcopper wires), T- lines, Wi-Fi, satellite and cell phones.Types of connectionsISDNISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, that also provides access topacket switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and dataover ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better voice quality than an analogphone. The major application is Internet access. ISDN typically provides amaximum of 128 kbit/s in both upstream and downstream directions (which can beconsidered to be broadband speed, since it exceeds the narrowband speeds ofstandard analog 56k telephone lines)Video on “what is ISDN on YouTube” -
  4. 4. Computer Education 4 Internet BasicHowever, compared to modern speeds of broadband internet, dial-up is very slowand can only nominally transfer at 56 Kilobits per second. Dial-up is usually the onlychoice available for rural or remote areas where broadband installations are notprevalent due to low population and demand.Dial-up Internet accessDial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access via telephone lines. The user’scomputer or router uses an attached modem connected to a telephone line to dialinto an Internet service provider’s (ISP) node to establish a modem-to-modem link,which is then used to route Internet Protocol packets between the user’s equipmentand hosts on the Internet. A dial-up connection allows users to connect to theinternet via a local server using a standard 56k modem, the PC literally dials (hencethe name) a telephone number (provided by the Internet Service Provider) andconnects to the server’s modem and therefore the internet.Wireless connectionsWi-Fi provides wireless access to computer networks, and therefore can do so to theInternet itself. Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi-cafes, where a would-beuser needs to bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA.These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. A hotspotneed not be limited to a confined location. The whole campus or park, or even theentire city can be enabled. Grassroots efforts have led to wireless communitynetworks.
  5. 5. Computer Education 5 Internet BasicWi-FiThe name of popular wireless networking technology that uses radio waves toprovide wireless high-speed Internet andnetwork connections. The Wi-Fi Alliance, theorganization that owns the Wi-Fi (registered trademark) term specifically defines Wi-Fi as any "wireless local area network (WLAN) products that are based on theInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) 802.11 standards." Wi-Fiworks with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radiofrequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrumassociated with radio wave propagation. The cornerstone of any wireless network isan access point (AP). The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wirelesssignal that computers can detect and "tune" into. In order to connect to an accesspoint and join a wireless network, computers and devices must be equipped withwireless network adapters Wi-Fi is supported by many applicationsand devices including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs, mobile phones,majoroperating systems, and other types of consumerelectronics. is a wireless digital communications system, also known as IEEE 802.16 thatis intended for wireless "metropolitan area networks".WiMAX can provide broadbandwireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5- 15 km) for mobile stations.In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area networkstandard is limited in most cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m). With WiMAX,WiFi-like data rates are easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened.WiMAX operates on both licensed and non-licensed frequencies, providing aregulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers. WiMAX canbe used for wireless networking in much the same way as the more common WiFiprotocol. WiMAX is a second-generation protocol that allows for more efficientbandwidth use, interference avoidance, and is intended to allow higher data ratesover longer distances.
  6. 6. Computer Education 6 Internet BasicWAPThe Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is the de-facto world standard for thepresentation and delivery of wireless information and telephony services on mobilephones and other wireless terminals. The WAP Forum has published a global wirelessprotocol specification, based on existingInternet standards such as XML and IP, forall wireless networks. The WAP specificationis developed and supported by the wirelesstelecommunication community so that theentire industry and most importantly, itssubscribers, can benefit from a single, openspecification. WAP is designed to work withmost wireless networks such as CDPD,CDMA, GSM, PDC, PHS, TDMA, FLEX,ReFLEX, iDEN, TETRA, DECT, DataTAC,Mobitex. The Wireless Application Protocol isa standard developed by the WAP Forum, agroup founded by Nokia, Ericsson, (formerly Unwired Planet), andMotorola."What is WAP" video from YouTube - with Wi-FiComparisons and confusion between WiMAX and Wi-Fi are frequent because both arerelated to wireless connectivity and Internet access WiMAX uses spectrum to deliver a point-to-point connection to the Internet. Different 802.16 standards provide different types of access, from portable (similar to a cordless phone) to fixed (an alternative to wired access, where the end user’s wireless termination point is fixed in location.) · Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a network. Wi-Fi is more popular in end user devices. WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite different quality of service (QoS) mechanisms. WiMAX uses a mechanism based on connections between the base station and the user device. Each connection is based on specific scheduling algorithms. Wi-Fi has a QoS mechanism similar to fixed Ethernet, where packets can receive different priorities based on their tags. For example VoIP traffic may be given priority over web browsing. Wi-Fi runs on the Media Access Control’s CSMA/CA protocol, which is connectionless and contention based, whereas WiMAX runs a connection- oriented MAC. DSL DSL or xDSL is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop, but as of 2009 the term digital subscriber line has been widely adopted as a more marketing-friendly term for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most popular version of consumer-ready DSL. DSL can be used at the same time and on the same telephone line with
  7. 7. Computer Education 7 Internet Basicregular telephone, as it uses high frequency bands, while regular telephoneuses low frequency. The download speed of consumer DSL services typicallyranges from 256kilobits per second(kbit/s) to 24,000kbit/s, depending onDSL technology, lineconditions andservice-levelimplementation.View the video on"What is a DSLModem" the video on"Cable vs DSL: ABroadbandComparison" is a line of wireless handheld devices that was introduced in 1999as a two-way pager. In 2002, the more commonly known smartphoneBlackBerry was released, which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services as well as a multi-touch interface. It is an example of a convergent device. Developed by the Canadian company Research In Motion (RIM), it delivers information over the wireless data networks of mobile phone service companies. BlackBerry first made headway in the marketplace by concentrating on e-mail. RIM currently offers BlackBerry e-mail service to non-BlackBerry devices, such as the Palm Treo, through the BlackBerry Connect software. Watch the video on blackberry.BlackBerry Bold: The review- reunion-
  8. 8. Computer Education 8 Internet Basic General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet orientedmobile data service available to users of the 2G cellular communication systems global system for mobile communications (GSM), as well as in the 3G systems. In 2G systems, GPRS provides data rates of 56-114kbit/s. GPRS data transfer is typically charged per megabyte of traffic transferred, while data communication via traditionalcircuit switching is billed per minute of connection time, independent of whether the user actually is using the capacity or is in an idle state. GPRS is a best-effort packet switched service, as opposed to circuit switching, where a certain quality of service(QoS)is guaranteed during the connection for non-mobile users.Watch video on GPRS networking- following table summarises some possible configurations of GPRS andcircuit switched data services.Educational Application of InternetInternet offers significant advantages to library media specialists, classroomteachers and other educators; The Internet is opening up whole new worldsand information resources for both classroom teachers and their students.Many teachers have used the power of its numerous tools to supplementclassroom goals and objectives in a variety of different ways.The Internet is also a wonderful tool for students. It allows them to constructtheir own knowledge; promotes the use of technology as a powerful resourcetool; enables collaboration between and among students through variousprojects and thematic units; provides a global perspective and interchange ofideas; allows teachers to individualize student instruction; and encouragesthe use of technology as a tool and enabler.LernerLearning through e-learning, project preparations, online tests, accessingenormous amounts of information quickly, work at their own pace specialneeds, both remedial and extension, students are accessing quality materialirrespective of their geographical location. Students are interacting with peersand experts outside the classroom, town, and/or country by creating blogsand wikis. Multimedia is used widely to help students learn difficult concepts.It encourages students to learn and simulations where they can experiment
  9. 9. Computer Education 9 Internet Basicby changing the variables; Internet offers a host of different tools todemonstrate learning suitable for divergent and different intelligencescreative thinkingAdministrationUse of computers can help in running of the school administration. Itadmission procedures, storing of officials and students’ records etc. Theapplication of computers to student record keeping evolved from simpletabulation and keeping records of registration figures, attendance, grades inexamination, admission, registration scheduling, dropouts and additions, classrosters, student aid, fees and scholarship, testing and evaluation, andenrolment. Computers can also be used in educational planning and decision-making, controlling, assisting instruction and simulation. Computers arehelpful in administrating aptitude tests and achievement tests at the time ofentrance. A computer software can process performance of the functionsrelated with teacher’s and employee’s promotion avenues, records of thedistribution of salary, holding of the student’s examination, preparing schemeof examination, printing of papers and question papers, evaluation of answersheets, preparing marks sheets, certificates etc.,Professional DevelopmentInternet offers significant advantages to library media specialists, classroomteachers and other educators; The Internet is opening up whole new worldsand information resources for both classroom teachers and their students.Many teachers have used the power of its numerous tools to supplementclassroom goals and objectives in a variety of different ways. The Internet isnot just for student retrieval of information. There are many opportunities foreducators to grow as professionals. E-mail communication with other teachersprovides for sharing of lesson plans or the solutions to specific classroomproblems and issues. The Internet is also a wonderful tool for students. Itallows them to construct their own knowledge; promotes the use oftechnology as a powerful resource tool; enables collaboration between andamong students through various projects and thematic units; provides aglobal perspective and interchange of ideas; allows teachers to individualizestudent instruction; and encourages the use of technology as a tool andenabler.Web BrowserWeb browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, andtraversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An informationresource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be aweb page, image, video, or other piece of content. Hyperlinks present inresources enable users to easily navigate their browsers to related resources.The major web browsers are Windows Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, AppleSafari, Google Chrome, and Opera.Browser FeaturesMost browsers contain the following features. Some of these may bepresented as buttons (or icons) in a toolbar. If you don’t find a button, youwill find a menu item in one of the menus provided. You can usuallycustomize the toolbar to include any or all of these features:A web browser works by using a protocol called HTTP to request a textdocument from a web server. The text document contains special instructions(usually written in HTML) that tell the browser how to display the documenton the user’s screen. The instructions may include references (hyperlinks) toother web pages, information about text formatting and color, and positioninformation for images contained in the document.Address fieldThis area is where the URL (web page address) for the web page is displayedor entered. (A field is a text entry or display area.) In many browsers, there’sa little downward facing arrow next to this field. When you click on the arrowyou will see a list of recently visited websites. Clicking one of these URLs willtake you to that website. You can also enter a URL into this field and thenpress enter or return to go to the website. In some browsers there is a “Go”button next to this field that initiates a server request after typing in a URL.By the way, you don’t usually have to type in the “http://” part of the URL.Most browsers will add that information in for you when you press enter orreturn.
  10. 10. Computer Education 10 Internet BasicAutofill Forms ButtonWhen you encounter a page that has a form on it, such as an order page, thisbutton will make filling out the form much easier. See the Autofill section inPreferences to use this feature.Back ButtonUse this button to go back to the previous page opened in this particular browser window.In some browsers, holding the mouse down on this button produces a menu of previouspages, that you can then choose from. In other browsers, there‟s a little arrow next to theBack button that produces this menu.Bookmarks or FavoritesYou can easily create a shortcut to your favorite web pages by using the Bookmark (orFavorites) menu or button. This is a very important feature and it works a little differentlyin each browser. In Internet Explorer, use the Favorites Menu to Add to Favorites. Youcan then use the Organize Favorites menu item to place your bookmark in a folder orparticular place in the list. In Netscape, FireFox and Safari, choose Add Bookmark fromthe Bookmark menu. You can then choose Show All or Manage Bookmarks to createfolders and/or rearrange your bookmarks. In most browsers you can also place favoritewebsites to an area just above the main browser window.Close BoxThis button in the upper right corner of the window will close the browser window. If thereis only one browser window open, the program will exit. One way to tell if you have morethan one browser window open is to look at the button bar at the bottom of the screen. Ifyou see more than one button with the icon of the browser you are using, you can switchbetween the open windows by clicking on these buttons. Another way to deal withmultiple windows is to Minimize or Restore the window to its pre-maximized size. On theMacintosh, there‟s a similar button, but separate windows are more obvious and closingthe last one does not quit the browser. (See also: Minimize or Restore and Maximize.)Fonts or Larger or SmallerIn Internet Explorer a button called Fonts gives you a menu to choose the size of the textdisplayed in the browser window. Some browsers offer two buttons, Larger and Smallerto change the size of the text.Forward ButtonLike the Back button, the Forward button takes you to pages that youhave previously seen in a particular browser window. The Forward button is onlyavailable if you have used the Back button and want to go Forward to where you werebefore. In some browsers,holding the mouse down on this button produces a menu ofprevious pages, that you can then choose from. In other browsers, there‟s a little arrownext to the Forward button that produces this menu.History ButtonMost browsers offers a History button or menu item which allows you to look at the lastseveral hundred web pages you‟ve been to, and select one of them for an easy returnpath.Home ButtonThis button takes you to the page that has been designated as your “home” page. Youcan select your “home page” in the browser‟s Preferences (or Internet Options) section.Favorites, Links or Personal ToolbarYou can add your own buttons to this toolbar. In Explorer it is called Favorites or Links
  11. 11. Computer Education 11 Internet BasicToolbar and in Netscape it is called the Personal Toolbar. These toolbars can be hiddenor shown by using the View menu.Maximize ButtonIn Windows you can use this button to make the browser‟s window enlarge to full screen.When the window is already maximized this button is replaced by the Restore button.(See also: Minimize or Restore and CloseBox.)MenubarIn Windows the Menubar is a part of each browser window. Choices include File, Edit,View, History, Favorites or Bookmarks and Help. On the Macintosh, these Menus arealways at the top of the screen.Minimize ButtonIn Windows you can use this button to make the browser‟s window disappear from thescreen. You can restore the window by clicking its button on the bottom of the screen.(See also: Maximize or Restore and CloseBox.)Print ButtonYou can print any web page by clicking this button.Reload or Refresh ButtonIf you suspect the contents of a browser‟s window may have changed since the last timeyou viewed it, you should click the Reload or Refresh button to update the page.Restore ButtonIf the browser‟s window is maximized you can use this button to restore the size of thewindow so that it no longer fills the entire screen. This is very useful if you want to seemore than one window at the same time. (See also: Minimize or Maximize andCloseBox.)Search Button or FieldIn some older browers there is a button to go to the page you have designated as your“search” page. You can select your “search page” in the browser‟s preferences section orby clicking the “Choose a Search Engine” button in the Search window. Most browsersnow have a search field, at the right end of the main button bar, which you can type intoto perform Internet searches.Security IndicatorsMost browsers show a padlock icon in the lower left corner of the window to indicate asecure connection. This means that data being sent or received from that server isencrypted and would be extremely difficulty for a third party to access. If this padlock is inthe locked position , you know you have a secure server connection. If the padlock isunlocked, then you do not. Another way to tell is by the URL or web site address. If theURL begins with https:// then the server connection is secure.Status BarThe bar along the bottom of the browser‟s window shows you what is being loaded intothe browser window at the moment or the URL of the link your mouse is over. There isusually also a progress indicator that shows how much of a file has already beendownloaded.Stop ButtonUse this button if you want to stop loading the contents of a page.Window TitleThe title of the web page appears in the browser window‟s title. Sometimes pages don‟thave titles. When you bookmark a page, the window‟s title is used to identify thebookmark.The title of the web page appears in the browser window‟s title. Sometimes pages don‟thave titles. When you bookmark a page, the window‟s title is used to identify thebookmark.Safe Browsing PracticesMake sure your computer is updated!Detailed directions on updating Windows can be found here:
  12. 12. Computer Education 12 Internet BasicInstructions on updating Mac OS 10.x can be found here: the Web with an up to date browser!We suggest using Mozilla Firefox if you have a PC: you‟re using a Mac, we suggest using Safari.Run anti-spyware programs weekly.The anti-spyware programs we recommend for a PC are:Ad-Aware 6.0, SpyBot, Webroot Spy SweeperRun Stinger to search for viruses.PC Users: You should already have McAfee VirusScan or similar program running.Set your Operating System to always show file extensions.PC Users: Go to „My Computer‟ - „Tools‟ - „Folder Options‟ - „View‟ tab - and take thecheck out of „Hide file extensions for known file types‟.Mac Users: Click on „Finder‟ - and select the option to show all file extensions.Other Safe Browsing PracticesStay on trusted web sites.Never follow a link in an email that wants you to update account/personal information.See also; How to avoid Phishing ScamsDo not open unknown email attachments.Links may not be what they seem. Hold the mouse pointer over a link to see the actuallink location (usually displays in the bottom left).Do not run programs that are of unknown origin.Search enginesThe very first tool used for searching on the (pre-web) Internet was Archie.[3] The namestands for “archive” without the “v.” It was created in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a student atMcGill University in Montreal.What is Search Engine?A Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World WideWeb. The search results are usually presented in a list and are commonly called hits. Theinformation may consist of web pages, images, information and other types of files. Somesearch engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike Webdirectories, which are maintained by human editors, search engines operatealgorithmically or are a mixture of algorithmic and human input.The very first tool used for searching on the (pre-web) Internet was Archie.[3] The namestands for “archive” without the “v.” It was created in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a student atMcGill University in Montreal.How search engine worksA search engine operates, in the following order1. Web crawling2. Indexing3. Searching
  13. 13. Computer Education 13 Internet BasicWeb search engines work by storing information about many web pages, which theyretrieve from the WWW itself. These pages are retrieved by a Web crawler (sometimesalso known as a spider)When a user enters a query into a search engine (typically by using key words), theengine examines its index and provides a listing of best-matching web pages accordingto its criteria, usually with a short summary containing the document‟s title andsometimes parts of the text. Some Search enginesGoogle, Yahoo,, AltaVista, Excite, LycosEffective Search StrategiesChoosing the right toolWhere to start looking depends on factors such as Your knowledge of the topic Yourexisting knowledge of online resources in the area Whether you are looking for aspecific piece of information, or conducting a substantial literature review. Howaccurate/reliable the information needs to be whether you are looking for something likelyto be located in the “deep web” How current the information isKnowing the characteristics of the tool: search syntaxDifferent search tools offer different options for refining searches, and may use differentsearch syntax. Read the help pages!Stop wordsMany search engines by default ignore common words such as “the” “and” “in” and so on.Some search engines allow you to force stop words to appear by using +.Boolean logicANDchocolate AND cake will find pages with both termsORchocolate OR cake will find pages with either or both termsAND NOT (NOT)chocolate AND NOT cake will find pages with the term chocolate, but not those with cakeNEARchocolate NEAR cake will find pages where chocolate appears within a given number ofwords of each otherAltaVista to require words- to exclude“ “ phrase searching* truncationdomain: restrict search by domain, e.g.domain:zaGoogle terms automatically required (+ notnecessary, use only for stop words)- to exclude wordsNO truncations“ “ phrase searching
  14. 14. Computer Education 14 Internet BasicKids’ search enginesThese are free Web tools, called search engines that both parents and children can useto search the Net for sites that are interesting or entertaining, with the security of knowingthat the results of their searches will almost always be appropriate for families. Somekids‟ search engines rely on filtering schemes to filter out inappropriate Web pages, whileothers have preselected lists of good content that you can search through.PrecisionKids‟ search engines sometimes define their content through the use of a filtering tool. Inthose cases, the results can only be asprecise as the tool being used. In othercases, the content comes from preselectedlists, compiled through human review ofWeb sites, that are highly precise. It isimportant to remember, though — kid-safesearch engines do not filter Internet contentin general, just the results that come upwhen you enter a search. Search enginesalone cannot prevent Web users fromvisiting inappropriate sites, but they canencourage children to do otherwise.ControlWhoever maintains the engine often has almost total control over its functioning.Sometimes parents can toggle various settings, but final authority over how the engineswork, or over the ways in which Web pages are filtered, is often out of their hands.ScalabilitySearch engines‟ scalability will vary along with the ways in which they find appropriateWeb sites. Those engines which use preselected lists will take time to adapt to the influxof new sites, while those which use an on-the-fly sort of filtering scheme (such askeyword-based filtering or another form of rapid filtering) will usually be able to deal withthem without any problem.Physical safety protectionsKids‟ search engines can only redirect your children to positive content; they often can‟tprotect your child‟s emotional or physical well being should they venture away from thesites suggested by the engine.Functionality costsEven the most expansive search engines cannotcomb more than a fraction of all the Internet‟sresources — the Internet is simply too big, and isgrowing too fast. Kids‟ search engines bydefinition take a narrower approach to theInternet‟s content, and as such, they are often lesspowerful than some of their larger, more fullyfunctional brethren, although they are a good dealmore safe for kids.A website is a collection of related web pages,images, videos or other digital assets that areaddressed with a common domain name or IPaddress in an Internet Protocol-based network. Aweb site is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via the Internet or a privatelocal area network.Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP),which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security andprivacy for the user of the web page content. The user‟s application, often a web browser,renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a displayterminal.Use of Website for education (e-learning)There is emerging research on how the website can be an important component of aprogram that significantly increases student learning. This type of program requiresstudents and teachers to have appropriate access to the Internet and instruction in itsuse. It also requires changes in curriculum content, instructional practices, andassessment to take advantage of the communication and information storage andretrieval strengths of the website, and to appropriately assess the types of learning thesestrengths engenders.Types of WebsitesThere are a few million active web sites on the internet today (no point in giving numbers,
  15. 15. Computer Education 15 Internet Basic they are bound to change by the time you read this article!) and they can be classified in various categories. Corporate Websites, personal websites, Flash websites, Slaes pages, E-commerce websites, Web Apps and Intranets Website Evaluation The User Context: The most important factor when evaluating Web sites is your search, your needs. What are you using the Web for? Entertainment? Academic work? Hobbies or vocational interests? Scholarly sources are traditionally very strongly text-based. Compare the appearance and the content of an academic journal with a popular magazine. The Web Context: Some of the visual distinctions that signal the nature of content in print sources hold true on the Web as well, although, because the Web encourages wider use of graphics, Web versions of printed works usually contain more graphics and more color than their print counterparts.Five criteria for evaluating Web pages1. Accuracy of Web Documents2. Authority of Web Documents3. Objectivity of Web Documents4. Currency of Web Documents5. Coverage of the Web Documents
  16. 16. Computer Education 16 Internet Basic 1. Barker, Joe, and Saifon Obromsook. Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply & Questions to Ask. (Library, University of California—Berkeley, 11 August 2009) 2. Henderson, John R. The ICYouSee Critical Thinking Guide. (Ithaca College, NY; 26 August 2009) 3. Kapoun, Jim. “Teaching Undergrads WEB Evaluation: A Guide for Library Instruction.” C&RL News (July/August 1998): 522-523. 4. Kirk, Elizabeth E. Evaluating Information Found on the Internet. (The Sheridan Libraries, Johns Hopkins University; 1996 copyright date). 5. Smith, Alastair G. “Testing the Surf: Criteria for Evaluating Internet Information Resources.” The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 8, no. 3 (1997). (Victoria University of Wellington, NZ; 1997 copyright date) 6. Tillman, Hope. Evaluating Quality on the Net. (Babson College, MA; 28 March 2003)Suggested readings 1. 1.Webpage evaluation check list 2. Yahooligans! - Evaluating Web Sites Guide to evaluating sites by the “Four A‟s” - Accessible, Accurate, Appropriate, and Appealing.
  17. 17. Computer Education 17 Internet Basic 3. Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply and Questions to Ask 4. How To Evaluate A Web Site - 1. “The website of the world‟s first-ever web server”. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 2. Cailliau, Robert. “A Little History of the World Wide Web”. . Retrieved 2007-02-16. 3. “Ask Oxford: How should the term website be written in official documents and on the web?”. Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 2007-02-23. 4. “The Slot—Sharp Points: Here We Go Again—Eeee!”. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 5. Evaluating WebPages
  18. 18. Computer Education 18 Internet BasicActivity 1: Understanding Internet ConceptsI. IntroductionThe Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use thestandardized Protocol called TCP/IP (for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol).This activity gives brief introduction of internet how the internet works, components requiredfor accessing internet. How internet usage benefits the people especially for teachinglearning process.Learning Outcomes: At the end of this activity, you will be able to Explain the internet concepts familiarize with terminology of internet Identify the pre requisites for accessing internet. Discuss about the benefits internet usability for classroom teaching learning process.Procedure 1. Discuss in groups and compile a list of internet usage in daily life. Group will come out with a list. 2. Refer the given site and find out the definition of internet. (An Imaginary diagram of internet, draw it on a paper networks of network.), 3. Let us find out the components required for the accessing internet. Give brief outline of what you need to get started on the Internet and how your web hosting package is accessed. 4. Refer the following web link to know about internet installation wizard. (you have a internet connection, to access the internet you need to follow the installation wizard). Broadband connection wizard 5. Let us explore the past - a video on “History of Internet” from youtube, this gives an idea how internet has come in to existence. 6. View the video on “How Internet Traffic Works” from youtube 8s&feature=PlayList&p=54031AD674DAC5CF&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index =40, list out the terminology used in the video and discuss among the group. 7. Browse through websites given below and list out terminology and technology used in internet.(explanatory part),,, basing on the above information fill up the black provided in flow chart. 8. Explore the internet in your subject for classroom teaching and professional development. list the reasons for using the internet list the types of information that may be obtained from the internet How do I use the internet for your classroom teaching? Usage of internet would help in your professional development, comment.Web links
  19. 19. Computer Education 19 Internet BasicActivity 2: Downloading and Installing web browser (eg: Internet Explorer or Mozilla Fire Fox)I. Introduction:In order to access the Internet, one needs special computer software called an Internetbrowser. There are many different types of software for Internet access, however, in thismodule; we will focus on multi-component Internet software programs, downloading andinstallation.II. Learning Outcomes: At the end of this activity, you will be able to State the steps to download Familiarise with the installation of web browser Use web browser for accessing internetIII. Procedure 1. Discuss in groups and compile a list of various known web browsers. 2. Watch the following video to understand downloading and installation of a web browser. Downloading Mozilla Fire Fox Click Start button at the Task Bar 3. Launch Internet Explorer In the address bar, type in and press Enter. The Mozilla website will appear on the screen and click on the following button. 4. Display the following window click on save file on desktop. 5. The following icon is visible on your desktop 6. Double click on the icon to install the Firefox browser in your computer. The following window you want to run this file? CLICK ON Run
  20. 20. Computer Education 20 Internet Basic 7. Welcome to Mozilla Firefox wizard is displayed it guides till the completion of installation. 8. CLICK the following icon to open the browser for accessing internet. 9. Finally the browser windows displays as belowIV. Reflection:
  21. 21. Computer Education 21 Internet Basic List the different web browsers used in accessing the internet. How do I access the internet without a web browserV. Web links Activity 3: understanding a web browserI. IntroductionWeb browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversinginformation resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identifiedby a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, orother piece of content. This activity will help you familiarize with basis of webbrowser and open source browsers-definition and key features of web browsers.Steps and benefits of browsers, elements and safe practices of browser. This willhelp you to differentiate different web browsers and their features.II. Learning OutcomesAt the end of this activity, you will be able to Explain what a web browser is. Familiarise with basic elements in web browsers identify and explore various features of web browsers Compare different types of web browsers. Discuss about safe practises in browsing.III. Procedure 1. Refer the books or websites and find out the definition of web browser and open source browsers and difference among them. 2. View the video on “web Browsers” from how stuff works 3. View the video “A quick overview of what makes Mozilla’s latest browser” 4. Complete the tutorial on Web browser from,http://www.hitm 5. Browse through the various web browsers to identify the various elements of web browser. Use screen shot of web browser to label various elements. 6. Subgroups work on different web browsers and compare the features of different web browsers basing on the data prepare a table for at least two browsers. Weblinks 1. Amaya release history 2. Mozilla 1.7.13 release notes 3. AOL Explorer release notes 4. Camino 1.5.5 release notes 5. Firefox 3.5.3 release notes 6. Netscape Browser release notes 7. Opera changelogs 8. Google Chrome for Mac at LifeHacker 9. Information on WorldWideWeb 10. Internet Explorer 7 Team blogV. References 1. Jacobs, Ian; Walsh, Norman (15 December 2004). "URI/Resource Relationships". Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One. World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 2. Stewart, William. "Web Browser History". Retrieved 5 May 2009im a dog. 3. market-share-gains-to-74/1082/ 4.
  22. 22. Computer Education 22 Internet Basic 5. "The SeaMonkey Project". Mozilla Foundation. 7 November 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 6. "Cyberdog: Welcome to the doghouse!". 5 July 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 7. Teelucksingh, Dev Anand. "Interesting DOS programs". Opus Networkx. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 8. Andersen, Starr; Abella, Vincent (15 September 2004). "Part 5: Enhanced Browsing Security". Changes to Functionality in Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack 2. Microsoft. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 9. "Pop-up blocker". Mozilla Foundation. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 10. "Safari: Using The Pop-Up Blocker". Mac Tips and Tricks. WeHostMacs. 2004. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 11. "Simple settings". Opera Tutorials. Opera Software. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 12. Bokma, John. "Mozilla Firefox: RSS and Live Bookmarks". Retrieved 30 June 2009. 13. "RSS newsfeeds in Opera Mail". Opera Software. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 14. "About Browsers and their Features". SpiritWorks Software Development. Retrieved 5 May 2009 Activity 4: Exploration of information using search engineI. Introduction:Skilful searches are essential for 21st century learning and information literacy. Withabundant information at our fingertips it is important to teach and reinforce literatesearching. In this beginning search lesson you will take a look at search engines. Bychallenging participants to understand the basics of search and how to understandresults theyll learn how they can "drive" a search engine to deliver the results theyneed, features of search engine and compare different search engines how normalsearch engine differ from kids search engine and effective search strategiesII. Learning Outcomes:At the end of this activity, you will be able to Explain the principles, features and functions of search engine Perform accurate and time saving search. Compare the features of different search engines. differentiate normal search engine from kid search engine use effective search strategies for accessing informationIII. Procedure 1. Introduce some basic definitions used in web search. (Search Engine, website, query, URL) 2. After participants brainstorm definitions demonstrate in Google search box and compare the definitions. 3. View the video on how search engine works from YouTube at 4. View the video on effective web search strategies at YouTube Access the Google Search page on a computer display and ask participants to put a search query into the box and try the “I Feel Lucky” button. Then try the same query using the Google Search button. Explain the difference that they see. 5. Complete the tutorial on web search from 6. Browse through various search engines with the same query and explain the difference that they see and compare he different features. 7. Access the different kids search engine and try to find out the difference with normal search engine. 8. Using search engine find out top 100 websites for teachers.IV. Web links 1. Guidelines for better search” swer=134479 2. Search the essentials References
  23. 23. Computer Education 23 Internet Basic 1. For a more detailed history of early search engines, see Search Engine Birthdays (from Search Engine Watch), Chris Sherman, September 2003. 2. Steve Lawrence; C. Lee Giles (1999). "Accessibility of information on the web". Nature 400: 107. doi:10.1038/21987. 3. Bing Liu (2007), Web Data Mining: Exploring Hyperlinks, Contents and Usage Data. Springer, ISBN 3540378812 4. Levene, Mark (2005). An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Pearson. 5. Hock, Randolph (2007). The Extreme Searchers Handbook. ISBN 978-0- 910965-76-7 6. Javed Mostafa (February 2005). "Seeking Better Web Searches". Scientific American Magazine. 7. Ross, Nancy; Wolfram, Dietmar (2000). "End user searching on the Internet: An analysis of term pair topics submitted to the Excite search engine". Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51 (10): 949–958. doi:10.1002/1097-4571(2000)51:103.0.CO;2-5. 8. Xie, M.; et al. (1998). "Quality dimensions of Internet search engines". Journal of Information Science 24 (5): 365–372. doi:10.1177/016555159802400509. 9. hypertext/hypertext/DataSources/WWW/Servers.html 10. 11. "Internet History - Search Engines" (from Search Engine Watch), Universities Leiden, Netherlands, September 2001, web: LeidenU-Archie. 12. Archive of NCSA whats new in December 1993 page 13. Yahoo! And Netscape Ink International Distribution Deal Activity 5: Web site and its evaluationI. IntroductionA website is a collection of related web pages, images, videos or other digital assetsthat are addressed with a common domain name or IP address in an InternetProtocol-based network. This activity will help you familiarize what is website, keyelements of a good website its type and its benefits for classroom teaching and opensource browsers-definition and key features of web browsers.II.Learning Outcomes: At the end of this activity, you will be able to familiarizes what is a web site Understand overview of website, styles, soft ware system used. Know the key elements for a good web site should have. Differentiate types of websites. Discuss about the benefits educational website for classroom teaching learning process. Develop rubrics for evaluation of web site.III. Procedure 1. Ask the participants to compile definition of website, web page etc., 2. Visit the following web sites and observe carefully give an overview of website and its uses. 3. Browse through various educational websites and list the benefits 4. View the video “How to evaluate a website” 5. Discuss and develop methodology for website evaluating 6. Access the various websites and try to evaluate the website basing on the rubrics.IV Suggested readings 1. Webpage evaluation check list 2. Yahooligans! - Evaluating Web Sites Guide to evaluating sites by the "Four As" - Accessible, Accurate, Appropriate, and Appealing. 3. Evaluating Web Pages: Techniques to Apply and Questions to Ask 4. How To Evaluate A Web Site -
  24. 24. Computer Education 24 Internet BasicV. References1. "The website of the worlds first-ever web server". Retrieved 2008-08-30.2. Cailliau, Robert. "A Little History of the World Wide Web". . Retrieved 2007-02-16.3. "Ask Oxford: How should the term website be written in official documents and onthe web?". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 2007-02-23.4. "The Slot—Sharp Points: Here We Go Again—Eeee!". Retrieved 2007-02-25.5. Evaluating WebPages