Ed tech 105 topic 1

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This lesson discusses the development of Education under the different era and corresponding educational technology used;
a. Education during the Ancient Times
b. Education during the Medieval Era
c. Education during the Renaissance Period
d. Education during the Age of Naturalism
e. Education Movement in the 19th Century
f. Education in Contemporary Times

Ed tech 105 topic 1

  1. 1. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology History of Educational Technology Lesson 1 a. Education during the Ancient Times Educational technology is a complex concept and seems to be the phenomenon of the 21st Century. But history tells us that this started during the ancient civilization when man started to use pointed sticks to inscript signs and symbols on the leaves of trees and knives for the bark of trees. At about 3100 BC, the Egyptians devised a system of picture called hieroglyphics. Although they may represent the objects for which they stand for, hieroglyphics symbols usually represent a sound or a group of sounds. This development gave rise to the class known as scribes, a group of men trained in the art of writing. The scribes came to be the country’s chronicler of events (DUka,1999). In ancient Greece, the Spartan education emphasized the development of the physical body coupled with discipline. The boys underwent exercises and activities that promoted bodily strength, endurance and vitality. These included dancing, wrestling, horseback riding, swimming and gymnastics. They were taught by the paidonomus, a military commander in the public barracks. The girls on the other hand stayed by their mother who taught tem the rudiments of housekeeping and motherhood. In Athens, recognition is given for its beign the first to recognize the right of individual to develop to the fullest. They believe that the mind and the body has a strong relationship, thus activities to develop both were the prime concerns in the music schools, the grammar schools and public gymnasium or palaestra. With the help of the sophist cognitive rules, systematically arranged subject matter instructional technologies and effective instructional materials were designed and implemented. b. Education during the Medieval Era During the medieval era, the establishment of the Medieval University was an important milestone in educational development Emperor Frederick I of Bologna in 1158 chartered the first university Degrees offered were expanded which required students to engage in more in dept studies and to write their theses, defend them in public before the deans, facultas and rectors. This created the spark in writing textbooks, which was felt problem at the time. The Saracens or the Arabs among the Moors of Spain gave a significant contribution in determining the direction of what educational technology is today. The aims of their education was search for knowledge and the application of scientific facts to their daily lives. Their curriculum was the most organized and complete in the elementary, secondary and collegiate levels. Their universities and libraries were the models in the entire Europe because they invented the printing press. They also originated the scientific method of teaching. c. Education during the Renaissance Period Authorities agree that modern times began with the movement known as age of renaissance or Reawakening. The period has three main lines of concern; the intellectual to which education belongs, the aesthetic and scientific. Along the intellectual development, movements like Humanism, Reformation, Realism, Disciplinism and Rationalism contributed to the development of educational technology especially along theories and practices. Bacon, Rabelais, Vives and Milton advanced their own ideas about education; John Locke came our with his idea about the nature of child’s mind at birth in Tabula Rasa. Johann Amos Comenius was recognized for developing the first picture book known as Orbis Pictus (The World in Pictures). He was considered as the pioneer in instructional technology development. Maira Montessoru contributed her ownMaria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA 1
  2. 2. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology ideas about teaching, which is the use of multi-sensory materials to teaching, which is still use in Montessori schools of today. d. Education during the Age of Naturalism Notable figure during this age was Jean Jacques Rosseau. His educational views were contained in a book titled Emile, which he authored. The aims of education was the preservation of the natural goodness of the individual and the formation of society based upon the recognition of natural individual and formation of society based upon the recognition of natural individual rights. Herbart also came out with the five formal steps to teaching now known as the Herbatian Method of Teaching with the following steps: preparation, presentation, comparison and abstratction, generalization and application. Peztallozi believed that teaching is more effective if its proceeds from concrete to abstract, hence the use of actual and real objects that involve most of the senses. Froebel, who was known as the Father of kindergarten emphasized the use of actual objects, which could be manipulated by the learners. He too, recommended the use of plays and songs. This encouraged the writing of songs and discovery of games suited for the grades. e. Education Movement in the 19th Century Famous are the works of John Dewey and Edward Lee Thorndike Dewey, An American Pragmatist, formulated the scientific theory of learning while Thorndike, A connectionist, advanced the primary laws of learning. This era paved the way to the development of effective educational technology, including the production of books, the use of blackboards and the improvement of writing implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented giving way to movement called visual instruction. By 1920, visual media became widely accepted. Then came the publication of audio-visual media texts. In 1926 educational films were used as instructional media. In 1932 the first instructional television program was aired in the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16mm sound motion picture was develop. During the 2nd WW, the experiences of the American soldiers showed the importance of educational devices. They used these devices in military trainings. After the war more developments in educational technology were seen like the use of programmed instruction by Skinner, the taxonomy of educational objectives by Bloom; the use of modularized instruction.Maria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA 2
  3. 3. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology f. Education in Contemporary Times The 2nd Millenium saw the persasiveness of educational technology in all aspects of educational organization and management. Most schools have already adopted the computerization of records, entrance procedures and all other aspects of administration and supervision. In the classrooms of the better finance schools multi-media resources and computers are common fixtures while the lesser financed ones, they maintain an educational media center where few computer units are being installed to be shared by the whole studentry. Schools in he secondary, collegiate levels and even in the graduate level have radically revised and enriched their curricular offerings to include course in computer applications. In fact, private elementary schools which are well finance and well-equipped offer computer lessons as early as in the elementary grades. Schools administrators saw the need of retooling teachers so that they can lead fello teachers and students to make use of various softwares and other computer assisted instructions like CD-ROM, so that they can create multi-media presentations to make teaching and learning more interesting and effective. Educational organizations like the INTEL and UP NISMED build linkages with Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs ) in the training of key teachers in the integration of INTEL Teach of the Future and Curriculum Review for Pre Servie Education. The Training provides the teachers first hand experiences in applying computer skills in the preparation of multi-media presentations using power point, the preparation of brochures or newsletter using publisher, creating webpage, exploring the internet and the preparation of other teacher and student support materials on specific content. The internet and e-mails have become tools for what is known as fast-paced interactive learning, communication and search for information. This era saw the proliferation of computer schools, internet cafes and computer centers to serve the escalating need of computer services. The GOs as well as NGOs sponsor computer literacy training to in-school youths, OSYs and to the employes and unemployed adults under the auspices of the NFE. With the advent of computers peripherals, computers became more user-friendly so people began procuring sets for personal as well as for office and instructional use. With the mouse even a new computer user could direct the progress of a blinking indicators. The user could now transport instruction and information, start and stop program operations, find stored data and perform other important tasks quickly and easily (David King, 2002) . APPLICATION Suggested Activity: 1. Create a graphic organizer showing the historical development of educational technology by giving the significance of each development period. You can use sample graphic organizers belowMaria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA 3
  4. 4. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology Putting your Ideas to Work (Group 1) Materials: Cartolina or art paper, pair of scissors, paste, ruler, short bond paper Direction: Complete the pyramid by writing the events that took place in the history of educational technology Ancient Greece Middle Age Time of Comenius, Petalozzi and others Time of Comenius, Petalozzi and others Time of Johann Amos Comenius Time of Edward Thorndike & John Dewey 19th Century 1992 World War IIMaria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA 4
  5. 5. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology Putting your Ideas to Work (Group 2) Materials: Cartolina or art paper, pair of scissors, paste, ruler, short bond paper Direction: Create a graphic Organizer showing the historical development of educational technology. Ancient Greece World War II Middle Age Time of Comenius, Historical Pestalozzi and 1932 Development of others Educational Technology 19th Century Time of Johann Amos Comenius Time of Edward Thorndike & John Dewey Time of Edward Time of Comenius,Maria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA Thorndike & John 5 Time of Johann Amos and Pestalozzi 1932 Century II 19 World War th Ancient Middle Age Dewey Comeniusothers Greece
  6. 6. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology Putting your Ideas to Work (Group 3) Materials: Cartolina or art paper, pair of scissors, paste, ruler Direction: Create a graphic Organizer showing the historical development of educational technology. Ancient World War Greece Middle II Age Historical Development of Time of 1932 Educational Comenius, Technology Pestalozzi and others 19th Time of Edward Time of Johann Century Thorndike & John Amos Comenius DeweyMaria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA 6
  7. 7. EDTECH 1 EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Topic 1 Introduction to Educational Technology Putting your Ideas to Work (Group 4) Materials: Cartolina or art paper, pair of scissors, paste, ruler Direction: Create a graphic Organizer showing the historical development of educational technology. Ancient Greece World War II Middle Age Historical Historical Development of Time of 1932 Development of Educational Technology Comenius, Pestalozzi and Educational Technology others Time of Johann 19th Century Amos Comenius Time of Edward Thorndike & John DeweyMaria Theresa P.Pelones, DM,MS,MA 7

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