Chapter 1 introduction to educational technology


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This chapter discusses the development of Education and the technology. Students are expected to trace the history of the development of education and appropriate technology using GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

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Chapter 1 introduction to educational technology

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1Introduction to Educational Technology LESSON 1Educational Technology 1Maria Theresa P. Pelones, DM<br />LESSON I<br />Learning Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the students are expected to;Trace the development of Education using a graphic organizer using the chain of events, under the different era and corresponding educational technology used; ( Ancient Times, Medieval Era, Renaissance Period, Age of Naturalism, Movement in 19th Century, Contemporary Times, 21st Centuty)Contrast Technology in Education from Technology of EducationDefine Educational TechnologyDifferentiate educational technology, instructional technology, technology integration and educational media.INTRODUCTION<br />1.1.Development of Education<br />Education during the Ancient Times<br />Educational technology is a complex concept and seems to be the phenomenon of the 21st Century. But history tells us that this started during the ancient civilization when man started to use pointed sticks to inscript signs and symbols on the leaves of trees and knives for the bark of trees. At about 3100 BC, the Egyptians devised a system of picture called hieroglyphics. Although they may represent the objects for which they stand for, hieroglyphics symbols usually represent a sound or a group of sounds. This development gave rise to the class known as scribes, a group of men trained in the art of writing. The scribes came to be the country’s chronicler of events (DUka,1999).<br />In ancient Greece, the Spartan education emphasized the development of the physical body coupled with discipline. The boys underwent exercises and activities that promoted bodily strength, endurance and vitality. These included dancing, wrestling, horseback riding, swimming and gymnastics. They were taught by the paidonomus, a military commander in the public barracks. The girls on the other hand stayed by their mother who taught tem the rudiments of housekeeping and motherhood.<br />In Athens, recognition is given for its beign the first to recognize the right of individual to develop to the fullest. They believe that the mind and the body has a strong relationship, thus activities to develop both were the prime concerns in the music schools, the grammar schools and public gymnasium or palaestra. With the help of the sophist cognitive rules, systematically arranged subject matter instructional technologies and effective instructional materials were designed and implemented.<br />Education during the Medieval Era<br />During the medieval era, the establishment of the Medieval University was an important milestone in educational development Emperor Frederick I of Bologna in 1158 chartered the first university Degrees offered were expanded which required students to engage in more in dept studies and to write their theses, defend them in public before the deans, facultas and rectors. This created the spark in writing textbooks, which was felt problem at the time.The Saracens or the Arabs among the Moors of Spain gave a significant contribution in determining the direction of what educational technology is today. The aims of their education was search for knowledge and the application of scientific facts to their daily lives. Their curriculum was the most organized and complete in the elementary, secondary and collegiate levels. Their universities and libraries were the models in the entire Europe because they invented the printing press. They also originated the scientific method of teaching.<br />Education during the Renaissance Period<br />Authorities agree that modern times began with the movement known as age of renaissance or Reawakening. The period has three main lines of concern; the intellectual to which education belongs, the aesthetic and scientific. Along the intellectual development, movements like Humanism, Reformation, Realism, Disciplinism and Rationalism contributed to the development of educational technology especially along theories and practices. Bacon, Rabelais, Vives and Milton advanced their own ideas about education; John Locke came our with his idea about the nature of child’s mind at birth in Tabula Rasa. Johann Amos Comenius was recognized for developing the first picture book known as Orbis Pictus (The World in Pictures). He was considered as the pioneer in instructional technology development. Maira Montessoru contributed her own ideas about teaching, which is the use of multi-sensory materials to teaching, which is still use in Montessori schools of today.<br />Education during the Age of Naturalism<br />Notable figure during this age was Jean Jacques Rosseau. His educational views were contained in a book titled Emile, which he authored. The aims of education was the preservation of the natural goodness of the individual and the formation of society based upon the recognition of natural individual and formation of society based upon the recognition of natural individual rights. Herbart also came out with the five formal steps to teaching now known as the Herbatian Method of Teaching with the following steps: preparation, presentation, comparison and abstratction, generalization and application. Peztallozi believed that teaching is more effective if its proceeds from concrete to abstract, hence the use of actual and real objects that involve most of the senses. Froebel, who was known as the Father of kindergarten emphasized the use of actual objects, which could be manipulated by the learners. He too, recommended the use of plays and songs. This encouraged the writing of songs and discovery of games suited for the grades.<br />Education Movement in the 19th Century<br />Famous are the works of John Dewey and Edward Lee Thorndike Dewey, An American Pragmatist, formulated the scientific theory of learning while Thorndike, A connectionist, advanced the primary laws of learning.<br />This era paved the way to the development of effective educational technology, including the production of books, the use of blackboards and the improvement of writing implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented giving way to movement called visual instruction. By 1920, visual media became widely accepted. Then came the publication of audio-visual media texts. In 1926 educational films were used as instructional media. In 1932 the first instructional television program was aired in the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16mm sound motion picture was develop.During the 2nd WW, the experiences of the American soldiers showed the importance of educational devices. They used these devices in military trainings. After the war more developments in educational technology were seen like the use of programmed instruction by Skinner, the taxonomy of educational objectives by Bloom; the use of modularized instruction.<br />Education in Contemporary Times<br />The 2nd Millenium saw the persasiveness of educational technology in all aspects of educational organization and management. Most schools have already adopted the computerization of records, entrance procedures and all other aspects of administration and supervision. In the classrooms of the better finance schools multi-media resources and computers are common fixtures while the lesser financed ones, they maintain an educational media center where few computer units are being installed to be shared by the whole studentry. Schools in he secondary, collegiate levels and even in the graduate level have radically revised and enriched their curricular offerings to include course in computer applications. In fact, private elementary schools which are well finance and well-equipped offer computer lessons as early as in the elementary grades.Schools administrators saw the need of retooling teachers so that they can lead fello teachers and students to make use of various softwares and other computer assisted instructions like CD-ROM, so that they can create multi-media presentations to make teaching and learning more interesting and effective. Educational organizations like the INTEL and UP NISMED build linkages with Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs ) in the training of key teachers in the integration of INTEL Teach of the Future and Curriculum Review for Pre Servie Education. The Training provides the teachers first hand experiences in applying computer skills in the preparation of multi-media presentations using power point, the preparation of brochures or newsletter using publisher, creating webpage, exploring the internet and the preparation of other teacher and student support materials on specific content.The internet and e-mails have become tools for what is known as fast-paced interactive learning, communication and search for information. This era saw the proliferation of computer schools, internet cafes and computer centers to serve the escalating need of computer services. The GOs as well as NGOs sponsor computer literacy training to in-school youths, OSYs and to the employes and unemployed adults under the auspices of the NFE.With the advent of computers peripherals, computers became more user-friendly so people began procuring sets for personal as well as for office and instructional use. With the mouse even a new computer user could direct the progress of a blinking indicators. The user could now transport instruction and information, start and stop program operations, find stored data and perform other important tasks quickly and easily (David King, 2002)<br /><ul><li>PORTFOLIO 1- GRAPHIC ORGANIZERCreate a graphic organizer showing the historical development of educational technology, giving significance of each development period.Materials: Construction paper, pair of scissors, paste, ruler, short bond paper</li></ul>TECHNOLOGICAL TOOL USED:<br />Graphic Organizer helps your students children classify ideas and communicate more effectively. Use graphic organizers to structure writing projects, to help in problem solving, decision making, studying, planning research and brainstorming.<br />Graphic Organizers in the Classroom<br />Visual thinking can be expressed in many ways. Graphic organizers are one way for visual thinkers to arrange their ideas. There are unlimited ways to express these visual ideas. Graphic organizers have many names including visual maps, mind mapping, and visual organizers. Although many students plan with paper and pencil, technology tools can be very helpful because they allow easy editing.Graphic organizers can be used in all phases of learning from brainstorming ideas to presenting findings. They can be used individually or in large groups. For example, some teachers like to create a class concept map as a large group to review at the end of a unit or develop a character map while reading a book aloud to the class. These tools are particularly useful in activities that require critical thinking skills.Read Inspired Investigations by Jamie McKenzie in (From Now On, 12(5), January 2003). <br />Advantages of Graphic Organizers<br />Why use graphic organizers in student projects? Shouldn't students be writing paragraphs and reports? There are a number of answers to these questions. First, these organizers are a way to encourage students to think about information in new ways. With writing, it's easy for students to copy from one place to another. With graphic organizers, you remove the words and focus on the connections. Second, they are a great tool for activities that ask students to review concepts and demonstrate their understanding. They can easily make changes and take different perspectives. In other words, it helps students clarity their thinking. Third, a huge amount of information can be shared on a single picture to provide the "big view" of a topic. Fourth, it's easy to edit, revise, and quickly add to a visual map. Fifth, graphic organizers can be used as a nice planning tool from information identification to product development. Finally, they are great for visual thinkers or those that need to practice their visual thinking. Read about using Concept Mapping before Searching.<br /> <br /> <br />4076700340360A graphic organizer is an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or class's prior knowledge about a topic or section of text; specific examples include the K-W-L-H Technique and the Anticipation/Reaction Guide. Other organizers include the: <br />Spider Map<br />Used to describe a central idea: a thing (a geographic region), process (meiosis), concept (altruism), or proposition with support (experimental drugs should be available to AIDS victims). Key frame questions: What is the central idea? What are its attributes? What are its functions?<br />39719259525Series of Events Chain<br />Used to describe the stages of something (the life cycle of a primate); the steps in a linear procedure (how to neutralize an acid); a sequence of events (how feudalism led to the formation of nation states); or the goals, actions, and outcomes of a historical figure or character in a novel (the rise and fall of Napoleon). Key frame questions: What is the object, procedure, or initiating event? What are the stages or steps? How do they lead to one another? What is the final outcome? <br />Continuum Scale<br />3752850288290Used for time lines showing historical events or ages (grade levels in school), degrees of something (weight), shades of meaning (Likert scales), or ratings scales (achievement in school). Key frame questions: What is being scaled? What are the end points? <br />Compare/Contrast Matrix<br />Used to show similarities and differences between two things (people, places, events, ideas, etc.). Key frame question: What things are being compared? How are they similar? How are they different?<br />Name 1Name 2Attribute 1  Attribute 2  Attribute 3  <br />416242537465  <br />Problem/Solution Outline<br />Used to represent a problem, attempted solutions, and results (the national debt). Key frame questions: What was the problem? Who had the problem? Why was it a problem? What attempts were made to solve the problem? Did those attempts succeed?<br />4076700154940Network Tree<br />Used to show causal information (causes of poverty), a hierarchy (types of insects), or branching procedures (the circulatory system). Key frame questions: What is the superordinate category? What are the subordinate categories? How are they related? How many levels are there?<br />4123690111760<br />Human Interaction Outline. Used to show the nature of an interaction between persons or groups (Europeans settlers and American Indians). Key frame questions: Who are the persons or groups? What were their goals? Did they conflict or cooperate? What was the outcome for each person or group?<br />40100251067435330517586360Fishbone Map. Used to show the causal interaction of a complex event (an election, a nuclear explosion) or complex phenomenon (juvenile delinquency, learning disabilities). Key frame questions: What are the factors that cause X ? How do they interrelate? Are the factors that cause X the same as those that cause X to persist?<br />Cycle. Used to show how a series of events interact to produce a set of results again and again (weather phenomena, cycles of achievement and failure, the life cycle). Key frame questions: What are the critical events in the cycle? How are they related? In what ways are they self-reinforcing?<br />Creating Graphic Organizers with Technology<br />There are many technology tools that can be used for creating graphical organizers. Consider which ones might be used in various projects that you have created.<br />Inspiration Software. This software is made for organizing ideas. You can create many of the charts above using the "visual thinking and learning software" Inspiration or Kidspiration. The Inspiration website contains lots of ideas for using the software and creating classroom applications. Kidspiration is designed specifically for primary grades, but can be used with all students. In addition to using words and clipart, users can also insert their own photographs and other visuals. You can download a trial version from the website.<br />Online Collaborative Tools. An increasing number of online tools are available for young people to build collaborative graphic organizers. For example Thinkature and Gliffy are two options.<br />Online, Shareware Organizers. There are many visual planning tools that you can download for free. They even have tools for handheld devices! Check out the PiCoMap software for the Palm OS. Cmap is an open source concept mapping program. <br />Online Graphic Organizer Generators. You can even use online graphic generators for creating graphic organizers. Go to the Teach-nology: Graphic Organizer Generator page. You can create and print very simple graphic organizers such as concept web, KWL, SQ3R, timeline, or Venn diagram.<br /> Paint and Draw Software. Use paint and draw software to create concept maps and webs. Choose paint software (Photoshop, Appleworks Paint, HyperStudio, KidPix) when you want to incorporate your own illustrations and use free painting options. Choose draw software (Corel Draw, Illustrator, Appleworks Draw) when you want to create and connect lines and shapes, then move objects around.<br />Word Processor. Use the word processor for brainstorming lists and creating charts and tables.<br />Spreadsheet. Use a spreadsheet to create a table of your ideas. Remember, you can easily add clipart or photographs to most spreadsheet programs such as Appleworks, Works, and Excel.<br /> Digital Camera. You don't have to create your graph with technology to incorporate technology into the project. Consider using objects like paper plates, yarn, markers, or magazine clippings. Then, use the digital camera or a scanner to take a picture to post on the web or place in a multimedia project. Check out these examples: deep destination, story map, insects, pirate map, and space. <br />1.2. QUALITY OF EDUCATION THROUGH EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY<br />As educators become more keenly aware of their responsibility to deliver the best quality education to students, they have began to recognize the need to be aware of educational technology. There is the perception, however, that the term educational technology has become an unfortunate one. It appears that to many people it has served to inhibit the introduction of better educational technology and its use in delivering educational technology and its use in delivering higher quality learning outcomes.<br /><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION is an impression of audiovisual aids consisting of a hardware and a software appropriately used as teaching materials.
  2. 2. ENRICHMENT ACTIVITY 1- (BRAINSTORMING)In two minutes, write down anything that comes to your mind when you hear the phrase educational technology.Discussion:Of the words written on the board, what is most common?Are there words that are related ? If yes, how are they related?What conclusion can you draw on what most people think educational technology is ?Is this common concept on educational technology adequate? Defend your answer.TECHNOLOGY TOOL:Brainstorming is the name given to a situation when a group of people meet to generate new ideas around a specific area of interest. Using rules which remove inhibitions, people are able to think more freely and move into new areas of thought and so create numerous new ideas and solutions. The participants shout out ideas as they occur to them and then build on the ideas raised by others. All the ideas are noted down and are not criticized. Only when the brainstorming session is over are the ideas evaluated. (1) Brainstorming is a process for generating new ideas (2) Brainstorming is "a conference technique by which a group attempts to find a solution for a specific problem by amassing all the ideas spontaneously by its members" - Alex Osborn (3) To brainstorm is to use a set of specific rules and techniques which encourage and spark off new ideas which would never have happened under normal circumstances. BRAINSTORMING RULESRule 1: Postpone and withhold your judgment of ideas- Rule 2: Encourage wild and exaggerated ideasRule 3: Quantity counts at this stage, not qualityRule 4: Build on the ideas put forward by othersRule 5: Every person and every idea has equal worthTECHNOLOGY OF EDUCATION a distinctive engineering connotation. Its main thrust is to develop electronic and optical equipment for educational purposes that will led to change in thinking in all aspects of teaching designs and learning environment.</li></ul>1.3. Technology Defined<br /><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY comes from the word techne means “Craft or Art”. Based on the etymology of the word technology eductl technology means the art or craft of responding to our educational needs.
  3. 3. Technology is not a machines it is a planned, systematic method of working to achieve planned outcomes- a process not a product.(Dale,1969)
  4. 4. Technology refers to all the ways people use their inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs and desires (World book Encyclopedia)
  5. 5. Educational Technology is a complex integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organization for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, involve in all aspect of human learning
  6. 6. Educational Technology consist of designs and environments that engage learners and reliable techniques or method for engaging learning s.a cognitive learning strategies and critical thinking skills
  7. 7. Educational Tehcnology is a theory about how problems in human learning are identified and solved.
  8. 8. Educational technology is a field involved in applying a complex, integrated process to analyze and solve problems in human learning</li></ul>1.3. Related Technology Concepts and Terms<br />Technology in Education – the application of technology to any of those processes involve in operating the institution<br />Instructional Technology- is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives.<br />Technology Integration- using learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills<br />Educational Media – are channels or avenues or instruments of communication e.g. books, magazines, newspapers, radio, television and internet.<br />Instructional Media<br /><ul><li>PORTFOLIO 2- GRAPHIC ORGANIZERWork in small group. Explain what educational technology is using a graphic organizer.PORTFOLIO 3- GRAPHIC ORGANIZERUsing three concentric circles, show that educational technology, instructional technology are much broader than educational media and technology integrationPORTFOLIO 4- GRAPHIC ORGANIZERDifferentiate educational technology from technology in education by the help of two arrows. The direction of the arrows suggests that they differ.REFLECTION- LEARNING BANKBrainstorm with your group mates and Accomplish the Learning Bank. Use the matrix below.Deposit/s(What I Learned)Dividend/s(How I use what I Learned in my life</li></ul>Useful cites:Copyright (c) North Central Regional Educational Laboratory 1988.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><ul><li>ASSESSMENTLesson 1- Introduction to Educational Technology Direction: