Chapter 6 the review of related literature and studies
Chapter 6 33 The Literature Review THE LITERATURE REVIEW Define Literature Review Importance, Functions and Purpose of Related Literature and Studies Guidelines in citing Related Literature and Studies Easy steps in Writing Related Literature and Studies6.1 The Literature Review The statement of the research problem and the literature review are mutually supportive. The statement of the research problem clearly defines the subject area to be treated. The literature review demonstrates that the research problem has received prior attention, and shows that further research is needed to resolve the problem. James B. Fisher states, “To be EFFECTIVE, a literature review must be CLEAR, COHERENT, and PERSUASIVE analysis of the current state of the literature.” These materials are classified as 1. Legal Bases. This is to determine the relevance of the study to the government’s thrust. The major sources of related legal bases are laws and department directives such as, circulars, orders, memoranda, etc. These laws and department directives serve as legal basis for the paradigm of the study. In presenting the related legal bases, the investigator has to arrange the chronologically from recent to past and the relevance of each legal basis is explained. No explanation of the legal basis relevant to the present study is unscientific. Example: Republic Act No. 7164 known as the “Philippine Nursing Act of 1991” defines professional nursing as the performance for a fee, salary, or other reward or compensation… toward the promotion of health, and alleviation of suffering through utilization of nursing process. (LEGAL BASIS). The foregoing professional nursing definition explicitly expressed that nurses practice their profession for a fee or salary commensurate with their work in order to satisfy their needs and wants to cope with the fast changing world. In other words, the performance of a particular job affects nurses’ values especially if nurses meet the problems related to their job in the hospital, hence, promotion of health services cannot be attained. (EXPLANATION OF THE LEGAL BASIS) 2. Related Literature. It is a section in a research paper, thesis dissertation, and research project in which the sources are taken from books, journals, magazines, novels, poetry, etc that contains facts, laws, theories and other documented observations. This is in a chronological order from recent to past when presented. It is unscientific if related literature are presented and of no explanation at the relevance to the present study.
Chapter 6 34 The Literature Review Example: Murray’s (1998) article on nurse executives’ leadership roles stated that chief nursing officers (CNO) leave their position due to lack of power conflict with chief executive officer (CEO), and inadequate nursing personnel. [Related literature by Bruce P. Murray. 1998. “Nurse Executives’ Leadership Roles.” Journal of Nursing Administration. 28(6):48. (June 1998)]. The article of Murray has bearing to the present study because staff nurses’ performance would be affected if the middle managers or chief nursing officers have conflict with the chief executive officer or top manager and with problems met related to their job, for instance, inadequate nursing personnel. (EXPLANATION OF THE RELATED LITERATURE) 3. Related Studies refers to theses, dissertation and research studied substantially characterized by the presence of the following part: research problems, hypotheses, objectives, related literature, methodology, findings, conclusions and recommendations and bibliography. (Local if printed in the Philippines and Foreign if in the foreign land). Published and unpublished research studies are sources of materials that included in this section. This studies are segregated into foreign and local studies. This is also arranged chronological order from recent to past. Each related study has explanation on the relevance of the present study, otherwise, it is unscientific. Example of LOCAL STUDY: In 1999, Sultan in her study on perceived sources of stress among staff nurses at a tertiary hospital in Quezon City, found out that lack of administrative support and no rewards were perceived by staff nurses as the most stressing… (Related local study by Vilma Sultan. 1999. “Perceived Sources of Stress Among Staff Nurses at Tertiary Hospital in Quezon City.” MA Thesis in Nursing. Central Philippine University, Iloilo City, Philippines.) Sultan’s study has bearing to the present study because lack of administrative support, no rewards, and no opportunities for career development are among the job-related problems met by staff nurses in private and government hospitals in Iloilo City which block their way to perform effectively and efficiently. (EXPLANATION OF THE RELATED STUDY) 6.2 Importance, Purpose and Functions of Related Literature and Studies A survey of review and related literature and studies is very important because it serves as thefoundation of the proposed study. Related literature and studies serve as a guide for the researcher inpursuing his research venture. Reviewed literature and studies help or guide the researcher in thefollowing ways: 1. They help or guide the researcher in searching for or selecting a better research problem or topic. By reviewing related materials, a replication of a similar problem may be found better than the problem already chosen. Replication is the study of research problem already conducted but in another place. 2. They help the investigator understand his topic for research better . Reviewing related literature and studies may clarify vague points about his problem
Chapter 6 35 The Literature Review 3. They ensure that there will be no duplication of other studies. There is duplication if an investigation already made is conducted again in the same locale using the same respondents. This is avoided if a survey of related literature and studies be made first. 4. They help and guide the researcher in locating more sources of related information. This is because the bibliography of a study already conducted indicate reference about similar studies. 5. They help and guide the researcher in making his research designs especially in a. The formulation of specific questions to be researched on. b. The formulation of assumptions and hypothesis if there is any c. The formulation of conceptual framework d. The selection and application to the methods of research e. The selection and application of sampling techniques f. The selection and or preparation and validation of research instruments for gathering data; g. The selection and application of statistical procedures h. The analysis, organization, presentation and interpretation of data i. The making of the summary of implications for the study j. The formulation of the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations 6. They help and guide the researcher in making comparisons between findings with the findings of other researchers on similar studies with the end view of formulating generalizations or principles which are the contributions of the study to the fund of knowledge.6.3 Guidelines in Citing related literature and studiesA. Characteristics of the materials cited 1. The materials must be as recent as possible. This is important because of the rapid social. Political, scientific, and technological changes. Discoveries in historical and archaeological research have also change some historical facts. Researchers in education an psychology are also making great strides. 2. Materials must be as objective and unbiased as possible. Some materials are extremely one sided, either politically or religiously biased. These should be avoided 3. Materials must be relevant to the study. Only materials that have some similarity to or being on the problem researched on, should be cited. 4. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable. There are cases where fictitious data are supplied just to complete a research report. 5. Materials must not be too few but not too many. They must be sufficient enough o give the researcher insights into his problem or to indicate the nature of the present investigation. The number may also depend upon the availability of related materials. Ordinarily fifteen to twenty-five may do for a master’s thesis and from twenty and above for a doctoral dissertation, Depending upon their availability and depth and length of discussion. For undergraduate theses about ten may do.B. Sources of Related Literature and Studies: The sources of related literature and studies may includethe following. 1. Books, encyclopedias, almanacs and other similar references 2. Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers and other publications.
Chapter 6 36 The Literature Review 3. Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters and diaries. 4. Unpublished theses and dissertations. 5. The Constitution and laws and statutes of the land. 6. Bulletins, circulars and other emanating from government offices and departments, especially from the office of the president of the Philippines and DepEd. 7. Records of schools, public and private, especially reports and other activities. 8. Reports from seminars, educational or otherwise. 9. Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological, political, etc. from the government and other entities.C. Where to Locate the sources of Related Literature and Studies 1. Libraries, either government, school or private libraries 2. Government and private offices 3. National library 4. The library of DepEd The last two are especially rich depositories of related materials particularly unpublished master’s theses and doctoral dissertations.D. Ways of Citing Related Literature and Studies: The following are the ways of citing related literatureand studies. 1. By author or writer. In this method the ideas, facts or principles, although they have the same meaning, are explained or discussed separately and cited in the footnote with their respective authors or writers Examples: According to Enriquez, praise helps much in learning etc..1 Maglaque found out that praise is an important factor in learning etc…2 2. By topic. In this case, if different authors or writers have the same opinion about the same topic, the topics is discussed ans cited under the names of the authors or writers. This is a summary of their opinions. This is to avoid separate and long discussions of the same topic. Example: It has been found out that praise is an important aid in the learning of children 3. Chronological. Related materials may also be cited chronologically, that is, according to the year they were written. Materials which were written earlier should be cited first before those which were written later. This can be done especially when citation is by author or writer. If citation is by topic, chronological citation can be done in the footnote.E. What to Cite It should be emphasized that only the major findings, ideas, generalizations, principles, orconclusions in related materials relevant to the problem under investigation should be discussed in thischapter. Generally, such findings, ideas, generalizations, principles, or conclusions are summarized,paraphrased or synthesized.F. Quoting a Material A material may be quoted if the idea conveyed is so perfectly stated or it is controversial and it istoo long. It is written single spaced with wider margins at the left and right side of the paper but without anyquotation marks.Example: Suppose the following is a quotation: Said Enriquez1 Pedro Enriquez, The Dynamics of Teaching and Learning. Manila: Canlaon Publishing Company, Inc.,1981, P1022 Juan Maglaque, “Factors affecting Children’s Learning in Pag-asa District,” (Unpublished Master’s Thesis, SanGregorio College, San Gregorio City, 1984)
Chapter 6 37 The Literature Review Praise is an important factor in children’s learning. It encourages them to study their lessons harder. Praise, however, should be given very appropriately.G. Justification of the Study It should be made clear that there is no duplication of other studies. The present inquiry may onlybe a replication of another study. It should be stressed also that inspite of similar studies, the presentstudy is still necessary to find out if the findings of studies in other places are also true in the local of thepresent study. There may also be a need to continue with the present investigation to affirm or negate thefindings of other inquiries abou the same research problem or topic so that generalizations or principlesmay be formulated. These generalizations and principles would be the contributions of the presentinvestigation together with other studies to fund of knowledge. This is one of the more important purposesof research; the contribution that it can give to the fund of knowledge. 6.4 Easy Steps in Writing Related Literature and Studies 1. Researcher should always be guide by the topic under the investigation. It is suggested that the student should be able to identify the variables of the study, the problems, the scope and delimitation and methodology 2. Write down in a separate sheet or in index card the titles of the theses, dissertations and other materials researched. Write down the call number, the title, author, date od publication, the school (for theses/dissertations) these will help you find the materials with ease. 3. In the actual searching of materials, it is advisable that for every topic researched one index card or paper be used. This is to avoid the possibility of placing different topics in one card. After the information has been written, always write in the card the source of the information. Correct bibliographic entries should be observed. Label the card with “ Related Literature” or “Related Studies”. 4. After a reasonable search has been made, the index card should be arranged by topic. Separate the card for related literature and the related studies 5. Organize the related literature and related studies reviewed. Group together similar topics or related studies. 6. Write a summative description of the research literature and studies undertaken noting among others, the problems/objectives of the study, the scope, hypotheses and methodology. 7. Compare the related studied reviewed with the current study. Always take note of the similarities and differences between the previous studies reviewed and the present investigation.
Chapter 6 38 The Literature Review REVIEW OF LITERATURENAME: __________________________________________ SCORE: ___________________YEAR & SECTION: _________________________________ DATE: _____________________Instructions: State your research question or hypothesis of your study. Consult theappropriate sources and or references. List three possible terms related to your problemstudy. After which do computer search to locate three studies and literature. Attach eachof your note cards ( one per journal article), 1. The research problem or hypothesis in my study is ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 2. The general reference(s) I consulted with my study was (were): ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 3. The database I use in my research was: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________
Chapter 6 39 The Literature Review4. The descriptors (search terms) I use were (list all the descriptors and combinations in the order of my research) ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5.The results of my search using these descriptors were:Search Descriptors Source/ ResultNo. Reference(s) 6. Attached is/are the printout of my search 7. Attached three abstracts of a research study which is/are related to your descriptors. 8. List the title of the studies you read and research ( attached your note cards) 1._____________________________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________________________ 3._____________________________________________________________